Myrmica ruginodis

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Myrmica ruginodis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Myrmicini
Genus: Myrmica
Species: M. ruginodis
Binomial name
Myrmica ruginodis
Nylander, 1846

Myrmica ruginodis casent0008642 profile 1.jpg

Myrmica ruginodis casent0008642 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


A widespread transpalaearctic species that can be common in a variety of habitats.

At a Glance • Polygynous  


Photo Gallery

  • Worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Workers. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Workers. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Worker. Photo by Michal Kukla [1]
  • Worker tending aphids. Photo by Michal Kukla [2]
  • Myrmica ruginodis worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Worker with larvae. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Worker. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Myrmica ruginodis workers tending aphids. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Myrmica ruginodis queens. Photo by Michal Kukla.


Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - A member of the rubra group. For quite a long period in the middle of the 20th century the name was synonymised with Myrmica rubra before Yarrow (1955) decided that really M. laevinodis was the true synonym of M. rubra. M. ruginodis can be confused with M. rubra (=laevinodis) in some parts of Europe, especially when solitary specimens are examined; however Brian and Brian (1951) demonstrated that a clear discrimination can be made on the basis of propodeal spine length. The simplest way of discrimination between the two species in the field is to examine the length and shape of the spines (seen in profile) with a x10 hand lens.

Collingwood (1979) - Pale to dark reddish brown. Propodeal spines long and robust; area between their bases laterally striate, frontal triangle smooth and shining. Head and alitrunk coarsely longitudinally rugulose. Antennal scapes long and slender, gently and obliquely curved near their base. Petiole in profile massive with truncate dorsal area and abrupt step posteriorly to its junction with the postpetiole gives the easiest distinction from Myrmica rubra (L.). Head Index: 77.5; Frons Index: 48.3; Frontal Laminae Index: 91.3. Length: 4.0-6.0 mm.

Keys including this Species


Transpalaearctic species, distributed from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans, including Japan; in the south - only in mountains, absent from Middle Asian mountains. Intercepted in quarantine in eastern North America but not known to have become established.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Denmark, Estonia, Finland (type locality), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb


Radchenko and Elmes (2010):

M. ruginodis is the species of Myrmica that is most adapted to cool temperatures, at least of those species studied in detail so far, though see data for Myrmica kamtschatica (Berman et al. 2010). Both the workers and brood have an active basal physiology (Elmes et. al. 1999; Nielsen et al. 1999) that, for example, enables it to complete its life cycle in the same time as a Myrmica sabuleti nest but living at a mean nest temperature that is 4-5°C lower (Elmes and Wardlaw 1983a). As in the case of Myrmica rubra local populations appear to have adapted physiologically to local environments (Elmes et. al. 1998). Consequently, M. ruginodis is found in cooler habitats: all kinds of forests, scrublands, alpine meadows, woodland clearings, moorlands and bogs, but generally it avoids both very wet and dry open sites. It is widespread and abundant in these habitats over most of its range, however M. ruginodis is much less tolerant than Myrmica rubra to anthropogenic pressure (grazing, mowing etc.). Like all Myrmica, latitude and altitude determines the species’ basic distribution: in the far north it lives at more or less sea level, while at southern latitudes it is mainly a montane species. At any particular altitude and latitude the degree to which sunlight can penetrate the canopy (be it forest, scrub or long grass) in any habitat will determine the range of potential nest-site temperatures available to the ants (e.g. see Brian and Brian 1951). Its adaptation to cooler nest-sites (above) enables it to live in cool northern forests and so it is one of the commonest ant species in the Forest Zone of the Palaearctic.

In forests and woodlands M. ruginodis prefers to build its nests in (and under) rotten wood, branches and even trunks of fallen trees. However, in managed forest its preferred habits is rotten tree stumps (Brian and Brian 1951; Franch and Espadaler 1988) and often one can find a nest in more or less every stump. In grasslands it prefers to build nests in the surface of the soil in and among the roots of grass (particularly Molinea species - see Elmes 1978b). In wetter boggy areas nests are usually constructed in the tops of moss tussocks. In spring the workers build a small solarium above their nest where the overwinter brood is reared; the solaria are usually a mixture of soil particles and dead vegetation, pieces of grass, moss etc. and can be quite warm in sunshine. Such nests are often temporary and the ants migrate to a new site every few months, often one can find a series of nests belonging to the same colony: first the active nest, another a meter or so away that is in the process of construction and occupied by a few workers and brood, and an old nest a meter or so in the opposite direction occupied by just a few workers and sometimes, an even older nest a meter or so further away from that (personal observations). It was such a colony that Forel observed in 1866 (see notes on var. ruginodolaevinodis above). In more open grassland where colonies build more permanent nests in the soil and under stones, the substrate affects nest densities (Fedoseeva and Demchenko 1997).

Early studies on caste determination, worker behaviour and larval ontogeny were made using M. ruginodis [Sic!] as the model species (Weir 1958c, 1959a; Brian 1951b) before M. V. Brian and his co-workers switched to M. rubra. Also, M. ruginodis was one of the first Myrmica species studied ecologically (see Pickles 1940 and e.g. Brian 1950) and more recently interesting life history traits of some populations have resulted from molecular genetical studies (see Seppa 1992,1994; Seppa and Pamilo 1995). M. ruginodis workers are among the species that are most prolific in producing worker-laid eggs (Wardlaw and Elmes 1998). Understanding its ecology has become important to nature conservation because M. ruginodis one of the primary hosts for the endangered butterfly Phengaris alcon (see papers in Settele et al. 2005). In particular, understanding the species and colony recognition odours and their mimicry by the lepidopteran caterpillars is important, the cuticular surface chemicals of M. ruginodis are quite distinct from those of M. rubra (e.g. Elmes et. al. 2002). Like the other Mynnica species, workers lave long been known to stridulate (Swinton 1878).

The workers are generalist predators, hunting small invertebrates (e.g. Brian 1955b) and forming trophobiosis with aphids, though this is generally less developed than is the case for M. rubra. Some studies have been made of recruitment to food sources (Cammaerts and Cammaerts 1980). In many habitats the eliasomes of various seeds play an important role in the diet of M. ruginodis and they have important mutualistic interaction with the plants (e.g. Kjellsson 1985; Mark and Olsen 1996; Gammans et al. 2006).

It is in the studies of behaviour and population ecology of M. ruginodis that the concept of var. macrogyna and var. microgyna diverges from the taxonomic notion (see taxonomic notes above). As the two forms have no status in taxonomy we refer to them as “normal” and “microgyne” M. ruginodis respectively. Brian and Brian (1949, 1955a) showed that in west Scotland the queens in polygynous colonies of M. ruginodis were visibly smaller (microgynes) than those in monogynous (normal) colonies (mean head width 1.02 ± 0.06 mm vs. 1.13 ± 0.04 mm), intermediate sized queens (head width about 1.06 mm were quite rare). They showed that apart from being more polygynous, microgyne colonies have workers that are generally less aggressive and more tolerant of other workers and queens compared to workers from normal colonies. Microgyne colonies recruit new queens and reproduce by colony fission whereas normal queens are more likely to attempt to establish new colonies by independent (or pleometrotic) colony foundation. Thus microgyne colonies are adapted to spread rapidly into and monopolise habitats that are stable in the long term (such as grassy moorland) and the original colonising gene pool might remain in such a habitat for many hundreds of years. Normal queens are better at dispersing into new habitats where they form relatively short-lived monogynous colonies, though such colonies sometimes engage in secondary recruitment (Seppa et al. 1995) and may even recruit some microgynes. Later we confirmed the size dimorphism shown by Brian and Brian and showed that most populations have at least a small proportion of microgyne queens (Elmes 1978a); also we made the interesting observation that the overall proportion of morphological variation of workers, expressed at the population level, was about the same for both forms but a much higher proportion of this (ca 60%) was expressed within individual microgyne colonies compared to only 40% within normal colonies (Elmes and Clarke 1981). This was compatible with a higher number of unrelated queens producing workers in the microgyne colonies. We also showed that there were differences in the pattern of brood production and control of castes between the two forms (Elmes and Wardlaw 1983a, b).

It is clear that the size and behavioural differences represent a true polymorphism in M. ruginodis that enables the species to exploit and monopolise a much wider range of habitats than it otherwise could. The fact that M. rubra (= laevinodis) also has a semi-parasitic, microgyne form combined with the nomenclatural problems from 1935-1955 (see notes to M. rubra) has confused many people. Synthesisers have often confounded the results for the two species. We recommend that anyone interested in these problems should consult the original literature and bear in mind the name changes. To date we have no understanding of the underlying genetical mechanism behind the polymorphism, as far as we know the two forms “breed true” and nobody has been able to produce a microgyne queen from a normal mother or vice-versa.

