Myrmica rugosa

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Myrmica rugosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Myrmicini
Genus: Myrmica
Species: M. rugosa
Binomial name
Myrmica rugosa
Mayr, 1865

Myrmica rugosa P casent0900297.jpg

Myrmica rugosa D casent0900297.jpg

Specimen Label

Myrmica rugosa has been found at altitudes between 1200 and 3400 m in semi-natural habitats, but it also inhabits cultivated areas (Philip Ward, pers. comm.). Males and alate queens were collected from the end of May to the end of June, which is extremely early in the year compared to Euro-Siberian Myrmica species (Radchenko and Elmes, 2010). Nests were found under rotten wood at a forested site and under stones in grassland. Nesting sites had temperature ranging from 15°C to 25°C and humidity between 42% and 70%. The species seems to be well distributed in subalpine zone of Northwest Himalaya (3200m), where it is found to be sympatric with Myrmica smythiesii. The altitudinal range for this species is 1400m to 3500m. (Bharti et al., 2016)


A member of the rugosa complex of the rugosa species group. We consider that together with three other Himalayan species (Myrmica aimonissabaudiae, Myrmica hecate and Myrmica rupestris) it belongs to the rugosa species group and differs from the first two species by the much less developed reticulation on the head dorsum, and from the last by the absence of coarse short sinuous rugosity on the petiole and postpetiole. (Radchenko and Elmes 2010)

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: Bhutan, India, Nepal.
Palaearctic Region: China.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb


The area of Northwest Himalaya (3200m), where this species occurs, is dominated by the Himalayan maple (Acer caesium), west Himalayan fir (Abies pindrow), Himalayan white birch (Betula utilis), and Bell Rhododendron (Rhododendron campanulatum), with Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana), Himalayan lilac (Syringa emodi) and Hairy rowan (Sorbus lanata). Some of the common herbs in this area include Jacquemont’s Cobra Lily (Arisaema jacquemontii), Boschniakia himalaica, Kashmir Corydalis (Corydalis cashmeriana), Himalayan Jacob’s Ladder (Polemonium caeruleum), Rampant tall weed (Polygonum polystachyum), Gigantic Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens sulcata), Wallich Geranium (Geranium wallichianum), Cleavers (Galium aparine), Himalayan Whorlflower (Moringa longifolia), Showy inula (Inula grandiflora), Yellow Himalayan lily (Nomocharis oxypetala), River Anemone (Anemone rivularis), Lousewort (Pedicularis pectinata), Horned Lousewort (P. bicornuta), Drumstick Primrose (Primula denticulate) and Himalayan Trillium (Trillium govanianum). (Bharti et al., 2016)



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • rugosa. Myrmica rugosa Mayr, 1865: 19 (footnote) (w.) HIMALAYA (India?). Radchenko & Elmes, 2002: 41 (q.m.). See also: Bingham, 1903: 268; Radchenko & Elmes, 2010: 242.

Type Material

  • Lectotype (designated by Radchenko & Elmes, 2001): worker, “Himalaya”, “M. rugosa Mayr” (ZMHB).
  • Paralectotypes (designated by Radchenko & Elmes, 2001):

1 worker, “Himalaya”, “M. rugosa sp. n. Mayr” (BMNH); 1 worker, “Myrmica rugosa m. Himal.”; 1 worker, “Himalaya Mayr е. с ej.” (MSNG); 2 workers, “Himalaya”, “Coll. Mayr” (original labels in Russian), “295” (ZMMU).

Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - We found 1 worker in Berlin with the labels “Himalaya” and “M. rugosa Mayr”, written by Mayr's own hand. As this specimen fully agrees with Mayr's description, we have designated it as the lectotype. Five more workers, preserved in London, Genoa and Moscow are designated as paralectotypes.



Radchenko and Elmes (2010) - name derived from the Latin word rugosus = wrinkle or full of wrinkles, to describe its sculpture.


  • Bharti, H., Sasi, S., Radchenko, A. 2016. Biogeography and ecology of Myrmica species (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Himalayan regions. Sociobiology 63, 956-975 (DOI 10.13102/sociobiology.v63i3.1145).
  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 268, see also)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 411, Nomen nudum; attributed to Koch; material referred to scabrinodis)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 19, (footnote) worker described)
  • Radchenko, A. G.; Elmes, G. W. 2002. First descriptions of the sexual forms of seven Himalayan Myrmica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Vestn. Zool. 36(5): 35-46 (page 41, queen, male described)
  • Radchenko, A.G. & Elmes, G.W. 2010. Myrmica ants of the Old World. Fauna Mundi 3: 1-789.

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bharti H., S. Sasi, and A. Radchenko. 2016. Biogeography and ecology of Myrmica species (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Himalayan regions. Sociobiology 63(3): 956-975.
  • Bharti H., Y. P. Sharma, M. Bharti, and M. Pfeiffer. 2013. Ant species richness, endemicity and functional groups, along an elevational gradient in the Himalayas. Asian Myrmecology 5: 79-101.
  • Bhoje P. M., K. Shilpa, and T. V. Sathe. 2014. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Kolhapur district of Maharashtra, India. Uttar Pradesh J. Zool. 34(1): 23-25.
  • Donisthorpe H. 1929. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) taken by Major R. W. G. Hingston, M.C., I.M.S. (ret.), on the Mount Everest Expedition, 1924. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10)4: 444-449.
  • Forel A. 1903. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part X. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 679-715.
  • Ghosh S. N., S. Sheela, B. G. Kundu, S. Roychowdhury, and R. N. Tiwari. 2006. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 369-398 in: Alfred, J. R. B. (ed.) 2006. Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. (Part -2). [State Fauna Series 13.]. New Delhi: Zoological Survey of India, iv + 518 pp.
  • Gupta S. K. 2004. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Aculeata. Some selected fauna of Gobind Pashu Vihar, Conservation Area Series, 18 : 21-2.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Huang Jian-hua, Zhou Shan-yi. 2007. A checklist of family Formicidae of China - Myrmicinae (Part II) (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Journal of Guangxi Normal University : Natural Science Edition 25(1): 91-99.
  • Jansen G., R. Savolainen, K. Vespalainen. 2010. Phylogeny, divergence-time estimation, biogeography and social parasite–host relationships of the Holarctic ant genusMyrmica(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 294-304.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Radchenko A. G., and G. W. Elmes. 2001. A taxonomic revision of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 from the Himalaya (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomologica Basiliensia 23: 237-276.
  • Radchenko A. G., and G. W. Elmes. 2002. First descriptions of the sexual forms of seven Himalayan Myrmica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Vestnik Zoologii 36(5): 35-46.
  • Radchenko, A. G., and G. W. Elmes. "A taxonomic revision of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 from the Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Entomologica Basiliensia 23 (2001): 237-276.