As a general rule, monogynous (or with two or three queens) colonies usually have only normal queens, whereas highly polygynous colonies often have a mixture of queens, a few normal queens and many more microgynes. Normal queens in microgyne colonies apparently have a more “microgyne-like” tolerant behaviour, which begs the question as to whether normal queens have an ethological dimorphism with some having an intrinsic microgyne-like behaviour and others having a “monogynous normal” behaviour as described by Brian and Brian (1955). This question still remains to be resolved. Microgyne colonies average about 6 queens (with> 20 queens being common), while normal colonies average 1 queen (with 4-5 queens being very unusual). Surprisingly, the average worker populations of the two types of colony do not vary significantly, the best overall estimate of colony size in Britain is about 500 workers (Elmes and Keller 1993; Wardlaw and Elmes 1996). On upland moorland (> 200 m a.s.l.) colonies are smaller (about 400 workers) than on lowland southern heaths and lowland Scottish moors (700 and 1200 workers respectively), the difference between southern England and Scotland being statistically significant. There has been considerable debate as to whether Japanese populations of M. ruginodis have a microgyne form (Mizutani 1981; Kasugai et al. 1983; Ichinose 1990; Kikuchi et al. 1999). We suggest that probably the microgyne form is not present in the Far East and that M. kotokui populations occupy the ecological niche normally used by microgyne M. ruginodis in the west; this remains to be fully tested.

Nuptial flight occurs in August-September (in mountains as late as mid-October) and over the years have been regularly reported in the literature (e.g. Beare 1913; O'Rourke 1940) and swarms, comprising mostly of males, often have been taken in light traps (e.g. Elmes and Webb 1985). Brian and Brian (1949, 1955) showed that microgynes are more likely to mate in or near to the nest in local swarms and join existing colonies whereas normal queens are more likely to fly to larger more distant nuptial swarms and attempt independent colony foundation. However, in regions where the microgyne form is found, mixed swarms are common but there is no evidence to support the idea of assortative mating between the two forms (Elmes 1991), although larger males are more likely to find a mate than smaller ones. Perhaps only the size of the mother is important in determining the nature of her female offspring and the parentage of the males is not important (a sort of maternally mitigated polymorphism). Similar ideas were discussed in relation to M. lonae (see above).

Finally, the question of the stinging-abilities of M. ruginodis: like most Myrmica species the workers readily deploy their sting when defending their nest against intruders. Their venom is quite potent (Jentsch 1969a, b) but the general perception is that M. ruginodis workers are much less aggressive towards human disturbance than M. rubra and that when provoked into stinging, the sting is less painful (see ecological notes for M. rubra). However, in warm humid conditions on Hokkaido Island Japan we found a dense population of M. ruginodis nesting on the stumps of felled trees in a spruce forest. These workers were very aggressive attacking as freely and stinging as painfully as the worst M. rubra colonies we have observed. Furthermore, in these conditions M. kotokui stung freely and painfully. Thus willingness to sting and the amount of venom injected appears to be an interaction between the level of basic behavioural aggressive responses (probably varying between species and populations) and temperature; it would be interesting to test this under controlled conditions.

Collingwood (1979) - This common species is abundant throughout the woodlands and high moorlands of North Europe to the North Cape. Brian and Brian (1949) showed that this species occurred in two incompletely dimorphic races, one polygynous with many small queens approaching the microgyne condition and one monogynous with single large queens which they termed var. microgyna and var. macrogyna respectively; microgyna was found to readily accept strange queens and to occur in more stable habitats often forming groups of nests as is common with Myrmica rubra; macrogyna is more aggressive and hostile to strange queens, has more populous nests and is more generally distributed, predominating in woodland and more transitory habitats (Brian and Brian, 1955). Both forms occur in Scandinavia but cannot in conventional taxonomy be regarded as either distinct species or biotopic subspecies because of wide overlap in morphology and habitat. Mating flights occur in August near or on the ground.

Milar et al. (2017) found in an experimental test, simulating being threatened with entrapment in sand (as might happen if falling in an ant lion pit or if subjected to a collapse of a ground nest), that this species did not exhibit rescue behaviour. This was in agreement with their hypothesis that species that do not face entrapment situations would not show such a response. Myrmica ruginodus natural occur in areas with less friable soils.

Redproductive Strategies

Wolf et al. (2018) tested existing hypothesis about the ecological conditions that should support different queen forms, i.e., normal queens versus microgynes. Using a range of data from nests and other sampling conducted in Finland, collected over many years and across numerous populations, they found mixed results for most of the tests performed. There was some evidence that there were life-history correlates associated with different queen types but this was not consistent across all the populations.


See the general biology discussion above for an overview of diet and foraging. Novgorodova (2015b) investigated ant-aphid interactions of a dozen honeydew collecting ants in south-central Russia. All of the ants studied had workers that showed high fidelity to attending particular aphid colonies, i.e, individual foragers that collect honeydew tend to return to the same location, and group of aphids, every time they leave the nest. Myrmica ruginodis showed no specialization beyond this foraging site fidelity. Foragers tended Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer) and Aphis jacobaeae Schrank.


Da Silva et al. (2017) - The mite Petalomium gottrauxi

Flight Period

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: polygynous (Rissing and Pollock, 1988; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)
  • Queen type: winged (Rissing and Pollock, 1988; Frumhoff & Ward, 1992) (queenless worker reproduction)
  • Mean colony size: 2,000 (Stradling, 1970; Petal, 1972; Cammaerts & Cammaerts, 1980; Beckers et al., 1989)
  • Foraging behaviour: mass recruiter (Stradling, 1970; Petal, 1972; Cammaerts & Cammaerts, 1980; Beckers et al., 1989)






The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • ruginodis. Myrmica ruginodis Nylander, 1846a: 929, pl. 18, figs. 5, 30 (w.q.m.) FINLAND. Hauschteck, 1965: 325 (k.). Subspecies of rubra: Forel, 1874: 76; Emery & Forel, 1879: 460; Ruzsky, 1904a: 288; Bondroit, 1910: 498; Forel, 1915d: 28; Menozzi, 1918: 82; Karavaiev, 1927c: 258; of laevinodis: Mayr, 1886d: 450; Ruzsky, 1902d: 29. Junior synonym of rubra: Santschi, 1931b: 339. Status as species: Saunders, E. 1880: 214; André, 1883a: 317; Nasonov, 1889: 33; Forel, 1892i: 315; Bondroit, 1912: 351; Donisthorpe, 1915d: 115; Bondroit, 1918: 103; Santschi, 1919e: 244; Müller, 1923: 41; Finzi, 1926: 85; Stitz, 1939: 83; Novak & Sadil, 1941: 76; Holgersen, 1942: 8; Collingwood, 1958b: 68; Bernard, 1967: 120; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 56; Kutter, 1977c: 67; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 530; Collingwood; 1979: 53; Seifert, 1988b: 6; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 86. Senior synonym of diluta: Mayr, 1861: 63, Radchenko, 2007: 28; of dimidiata: Weber, 1947: 448; of ruginodolaevinodis: Bernard, 1967: 120; Boven, 1977: 115; of mutata: Seifert, 1988b: 6; of macrogyna, microgyna: Bolton, 1995b: 282; of silvestrii, sontica, yoshiokai: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 236. See also: Radchenko, 2007: 30.
  • diluta. Myrmica diluta Nylander, 1849: 41 (w.) RUSSIA. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Mayr, 1861: 63; Radchenko, 2007: 28.
  • ruginodolaevinodis. Myrmica rubra var. ruginodolaevinodis Forel, 1874: 78 (q.m.) SWITZERLAND. Raised to species: Stitz, 1917: 347. Subspecies of rubra: Finzi, 1926: 86; Stitz, 1939: 84; Sadil, 1952: 241. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Bernard, 1967: 120; Boven, 1977: 115.
  • silvestrii. Myrmica ruginodis var. silvestrii Wheeler, W.M. 1928d: 100 (w.) JAPAN. Subspecies of rubra: Weber, 1947: 451. Raised to species: Collingwood, 1976: 301. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 236.
  • sontica. Myrmica kurokii var. sontica Santschi, 1937h: 367 (w.) JAPAN. Currently subspecies of kurokii: Weber, 1947: 470. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 236.
  • yoshiokai. Myrmica rubra subsp. yoshiokai Weber, 1947: 451 (w.) JAPAN. Raised to species: Collingwood, 1981: 26. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 236.
  • macrogyna. Myrmica rubra var. macrogyna Brian, M.V. & Brian, A.D. 1949: 397 (q.m.) GREAT BRITAIN. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Bolton, 1995b: 281.
  • microgyna. Myrmica rubra var. microgyna Brian, M.V. & Brian, A.D. 1949: 397 (q.m.) GREAT BRITAIN. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Bolton, 1995b: 281.
  • mutata. Myrmica rubra var. mutata Sadil, 1952: 242, fig. I (w.) CZECHOSLOVAKIA. Junior synonym of ruginodis: Seifert, 1988b: 6.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.


Nylander 1846. Page 929
Nylander 1846. Page 930


  • 2n = 48 (Switzerland) (Hauschteck, 1965).
  • n = 24 (Switzerland) (Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983).


Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - from a combination of the Latin words ruga = wrinkle and nodus = knot or lump, to describe the rugose surfaces of the petiole and postpetiole.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Agosti, D. and C.A. Collingwood. 1987. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 60: 51-62
  • Aktaç, N. "Studies on the myrmecofauna of Turkey I. Ants of Siirt, Bodrum and Trabzon." Istanbul Universitesi Fen Fakultesi Mecmuasi. Seri B 41 (1977): 115-135.
  • Aldawood AS, Sharaf MR (2011) Monomorium dryhimi sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the M. monomorium group from Saudi Arabia, with a key to the Arabian Monomorium monomorium-group. ZooKeys 106: 47–54. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.106.139
  • Alinvi, O., J. Bohlin and J. P. Ball. 2008. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Interspecific competition among ants in the boreal forest: Testing predictions from a linear hierarchical competition model. Insectes Sociaux 55(1):1-11.
  • Andoni V. 1977. Kontribut mbi Himenopteret e familjes Formicidae te vendit tone. Buletini I Shkencave te Natyres 31(2): 93-101.
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at
  • Antonov I. A. 2012. Ant complexes of Baikalsk town. The Bulletin of Irkutsk State University 4: 143-146.
  • Antonov I. A. 2013. Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Cities of the Temperate Zone of Eurasia. Russian Journal of Ecology 44(6): 523–526.
  • Antonova V. 2008. First record of the slave-maker ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis (Nylander, 1849) from Bulgaria (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 1-2.
  • Antonova V., and L. Penev. 2008. Classification of assemblages of ants in the green areas in Sofia City. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 60(2): 103-110.
  • Arnan X., M. Gracia, L. Comas, and J. Retana. 2009. Forest management conditioning ground ant community structure and composition in temperate conifer forests in the Pyrenees Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 258(2): 51–59.
  • ArtDatabanken Bugs (via GBIG)
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2011. List of species collected during the Taxomara Lisboa 2011. Iberomyrmex 3: 30-31.
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2014. List of species collected during the Taxomara 2014 Oviedo. Iberomyrmex 6: 23-24.
  • Assing V. 1989. Die Ameisenfauna (Hym.: Formicidae) nordwestdeutscher Calluna-Heiden. Drosera 89: 49-62.
  • Banert P, and B. Pisarski. 1972. Mrówki (Formicidae) Sudetów. Fragmenta Faunistica (Warsaw) 18: 345-359.
  • Baroni Urbani C., and C. A. Collingwood. 1976. A Numerical Analysis of the Distribution of British Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 85: 51-91.
  • Baroni Urbani C., and C. A. Collingwood. 1977. The zoogeography of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Northern Europe. Acta Zoologica Fennica 152: 1-34.
  • Barrett K. E. 1967. Ants in South Brittany. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 79:112-116.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1968. Ants in western France. Entomologist 101: 153-155.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1968b. The distribution of ants in central southern England. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 17: 235-250.
  • Barrett K. E. J. 1970. Ants in France, 1968-69. Entomologist 103: 270-274.
  • Behr D., S. Lippke, and K. Colln. 1996. Zur kenntnis der ameisen von Koln (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Decheniana-Beihefte (Bonn) 35: 215-232.
  • Behr D., and K. Colln. 1993. Zur ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) von Gonnersdorf (Kr. Daun). Dendrocopos 20: 148-160.
  • Belskaya E., A. Gilev, and E. Belskii. 2017. Ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) diversity along a pollution gradient near the Middle Ural Copper Smelter, Russia. Environ Sci Pollut Res DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-8736-8
  • Bernadou A., G. Latil, V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2006. Etude des communautés de fourmis d'une vallée andorrane. Union International pour l'Etude des Insectes Sociaux, Colloque annuel de la section francaise, 4pp.
  • Bernadou A., V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2013. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Andorra. Zookeys 277: 13-23.
  • Bernadou A., X. Espadaler, A. Le Goff, and V. Fourcassie. 2015. Ant community organization along elevational gradients in a temperate ecosystem. Insect. Soc. 62:59–71
  • Bernadou, A., G. Latil, V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. "Les formigues de la Vall del Madriu-Perafita-Claror : diversitat i distribució." Hàbitats, 13 (2006): 10-21.
  • Bernard F. 1967. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp.
  • Berville L., C. Santelli, J. Reybaud, M. Renucci, P. Ponel, O. Blight, and E. Provost. 2014. Suivi d’un site atelier dans le golfe de Fos: Une diversite myrmecologique insoupconne. Etudes Vauclusiennes 82: 71-78.
  • Berville L., M. Renucci, P. Vidal, and E. Provost. 2016. Peuplement myrmecologique et evaluation de l'invasion de Linepithema humile sur les iles de Marseille (Bouches-du-Rhone, France). Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et Vie) 71(3): 278-287.
  • Bezdecka P. 1996. The ants of Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomofauna carpathica 8: 108-114.
  • Bezdecka P., and K. Bezdeckova. 2012. Updated list of the ants of the Czech Republic. Pp 7-12. Bezd??ka P. & Bezd??ková K. (eds) 2012: Blanok?ídlí v ?eských zemích a na Slovensku 8, Chaloupky, 1.-3. ?ervna 2012, sborník abstrakt? z konference. – MVJ Jihlava, 37 pp.
  • Bezdeckova K., and P. Bezdecka. 2009. Nejvetsi polykalicka kolonie Formica foreli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) y Ceské republice. Acta rerum naturalium 7: 121–126.
  • Blacker N. C. 1989. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Gower Peninsula, West Glamorgan, South Wales. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 101: 261-266.
  • Blacker N. C. and C. A. Collingwood. 2002. Some significant new records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Salisbury area, south Wiltshire, England, with a key to the British species of Lasius. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 15: 25-46
  • Blatrix R., C. Lebas, C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, P. Pimenta, and D. Morichon. 2016. Vegetation cover and elevation drive diversity and composition of ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Mediterranean ecosystem. – Myrmecological News 22: 119-127.
  • Blinova S. V. 2011. Changes in the Ant Assemblage of Pine–Birch Forest upon Removal of the Nests of Dominant Species. Russian Journal of Ecology 42(6): 525–528.
  • Boer P. 2019. Species list of the Netherlands. Accessed on January 22 2019 at
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. Van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. Lijst van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) van Belgie en Nederland, hun Nederlandse namen en hun voorkomen. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 63: 54-58.
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. Lijst van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) van Belgie en Nederland, hun Nederlandse namen en hun voorkomen. Entomologische Berichten 63(3): 54-57.
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. List of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Belgium and The Netherlands, their status and Dutch vernacular names. Entomologische Berichten 63 (3): 54-58.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Boulay, R., J.M. Fedriani, A.J. Manzaneda and X. Cerda. 2005. Indirect Effects of Alternative Food Resources in an Ant-Plant Interaction. Oecologia 144(1):72-79
  • Boven J. van 1949. Notes sur la faune des Hautes-Fagnes en Belgique. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 85: 135-143.
  • Bracko G. 2007. Checklist of the ants of Slovenia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Sloveniae 9: 15-24
  • Bracko G., H. C. Wagner, A. Schulz, E. Gioahim, J. Maticic, and A. Tratnik. 2014. New investigation and a revised checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Republic of Macedonia. North-Western Journal of Zoology 10(1): 10-24.
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Bracko, G. "Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Croatia." Acta Entomologica Slovenica Vol 14 st (2006): 131-156.
  • Brangham A. N. 1938. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic gardens, Kew: XVIII. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 9: 390-396.
  • Braschler, B. and B. Baur. 2005. Experimental Small-Scale Grassland Fragmentation Alters Competitive Interactions among Ant Species. Oecologia 143(2):291-300
  • Bujan J., A. Brigic, Z. Sedlar, and R. Sostaric. 2015. Progressive vegetation succession of fen habitats promotes the lack of habitat specialist ants. Insectes Sociaux 62: 415-422.
  • Callot H., and A. Astric. 2011. Liste de référence des Fourmis d'Alsace. 7 p. Version mise à jour au 23/03/2013. consultation du 27 January 2014.
  • Carniel A. 1998. Ricerche sulla mirmecofauna delle Prealpi Orobiche (Lombardia) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Atti. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Morbegno 9: 29-39.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and M. Prost. 1991. Fourmis de la Côte-d'Or présentes dans les collections du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Dijon. Bulletin Scientifique de Bourgogne 44: 53-72.
  • Chen Z. L., S. Y. Zhou, and J. H. Huang. 2016. Seven species new to science and one newly recorded species of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 from China, with proposal of a new synonym (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). ZooKeys 551: 85–128.
  • Cherix D., and S. Higashi. 1979. Distribution verticale des fourmis dans le Jura vaudois et recensement prelimaire des bourdons (Hymenoptera, Formicidae et Apidae). Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat. 356(74): 315-324.
  • Choi B.-M. 1987. Taxonomic study on ants (Formicidae) in Korea (1). On the genus Monomorium. Journal of the Institute of Science Education (Cheongju National Teachers' College) 11:17-30.
  • Choi B.M. 1986. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea. Journal of Chongju National Teacher College 23: 317-386.
  • Choi B.M., Bang, J.R. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (9). Ant fauna in Mt. Togyusan. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 31:101-112.
  • Colindre L. 2015. Les fourmis en Picardie: bilan 2014 (Hymenoptera/ Formicidae). Entomologiste Picard 26, 15 pages.
  • Colindre L. 2017. Richess et utilite du cortege de fourmis en foret d'Ermenonville, Oise, Region Hauts-de-France. Association des Entomologistes de Picardie. 19 pages.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1956. Ant hunting in France. Entomologist 89: 106-108.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1961. Ants in the Scottish Highlands. Scotish Naturalist 70: 12-21.
  • Collingwood C. A. 1971. A synopsis of the Formicidae of north Europe. Entomologist 104: 150-176
  • Collingwood C. A. 1976. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 68:
  • Collingwood C. A. 1981. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea, 2. Folia Entomologica Hungarica 42(34): 25-30.
  • Collingwood C. A., and J. E. Satchell. 1956. The ants of the South Lake District. Journal of the Society for British Entomology 5: 159-164.
  • Collingwood C. A., and J. Hughes. 1987. Ant species in Yorkshire, England. Naturalist (Leeds) 112: 95-101.
  • Collingwood C., and A. Prince. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5: 1-49.
  • Collingwood C.A. 1959. Ants in the Scottish Highlands. The Scottish Naturalist. 70: 12-21
  • Collingwood C.A. 1959. Scandinavian Ants. Entomol. Rec. 71: 78-83
  • Collingwood C.A. 1961. New Vice-County Records for British Ants. Entomologist. 73: 90-93
  • Collingwood C.A. and Satchell J.E. 1956. The Ants of the South Lake District. Journal of the Society for British Entomology. 5: 159-164
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1958. The ants of the genus Myrmica in Britain. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 33: 65-75
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1958b. A key to the species of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) found in Britain. Trans. Soc. Br. Entomol. 13: 69-96
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1964. The Identification of British Ants (Hym. Formicidae). Transactions of the Society for British Entomology. 16:93-121.
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1974. A revised list of Norwegian ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift 21: 31-35.
  • Collingwood, C. A., and I. H. H. Yarrow. "A survey of Iberian Formicidae." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 44 (1969): 53-101.
  • Collingwood, C. A. "A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste." EOS (Revista española de entomología) Nº LVII (1978): 65-95.
  • Collingwood, C. A. "The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark." Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8 (1979): 1-174.
  • Collingwood, C.A. 1958. A survey of Irish Formicidae. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 59B:213-219
  • Consani M., and P. Zangheri. 1952. Fauna di Romagna. Imenotteri - Formicidi. Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 31: 38-48.
  • Csosz S., B. Marko, K. Kiss, A. Tartally, and L. Galle. 2002. The ant fauna of the Ferto-Hansag National Park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Mahunka, S. (Ed.): The fauna of the Fert?-Hanság National Park. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, pp. 617-629.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Stana Valley (Romania): Evaluation of the effectiveness of a myrmecological survey. – Entomologica Romanica 6 : 121-126.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2011. The myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: an updated checklist. North-Western Journal of Zoology 7: 55-62.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • Czechowski W., B. Marko, A. Radchenko, and P. Slipinski. 2013. Long-term partitioning of space between two territorial species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their effect on subordinate species. Eur. J. Entomol. 110(2): 327–337.
  • Czekes Z., Radchenko, A. G., Csősz, S. Szász-Len, A., Tăuşan, I., Benedek, K., and Markó, B. 2013. The genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Romania: distribution of species and key for their identification. Entomologica Romanica 17: 29-50.
  • Dahms H., L. Lenoir, R. Lindborg, V. Wolters, and J. Dauber. 2008. Restoration of seminatural grasslands: what is the impact on ants? Restoration Ecology 18(3): 330-337.
  • Dauber, J., J. Bengtsson and L. Lenoir. 2006. Evaluating Effects of Habitat Loss and Land-Use Continuity on Ant Species Richness in Seminatural Grassland Remnants. Conservation Biology 20(4):1150-1160
  • Dekoninck W., H. De Koninck, J. Y. Baugnee, and J. P. Maelfait. 2007. Ant biodiversity conservation in Belgian calcareous grasslands: active management is vital. Belg. J. Zool. 137 (2): 137-146.
  • Dekoninck W., K. Desender, and P. Grootaert. 2008. Establishment of ant communities in forests growing on former agricultural fields: Colonisation and 25 years of management are not enough (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 105: 681–689.
  • Della Santa E. 1994. Guide pour l'identification des principales espèces de fourmis de Suisse. Miscellanea Faunistica Helvetiae 3: 1-124.
  • Della Santa E. 2000. L'identification des espèces du genre Myrmica Latreille (Formicidae) de Suisse; essai de présentation synoptique. Bull. Romand Entomol. 18: 169-187.
  • Dewes E. 2005. Ameisenerfassung im „Waldschutzgebiet Steinbachtal/Netzbachtal“. Abh. Delattinia 31: 89-118.
  • Dolek M., A. Freese-Hager, H. Bussler, A. Floren, A. Liegl, and J. Schmidl. 2009. Ants on oaks: effects of forest structure on species composition. Journal of Insect Conservation 13: 367-375.
  • Donisthorpe H. 1914. Myrmecophilous notes for 1913. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 26: 37-45.
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Dvorak, L., P. BOGUSCH, I. MALENOVSKÝ, P. BEZDÌÈKA, K. BEZDÌÈKOVÁ, K. HOLÝ, P. LIŠKA, J. MACEK, L. ROLLER, M. RÍHA et al. "Hymenoptera of Hády Hill, near the city of Brno (Czech Republic), collected during the Third Czech-Slovak Hymenoptera meeting." Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae (Brno) 93 (2008): 53-92.
  • Ebsen J. R., J. J. Boomsma, and D. R. Nash. 2019. Phylogeography and cryptic speciation in the Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and their conservation implications. Insect Conservation and Diversity doi: 10.1111/icad.12366
  • Elmes G. W. 1991. Mating strategy and isolation between the two forms, macrogyna and microgyna, of Myrmica ruginodis (Hym. Formicidae). Ecol. Entomol. 16: 411-423.
  • Elmes, G.W., T. Akino, J.A. Thomas, R.T. Clarke and J.J. Knapp. 2002. Interspecific differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of Myrmica ants are sufficiently consistent to explain host specificity by Maculinea (large blue) butterflies. Oecologia 130:525-535
  • Else G., B. Bolton, and G. Broad. 2016. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e8050. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e8050
  • Emery C. 1878. Liste des fourmis de la collection de feu Camille van Volxem, avec la description d'une espèce nouvelle. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 21: viii-x.
  • Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte seconda. Formiche dell'Europa e delle regioni limitrofe in Africa e in Asia." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 12 (1878): 43-59.
  • Espadaler X., X. Roig, K. Gómez, and F. García. 2011. Formigues de les Planes de Son i mata de València (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Treballs de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural 16: 609-627.
  • Espadaler, X., X. Roig, and K. Gómez. "Cuatro nuevas citas de hormigas (Hymenopera, Formicidae) y actualización del listado para Cataluña (Península Ibérica)." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 40 (2007): 313-316.
  • Espadaler, X. "Contribución al conocimiento de los formícidos (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) del Pirineo catalán." Tesis Universida (1979): 285 pp.
  • Fagan K. C., R. F. Pywell, J. M. Bullock, and R. H. Marrs. 2010. Are Ants Useful Indicators of Restoration Success in Temperate Grasslands? Restoration Ecology 18(3): 373–379.
  • Field Museum Collection, Chicago, Illinois (C. Moreau)
  • Finzi B. 1926. Le forme europee del genere Myrmica Latr. Primo contributo. Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste. 29: 71-119.
  • Forel A. 1892. Die Ameisenfauna Bulgariens. (Nebst biologischen Beobachtungen.). 305-318.
  • Forel, A. "Nouvelles fourmis de Grèce récoltées par M. E. von Oertzen." Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 30 (1886): clix-clxviii.
  • Formidabel Database
  • Fowles, A.P. 1996. A provisional checklist of the invertebrates recorded from Wales. 2. Aculeate wasps, bees and ants (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Countryside Council for Wales
  • Franch, J., and X. Espadaler. "Ants as colonizing agents of pine stumps in San Juan de la Peña (Huesca, Spain)." Vie et Milieu 38 (1988): 149-154.
  • Francois J. 1958. Contribution a l'etude ecologique des Formicides (Insectes, Hymenopteres) de la region Dijonnaise. Travaux du laboratoire de Zoologie et de la Station Aquicole Grimaldi de la Faculte des Sciences de Dijon 25, 39 pages.
  • GRETIA. 2017. Bilan annuel de l'enquete sur la repartition des fourmis armoricaines. 23 pages.
  • Gadeau de Kerville H. 1922. Materiaux pour la Faune des Hymenopteres de la Normandie. Bull. Soc. Amis Sc. Nat. Rouen 1916-1921, 1922: 217-225.
  • Galkowski C. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galkowski C., and C. Foin. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galkowski C., and P Wegnez. 2010. Myrmica constricta Karavaiev 1934, nouvelle espece pour la France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse 66(3): 41-45.
  • Galle L. 1993. Data to the ant fauna of the Bukk (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natural history of the national parks of Hungary 7: 445-448.
  • Galle L. 1997. Contribution to the ant fauna of Slovenia with special reference to the submediterranean and eudinaric regions. Annals for Istrian and Mediterranean studies 11: 209-214.
  • Gallé L. 1991. Structure and succession of ant assemblages in a north European sand dune area. Holarctic Ecology 14: 31-37.
  • Gallé L., B. Markó, K. Kiss, E. Kovács, H. Dürgő, K. Kőváry, and S. Csősz. 2005. Ant fauna of Tisza river basin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). — In: Gallé, L. (szerk.): Vegetation and Fauna of Tisza River Basin I. Tiscia Monograph Series 7; Szeged, pp. 149-197.
  • Garcia F, Arnal J, Espadaler X. 2008. Primeros registros de Myrmica bibikoffi Kutter, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) en la Península Ibérica. Heteropterus Revista de Entomologia 8: 211-215.
  • Garcia Garcia F., and A. D. Cuesta-Esgura. 2017. First catalogue of the ants of Burgos province, Spain (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 60: 245–258.
  • Gaspare Charles. 1965. Étude myrmécologique d'une région naturelle de Belgique: la Famenne Survey des Fourmis de la Région (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Institut agronomique de l'Etat a' Gembloux. 32(4): 427-434.
  • Giacalone I., and M. Moretti. 2001. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) dei castagneti al Sud delle Alpi (ticino, Svizzera). Bollettino della Societa ticinese di Scienze naturali 89(1-2): 51-60.
  • Gibb H., and T. Johansson. 2011. Field tests of interspecific competition in ant assemblages: revisiting the dominant red wood ants. Journal of Animal Ecology 80: 548-557.
  • Gilev A. V., I. V. Kuzmin, V. A. Stolbov, and S. D. Sheikin. 2012. Materials on the fauna and ecology of ants (formicidae) Southern part of the Tyumen region. Tyumen State University Herald 6: 86-91.
  • Glaser F. 2009. Die Ameisen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Amtlicher Lehrmittelverlag, Vaduz, 2009 (Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein; Bd. 26).
  • Glaser F., A. Freitag, and H. Martz. 2012. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Münstertal (Val Müstair) – a hot spot of regional species richness between Italy and Switzerland. Gredleriana 12: 273 - 284.
  • Glaser F., T. Kopf, and K. H. Steiberger. 2003. Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) im Frastanzer Ried und den Illauen (Vorarlberg, Österreich) Artenspektrum, Gefährdung und Schutzempfehlungen. Vorarlberger Naturschau 13: 287-310.
  • González Martín J. D., and X. Espadaler. 2011. Formicidos del País Vasco (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Nuevas aportaciones. Heteropterus Revista de Entomologia 11(1): 109-122.
  • Gouraud C. 2015. Bilan de l’année 2014 : Atlas des fourmis de Loire-Atlantique (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Atlas des Formicidae de Loire-Atlantique, compte rendu de la première année d’étude (2014)
  • Grandi G. 1935. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XV. Boll. R. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Studi Bologna 8: 27-121.
  • Gratiashvili N., Barjadze S. 2008. Checklist of the ants (Formicidae Latreille, 1809) of Georgia. Proceedings of the Institute of Zoology (Tbilisi) 23: 130-146.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, R. Cereghino, J. Orivel, F. Jaladeau, J. Grangier, C. S. F. Mariano, and A. Dejean. 2007. Ant species diversity in the ‘Grands Causses’ (Aveyron, France): In search of sampling methods adapted to temperate climates. C. R. Biologies 330: 913–922.
  • Grzes I. M. 2009. Ant species richness and evenness increase along a metal pollution gradient in the Boles?aw zinc smelter area. Pedobiologia 53: 65-73.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Haguet G., M. Chevrier, and E. Brunel. 2002. Les invertebres de la dune de Bon Abri, premier inventaire. Groupe d'Etude des Invertebres Armoricains, 37 pages.
  • Hayashida K. 1957. Ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and vicinity. (Preliminary report.). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series VI. Zoology 13:173-177.
  • Hayashida K. 1959. Ecological Distribution of Ants in Mt. Atusanupuri, An Active Volcano in Akan National Park, Hokkaido. Jour. Pac. Sci. Hokkaiao Univ. Ser. 4(14): 252-260.
  • Hayashida K. 1959. Ecological distribution of ants in Mt. Atusanupuri, an active volcano in Akan National Park, Hokkaido. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series VI. Zoology 14:252-260.
  • Hayashida K. 1961. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and its vicinity (1 et 2). Insectes Sociaux 7: 125-162.
  • Hayashida K. 1964. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Kutchan and its adjacent area. Journal of the Sapporo Otani Junior College 2: 107-129.
  • Hayashida K. 1971. Vertical distribution of ants in the southern part of the Hidaka mountains. [In Japanese.]. Memoirs of the National Science Museum (Tokyo) 4:29-38.
  • Hayashida K. 1972. Ecological survey on ants in Nakagawa Experiment Forest of Hokkaido University. Res. Bull. Exper. Forests, Coll. Agr., Hokkaido Univ. 29: 25-36.
  • Hayashida K., and S. Maeda. 1960. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Akkeshi. Journ. Sc. Hokkaido Univ., IV. Zool., 14 (3) : 305-319.
  • Heatwole H. 1989. Changes in ant assemblages across an artic treeline. Revue d'Entomologie du Quebec 34(1-2): 10-22.
  • Heinken, T. 2004. Migration of an Annual Myrmecochore: A Four Year Experiment with Melampyrum pratense L. Plant Ecology 170(1):55-72
  • Holecova M., M. Klesniakova, K. Holla, and A. Sestakova. 2017. Winter activity in scots pine canopies in Borska Nizina Lowland (SW Slovakia)
  • Holgersen H. 1942. Ants of northern Norway (Hym., Form.). Tromso Mus. Årsh. 63(2): 1-34.
  • Holgersen H. 1943. Ant studies in Rogaland (south-western Norway). Avhandlingar utgitt av det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. I. Matematisk-Naturvidenskapelig Klasse 1943(7): 1-75.
  • Holgersen H. 1944. The ants of Norway (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene 84: 165-204.
  • Holgersen H. 1944. The ants of Norway (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene 84: 165-493.
  • Hågvar S. 2005. Altitudinal zonation of ants (Formicidae) in a steep fjord landscape in Sogndal, Western Norway. Norw. J. Entomol. 52: 3-12.
  • Ichinose K. 1990. The Ant Fauna of the Tomakomai Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Notes on the Nuptial Season. Research Bulletins of College Experiment Forests 47(1) 137-144.
  • Jaffe K., P. Horchler, M. Verghaagh, C. Gomez, R. Sievert, R. Jaffe, and W. Morawetz. 2007. Comparing the ant fauna in a tropical and a temperate forest canopy. Ecotropicos 20(2): 74-81.
  • Jaffe, K., et al. 2007. Comparing the ant fauna in a tropical and a temperat forest canopy. Ecotropicos 20(2):74-81
  • Jakubzik A., H. Kinkler, and K. Colln. 2010. Aculeate Hymenoptera from a Humid Biotope in Leverkusen-Steinbüchel. Decheniana (Bonn) 163: 145–158.
  • Jansen G., R. Savolainen, K. Vespalainen. 2010. Phylogeny, divergence-time estimation, biogeography and social parasite–host relationships of the Holarctic ant genusMyrmica(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 294-304.
  • Karaman M. G. 2009. An introduction to the ant fauna of Macedonia (Balkan Peninsula), a check list (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Natura Montenegrina 8(3): 151-162.
  • Karaman M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp.
  • Karavaiev V. 1912. Ameisen aus dem paläarktischen Faunengebiete. Rus. Entomol. Obozr. 12: 581-596.
  • Karavaiev V. 1926. Beiträge zur Ameisenfauna des Kaukasus, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über andere palaearktische Formen. Konowia 5: 93-109.
  • Kholin S. K. and A. N. Kupianskaya. 2003. The international biodiversity observation year (IBOY): the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of forest ecosystems of the Primorye region. Chteniya Pamyati Alekseya Ivanovicha Kurentsova 14: 50-55.
  • Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
  • Kim C.H.; Choi, B.M. 1987. On the kinds of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and vertical distribution in Jiri Mountain. Korean Journal of Plant Protection 26:123-132.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Kiran K., and N. Aktac. 2006. The vertical distribution of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Samanh Mountains, Turkey. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 38(2): 1105-1122.
  • Kofler A. 1995. Nachtrag zur Ameisenfauna Osttirols (Tirol, Österreich) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 1: 14-25.
  • Korlevic, A. "Prilozi fauni hrvatskih opnokrilaca." Glasn. Hrv. Narav. Dr. 5 (1890): 189-250.
  • Kozisek T. 1987. Ants (Formicoidea) of the Abrod State Nature Reserve. Ochrana Prírody 8: 205-208.
  • Kratochvíl J., V. Novák, and J. Snoflák. 1944. Mohelno. Soubor práci venoványch studiu vyznamne památky prírodní. 5. Hymenoptera - Aculeata. Formicidae - Apidae - Vespidae. Arch. Svazu Ochr. Prír. Domov. Moravé 6: 1-155.
  • Krugova T. M. 2017. Ant's population in the chern taiga of Tigireksky mountain range (North-Western Altai). Proceedings of the Tigirek Reserve 9: 68-77.
  • Kupianskaia A.N. 1990. Murav'I (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Dal'nego Vostoka SSSR (1989). Vladivostok. 258 pages.
  • Kvamme T. 1982. Atlas of the Formicidae of Norway (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Insecta Norvegiae 2: 1-56.
  • Kvamme T., and A. Wetas. 2010. Revidert liste over norske maur – Inkludert dialektiske navn og forslag til nye norske navn og forslag til norske navn. Norsk institutt for skog og landskap, Ås. 127 pp
  • Laeger T., and R. Schultz. 2005. Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) als Beifänge in Bodenfallen – wie genau spiegeln sie reale Abundanzverhältnisse wider? Myrmecologische Nachrichten 7: 17-24.
  • Lapeva-Gjonova, L., V. Antonova, A. G. Radchenko, and M. Atanasova. "Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria." ZooKeys 62 (2010): 1-124.
  • Le Moli F., and A. Zaccone. 1995. Ricerche sulla mirmecofauna del Cansiglio (Prealpi Carniche). Soc. Ven. Sc. Nat. 20: 33-52.
  • Lebas C., C. Galkowski, P. Wegnez, X. Espadaler, and R. Blatrix. 2015. The exceptional diversity of ants on mount Coronat (Pyrénées-Orientales), and Temnothorax gredosi(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) new to France. R.A.R.E., T. XXIV (1): 24 – 33
  • Legakis Collection Database
  • Lelej A. S. 2012. Annotated catalogue of the Insects of Russian Far East. Volume 1. Hymenoptera. Dalnauka: Vladivostok. 635 p.
  • Lenoir A. 1971. Les fourmis de Touraine, leur intérêt biogéographique. Cahiers des Naturalistes 27: 21-30.
  • Lenoir L. 2009. Ant Species Composition and Richness in Different Types of Semi Natural Grasslands. Russian Journal of Ecology 40(7): 471-476.
  • Lillig M., and E. Dewes. 2015. The former Siegfried Line as habitats for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Abh. Delattinia 37: 117 - 136
  • Livory A. 2003. Les fourmis de la Manche. L'Argiope 39: 25-49.
  • Livory A. Un Nouvel Inventaire: les Fourmis. Argiope 29: 27-34.
  • Lomnicki J. 1928. Spis mrówek Lwowa i okolicy. Ksiegi Pamiatkowej (Lecia Gimn. IV Jana Dlugosza Lwowie) 50: 1-10.
  • Maavara V. 1953. Ants of Estonian SSR. ABIKS loodusevaatlejale 10: 1-44.
  • Majzlan O., and P. Devan. 2009. Selected insect groups (Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Raphidioptera) of the Rokoš Massif (Strážovské vrchy Mts.). Rosalia (Nitra), 20, p. 63–70.
  • Malozemova L. A. 1972. Ants of steppe forests, their distribution by habitats, and perspectives of their utilization for protection of forests (north Kazakhstan). [In Russian.]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 51: 57-68.
  • Marko B. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the “Sand Dunes of Foieni” Protected Area and Its Surroundings (Satu Mare County, Romania), and a New Species for the Romanian Fauna. Acta Scientiarum Transylvanica 16(3): 87-99.
  • Marko B., K. Kiss, and L. Galle. 2004. Mosaic structure of ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Eastern Carpathian marshes: regional versus local scales. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 50(2): 77–95.
  • Markó B., B. Sipos, S. Csősz, K. Kiss, I. Boros, and L. Gallé. 2006. A comprehensive list of the ants of Romania (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 9: 65-76.
  • Markó B., and S. Csősz. 2002. Die europäischen Ameisenarten (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) des Hermannstädter (Sibiu, Rumänien) Naturkundemuseums I.: Unterfamilien Ponerinae, Myrmicinae und Dolichoderinae. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 94: 109-121.
  • Menozzi C. 1918. Primo contributo alla conoscenza della fauna mirmecologica del Modenese. Atti della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena. (5)4: 81-88.
  • Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletin of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University 36:509-516.
  • Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests Hokkaido University 36(2): 509-516.
  • Mizutani A. 1981. On the two forms of the ant Myrmica ruginodis Nylander (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Sapporo and its vicinity, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ecology. 31: 131-137.
  • Mizutani A., and S. Yamane. 1978. Description of the larva of the ant Myrmica ruginodis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Japan. Kontyu, Tokyo 46(1): 38-42.
  • Moretti M. P. Duelli, and M. K. Obrist. 2006. Biodiversity and resilience of arthropod communities after fire disturbance in temperate forests. Oecologia 149: 312–327.
  • Morisita M. 1945. Ants of the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan. [In Japanese.] Mushi 16:21-28. 
  • Moscaliuc L. 2008. Notes on the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rarau mountain. Analele Facult??ii de Biologie, Univ A.I. Cuza Ia?i 54: 53-55.
  • Müller, G. "Le formiche della Venezia Guilia e della Dalmazia." Bollettino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste 28 (1923): 11-180.
  • Nadig A. 1918. Alcune note sulla fauna dell'alta Valsesia. Formicidae. Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 56: 331-341.
  • Neumeyer R., and B. Seifert. 2005. Commented check list of free living ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species of Switzerland. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse 78: 1-17.
  • Nielsen, M.G., G.W. Elmes and V.E. Kipyatkov. 1999. Respiratory Q10 varies between populations of two species of Myrmica ants according to the latitude of their sites. Journal of Insect Physiology 45:559-564
  • Noordijk, J., R. Morssinkhof, P. Boer, A. P. Schaffers, Th. Heijerman and K. V. Sýkora. 2008. How ants find each other; temporal and spatial patterns in nuptial flights. Insectes Sociaux 55(3):266-273.
  • Novgorodova T. A., A. S. Ryabinin. 2015. Trophobiotic associations between ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidomorpha) in South Zauralye. News of Saratov University. Chemistry Series, Biology, Ecology 2(15): 98-107.
  • Nylander, W. "Synopsis des Formicides de France et d'Algérie." Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie (4)5 (1856): 51-109.
  • Núñez-Pérez, E. "Bases para el desarrollo del control integrado de los pulgones (Hom. Aphididae) de los cultivos de la provincia de León." Universidad de León, Secretariado de Publicaciones Tesis doct (1992): 7 páginas y 4 microfichas. León.
  • O'Rourke F. J. 1948. The distribution and general ecology of the Irish Formicidae. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science 52: 383-410.
  • Ovazza M. 1950. Contribution à la connaissance des fourmis des Pyrénées-Orientales. Récoltes de J. Hamon Vie et Milieu 1: 93-94.
  • Paik W.H. 1984. A checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Korea. Korean J. Plant Prot. 23(3): 193-195.
  • Paraschivescu D. 1978. Elemente balcanice in mirmecofauna R. S. Romania. Nymphaea 6: 463- 474.
  • Paukkunen J., O. Bistrom, E. Budrys, E. Helve, C. Lagercrantz, I. Mannerkosko, S. Orlovskyte, and M. Tahtinen. 2017. Entomological excursion to the Curonian Spit in August 2016. Naujos ir Retos Lietuvos Vabzdziu Rusys 28: 97-120.
  • Paukkunen J., and M. V. Kozlov. 2015. Stinging wasps, ants and bees (Hy menoptera: Aculeata) of the Murmansk region, Northwest Russia. — Entomol. Fennica. 26: 53–73.
  • Petal J. 1974. Analysis of a sheep pasture ecosystem in the Pieniny mountains (the Carpathians) XV. The effect of pasture management on ant population. Ekologia Polska 22(3/4): 679-692.
  • Petal J. 1980. The effect of industrial pollution of Silesia on populations of ants. Polish Ecological Studies 6(4): 665-672.
  • Petal J. 1994. Reaction of ant communities to degradations of forest habitats in the Karkonosze Mountains. Polish Academy of Sciences, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Memorabilia Zoologica 48: 171-179.
  • Petal J. M. 1963. Faune des fourmis de la reserve de tourbiere en projet a Rakowskie Bagno pres de Frampol (voivodie de Lublin). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sk?odowska 58(7): 143-174.
  • Petal J. M. 1967. Contribution a la connaissance des fourmis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) de la region de Lublin. VII. Associations des fourmis des milieux de tourbieres, de forets et de dunes aux environs de Libiszow (dist. De Parczew). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska Lublin-Polonia 22(9): 117-130.
  • Petal J. M. 1976. The effect of mineral fertilization on ant populations in meadows. Polish Ecological Studies 2(4): 209-218.
  • Petal J., and A. Kusinska. 1994. Fractional composition of organic matter in the soil of anthills and of the environement of meadows. Pedobiologia 38: 493-501.
  • Petrakova L., and J. Schlaghamersky. 2011. Interactions between Liometopum microcephalum (Formicidae) and other dominant ant species of sympatric occurrence. Community Ecology 12(1): 9-17.
  • Petrov I. Z., B. Petrov, D. Milicic, T. Karan-Znidarsic. 2007. Contribution to the Myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of East and South Serbia. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 59(3): 295-299.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Punttila P., Y. Haila, J. Niemela, and T. Pajunen. 1994. Ant communities in fragments of old-growth taiga and managed surroundings. Ann. Zool. Fennici 31: 131-144.
  • Punttila P., Y. Haila, and H. Tukia. 1996. Ant communities in taiga clearcuts: habitat effects and species interactions. Ecography 19: 16-28.
  • Pusvaskyte O. 1979. Myrmecofauna of the Lituanian SSR. Acta Entomologica Lituanica 4: 99-105.
  • Putyatina T. S. 2011. The Behavior of Ants of Different Species during Joint Foraging. Entomological Review 91(2): 264–273.
  • Radchenko A. G. 2007. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the collection of William Nylander. Fragmenta Faunistica (Warsaw) 50: 27-41.
  • Radchenko A. G., and G. W. Elmes. 2010. Myrmica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 790 pp.
  • Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55: 127-221.
  • Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici 55(2): 127-221.
  • Reznikova Z. I. 2003. Distribution patterns of ants in different natural zones and landscapes in Kazakhstan and West Siberia along a meridian trend. Euroasian Entomological Journal 2(4): 235-342.
  • Rigato F., and R. Sciaky. 1989. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna della Val Gesso (alpi Marittime) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 7(2): 427-442.
  • Rigato F., and R. Sciaky. 1991. The myrmecofauna of the Gesso Valley (Maritime Alps) (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Ethology Ecology and Evolution Special Issue 1: 87-89.
  • Ruzsky M. 1916. On zoological research in Yeniseisk province, work of summer of 1915. Izv. Imp. Tomsk. Univ. 65 (3rd p part: 1-21.
  • Röszler P. 1950. Die Ameisenwelt des Nagy Pietrosz, 2305 m (Ungarn) und Umgebung. Zool. Anz. 145: 210-225.
  • Saaristo M. I. 1995. Distribution maps of the outdoor myrmicid ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Finland, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology. Entomol. Fennica 6: 153-162.
  • Salata S. 2014. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the National Park of the Stołowe Mts. Przyroda Sudetow 17: 161-172.
  • Santschi F. 1925. Fourmis d'Espagne et autres espéces paléartiques EOS (Revista española de entomología) 1: 339-360.
  • Santschi F. 1941. Quelques fourmis japonaises inédites. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. 18: 273-279.
  • Santschi, F. "Fourmis d'Espagne et autres espéces paléartiques." EOS (Revista española de entomología) 1 (1925): 339-360.
  • Schar S., G Talavera, X. Espadaler, J. D. Rana, A. A. Andersen, S. P. Cover, and R. Vila. 2018. Do Holarctic ant species exist? Trans-Beringian dispersal and homoplasy in the Formicidae. Journal of Biogeography 00: 1-12.
  • Schlick-Steiner B. C., and F. M. Steiner. 1999. Faunistisch-ökologische Untersuchungen an den freilebenden Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Wiens. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 3: 9-53.
  • Seifert B. 1988. A taxonomic revision of the Myrmica species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caucasia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 62(3): 1-75. 
  • Seifert B. 1994. Die freilebenden Ameisenarten Deutschlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) und Angaben zu deren Taxonomie und Verbreitung. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 67(3): 1-44.
  • Sellier Y., C. Galkowski, C. Lebas, and P. Wegnez. 2016. Découverte de Temnothorax pardoi (Tinaut, 1987) dans la réserve naturelle nationale du Pinail (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie 25(2): 106-113.
  • Shlyakhtenok A. S. 2007. Hymenoptera Aculeata of Raised Bogs in Belarus. Entomological Review 87(2): 136–147.
  • Sielezniew M., D. Patricelli, I. Dziekanska, F. Barbero, S. Bonelli, L. P. Casacci, M. Witek, and E. Balletto. 2010. The frst record of Myrmica lonae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as a host of the socially parasitic large blue butterfly Phengaris (Maculinea) arion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Sociobiology 56(2): 465-.
  • Skorka, P., M. Witek and M. Woyciechowski. 2006. A simple and nondestructive method for estimation of worker population size in Myrmica ant nests. Insectes Sociaux
  • Sonnenburg H. 2005. Die Ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Niedersachsens und Bremens. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 7: 377-441.
  • Steffek J., and M. Wiezik. 2008. Exploited peatbog and associated mollusk and ant assemblages: still a reasonable protection? Naturae Tutela 12: 15-19.
  • Steiner F. M., S. Schödl, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2002. Liste der Ameisen Österreichs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Stand Oktober 2002. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 3: 17-25.
  • Stiprais M. 1973. Materi?li par R?gas kukai?u faunu. - Latvijas Entomologs, 15: 30-32.
  • Stitz, H. "Ameisen aus dem westlichen Mittelmeergebiet und von den Kanarischen Inseln." Mitteilungen aus den Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 8 (1917): 333-353.
  • Stukalyuk S. V. 2015. Structure of the ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the broad-leaved forests of Kiev. Entomological Review 95(3): 370–387.
  • Stukalyuk S. V. 2017. Stratification of the ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the urban broadleaf woodlands of the city of Kiev. Entomological Review 97(3): 320-343.
  • Stumper R. 1953. Etudes myrmecologiques. XI. Fourmis luxembourgeoises. Bulletin Soc. Nat. luxemb. 57: 122-135.
  • Stärcke A. 1942. Ants, collected by Dr. C. F. Engelhard at Stockmarknes (Island Hadsekoy, Vesterale Archipelago circa 68°50' Lat. N. Norway) and between 64° and 66° Lat. N. on the western coast of Norway, July 1932. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 11: 21-23.
  • Sushko G. G. 2013. The ants (hymenoptera, formicidae) bogs Belarusian Lakeland. Proceedings of the international. scientific-practical. conference, Vitebsk, 21-22 November 2013 - Vitebsk, 2013. - P. 215-216.
  • Suñer i Escriche, David. "Contribució al coneixement mirmecologic de Gavarres, Montgrí, Guilleríes i la Serralada Transversal." Tesis Doctoral Universida (1991): 577 pp.
  • Tamura H., Y. Nakamura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Fujikawa. 1969. An ecological survey of soil fauna in Hidaka-Mombetsu, Southern Hokkaido. Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University, Zoology 17(1): 17-57.
  • Tartally A. 2009. Data on the ant fauna of Gy?r?f? (SW-Hungary) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Somogyiensis 13: 155-158.
  • Tartally, A., D.R. Nash, S. Lengyel and Z. Varga. 2008. Patterns of host ant use by sympatric populations of Maculinea alcon and M. rebeli in the Carpathian Basin. Insectes Sociaux 55:370-381
  • Tausan I. 2010. Notes on the ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Rodna Mountains National Park and it's surroundings (Transylvania-Maramures, Romania). Transylv. Rev. Syst. Ecol. Res. 9: 159-166.
  • Tausan I., J. Dauber, M. R. Tricia, and B. Marko. 2017. Succession in ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in deciduous forest clear-cuts – an Eastern European case study. European Journal of Entomology 114: 92-100.
  • Tausan I., M. M. Jerpel, I. R. Puscasu, C. Sadeanu, R. E. Brutatu, L. A. Radutiu, and V. Giurescu. 2012. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Sibiu County (Transylvania, Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei 7(3): 499-520.
  • Tausan I., and B. Marko. 2009. Comparative analysis of ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the surroundings of Sibiu (Romania). Brukenthal. Acta Musei 4(3): 635-644.
  • Terayama M. 1977. Checklist of the known ants of Saitama Prefecture. Insects and nature 12(4): 26-27
  • Terayama M. 1983. Kagoshima-ken-hondo no ari. Kanagawa-chucho (Journal of the Kanagawa Entomologists Association): 13-24.
  • Terayama M., Choi, B.M., Kim, C.H. 1992. A check list of ants from Korea, with taxonomic notes. Bulletin of the Toho Gakuen 7:19-54.
  • Terayama M., K. Murata, and N. Minakawa. 1998. Ants collected by the members of the International Kuril Islands Project, 1995. Ari 22: 10-12.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Teruyama. M. 1988. Ant fauna of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 4-13
  • Ticha, K. 2005. Inventarizacní pruzkum mravencu (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) NPP Svarec. 2005. Acta Rerum Naturalium 1:127-130.
  • Tinaut A. 2016. Ants of the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Mountains Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boln. Asoc. esp. Ent., 40 (1-2): 125-159.
  • Tizado Morales, E. J. Estudio comparado de la fauna y la biología de pulgones (Hom.), afidíinos (Hym.) y otros insectos acompañantes en dos áreas de la provincia de León In Secretariado de Publicaciones, Tesis doctoral en microficha, nº 67. León: Universidad de León, 1991.
  • Vagalinski B., and A. Lapeva-Gjonova. 2012. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Plana Mountain (Bulgaria). Historia naturalis bulgarica 20: 87-101.
  • Vele A., J. Holisa, J. Tragnerova. 2015. Ant succession on burned areas in forested landscape: a case study from the Bohemian Switzerland National Forest. Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu 60(1): 47-52.
  • Vele A., J. Holusa, J. Horak. 2016. Ant abundance increases with clearing size. J For Res 21: 110–114.
  • Vele A., J. Holusa, and J. Frouz. 2009. Sampling for ants in different-aged spruce forests: A comparison of methods. European Journal of Soil Biology 45(4): 1-6.
  • Vepsalainen K., H. Ikonene, and M. J. Koivula. 2008. The structure of ant assembalges in an urban area of Helsinki, southern Finland. Ann. Zool. Fennici 45: 109-127.
  • Vespalainen K., B. Pisarski, R. Kantorek, and K. J. Laine. 1984. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Inari Lapland. Kevo Notes 7: 115-116.
  • Vlasakova, B., J. Raabova, T. Kyncl, P. Dostal, M. Kavarova, P. Kovar and T. Herben. 2009. Ants accelerate succession from mountain grassland towards spruce forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 577–587
  • Vogrin, V. "Prilog fauni Hymenoptera - Aculeata Jugoslavije." Zast. Bilja 31(suppl.) (1955): 1-74.
  • Weber N. A. 1947. A revision of the North American ants of the genus Myrmica Latreille with a synopsis of the Palearctic species. I. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 40: 437-474.
  • Wegnez P. 2014. Premières captures de Lasius distinguendus Emery, 1916 et de Temnothorax albipennis (Curtis, 1854) au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 150 (2014) : 168-171.
  • Wegnez P. 2017. Découverte de Myrmica lobicornis Nylander, 1846 et Lasius jensi Seifert, 1982, deux nouvelles espèces pour le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 153: 46-49.
  • Wegnez P. 2018. Premières decouvertes de Myrmica bibikoffi Kutter, 1963 et de Ponera testacea Emery, 1895, au Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 154: 263–272.
  • Wegnez P., D. Ignace, E. Lommelen, M. Hardy, J. Bogaert, and C. Nilsson. 2015. Redécouverte de Teleutomyrmex schneideriKutter, 1950 dans les Alpes françaises (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 151: 52-57.
  • Wegnez P., and A. Ronk. 2017. Découverte de Camponotus herculeanus (Linnaeus, 1758) et signalement de quelques autres espèces rares de fourmis au Luxembourg (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 119 : 153–159.
  • Wegnez P., and F. Mourey. 2016. Formica uralensis Ruzsky, 1895 une espèce encore présente en France mais pour combien de temps ? (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 152: 72-80.
  • Wegnez P., and M. Fichaux. 2015. Liste actualisee des especes de fourmis repertoriees au Grand-Duche de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société royale belge d’Entomologie 151: 150-165
  • Wei C., S. Y. Zhou, H. He, and M. T. Liu. 2001. A taxonomic study of the genus Myrmica Latreille from China. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 26: 560-564.
  • Wiezick M. 2008. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of forest-steppe habitats at southern and South-Western slopes of Plesivecka a Planina plateau at Slovensky Kras Karst. Natura Carpatica 49: 85-94.
  • Wiezik M. 2007. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of mountain and alpine ecosystems at Southern part of Krá?ovoho?ské Tatry Mts. Naturae Tutela 11: 85-90.
  • Wiezik M. 2008. Vertical distribution of ants from alpine habitats at Nízke Tatry mts. Naturae Tutela 12: 61-67.
  • Wiezik M., A. Wiezikova, and J. Murin. 2008. Ant assemblages at horná orava peatbogs. Naturae Tutela 12: 55-60.
  • Wiezik M., A. Wiezikova, and M. Svitok. 2010. Effects of secondary succession in abandoned grassland on the activity of ground-foraging ant assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 74: 153-160
  • Wiezik M., M. Kozon, and A. Wiezikova. 2013. Ants of selected peat bog habitats at the Horná Orava protected area. Naturae Tutela 17(1): 57-63.
  • Wlodarczyk T. 2010. Ant species composition in relation to forest associations in Szczecin Landscape Park. Polish Journal of Entomology 79: 91-99.
  • Yamane S. 2007. Ants of Mongolia. The Nature and Insects. 42: 20-25
  • Yamauchi K. 1968. Additional Notes on the Ecological Distribution of Ants in Sapporo and the Vicinity . Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokaido University, series VI, Zoology 16(3): 382-395.
  • Zhuytszyuan D. 2016. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Nizhne-Svirsky reserve and their environmental features. Master's thesis Saint Petersburg State University.
  • Zryanin V. A., and T. A. Zryanina. 2007. New data on the ant fauna Hymenoptera, Formicidae in the middle Volga River Basin. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii 127(2): 226-240.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica en la Cordillera Ibérica." Orsis 6 (1991): 129-126.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por Andalucia." Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 6 (12) (1977): 85-90.