Myrmicaria

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Myrmicaria
Myrmicaria melanogaster
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Myrmicaria
Saunders, W.W., 1842
Type species
Myrmicaria brunnea
Diversity
71 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Myrmicaria melanogaster casent0179018 profile 1.jpg

Myrmicaria melanogaster

Myrmicaria melanogaster casent0179018 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Solenopsidini

Stegomyrmex





Dolopomyrmex



Rogeria






Bariamyrma



Rogeria






Solenopsis




Kempfidris



Tropidomyrmex






Austromorium, Monomorium, Oxyepoecus




Megalomyrmex






Tyrannomyrmex




some Monomorium



Epelysidris







Anillomyrma



Myrmicaria





Monomorium




Syllophopsis



Adelomyrmex, Baracidris, Cryptomyrmex













Based on Ward et al., 2014

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Myrmicaria can be found throughout the Afrotropical, Oriental and Indo-Australian zoogeographical regions. In the Afrotropical region these ants seem to prefer open habitats where they can be locally quite abundant. They nest in the soil, and foraging is performed alone or in smaller groups (Levieux, 1983). Based on observations on one species (Levieux, 1983), members of the genus seem to be mostly carnivorous, with a diet consisting of a variety of insects, especially termites and ants and supplemented by homopteran honeydew.

Identification

The last revision of this genus was made by Santschi (1925)[1], outdated

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Keys including this Genus

 

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Zhangpu amber, Zhangpu County, Fujian Province, China (Miocene) (an unidentified species, Wang et al., 2021).

Biology

Zettel et al. (2018) - The taxonomy of Myrmicaria species is complicated by both interspecific uniformity of characters and intraspecific variation. Although specimens of the same colony often show little variation, differences in specimen size are considerable between colonies, and specimens of different size vary in sculptural details. Based on the Philippine samples studied, we speculate that the size of specimens depends on the age of the colony. Older and larger colonies may produce larger workers and exhibit stronger worker size polymorphism connected to division of labour, as known from other species of Myrmicaria (Kenne et al., 2000) and other myrmicine ant genera (e.g., Holbrook et al., 2011, Ferguson-Gow et al., 2014).

Association with Other Organisms

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
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Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Myrmicaria aphidicola mutualist aphid Toxoptera odinae trophobiont Calilung, 2000
Myrmicaria brunnea mutualist aphid Aphis gossypii trophobiont Lokeshwari et al., 2015; Saddiqui et al., 2019
Myrmicaria opaciventris associate (details unknown) encyrtid wasp Ooencrytus sp. associate (details unknown) Quevillon, 2018
Myrmicaria opaciventris host encyrtid wasp Ooencyrtus sp. parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmicaria opaciventris mutualist psyllid Diaphorina enderleini trophobiont Cameroon, Ethiopia Aléné et al., 2011

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: 19899 (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: not parasitic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: omnivore (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging behaviour: cooperative (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

• Antennal segment count: 7 • Antennal club: gradual-3 • Palp formula: 3,3 • Total dental count: 4-5 • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple; 0, 0 • Eyes: >100 ommatidia • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: present • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 13 • Antennal club 0 • Palp formula 3,3 • Total dental count 0 • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Myrmicaria sp.1: 2n = 44 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Myrmicaria sp.2: 2n = 44 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982; Imai et al., 1983).
  • Myrmicaria sp.3: 2n = 44 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Myrmicaria sp.4: n = 23, 2n = 46 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Myrmicaria: 2n = 44 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Myrmicaria 44 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Myrmicaria 44 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Myrmicaria 44 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982; Imai et al., 1983
Myrmicaria 23 46 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Myrmicaria brunnea 44 24M+20A India Imai et al., 1984 The photo is the ''Myrmicaria brunnea subcarinata''

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • MYRMICARIA [Myrmicinae: Myrmicariini]
    • Myrmicaria Saunders, W.W. 1842: 57. Type-species: Myrmicaria brunnea, by monotypy.
    • Myrmicaria senior synonym of Heptacondylus (and its junior synonym Physatta): Smith, F. 1865: 73.
  • HEPTACONDYLUS [junior synonym of Myrmicaria]
    • Heptacondylus Smith, F. 1857a: 71. Type-species: Heptacondylus subcarinatus, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Heptacondylus senior synonym of Physatta: Mayr, 1862: 755 (in text); Roger, 1863b: 27.
    • Heptacondylus junior synonym of Myrmicaria: Smith, F. 1865: 73.
  • PHYSATTA [junior synonym of Myrmicaria]
    • Physatta Smith, F. 1857a: 77. Type-species: Physatta dromedarius (junior synonym of Heptacondylus carinatus), by monotypy.
    • Physatta junior synonym of Heptacondylus: Mayr, 1862: 755 (in text); Roger, 1863b: 27; Mayr, 1863: 442.
    • Physatta junior synonym of Myrmicaria: Smith, F. 1865: 73.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - Workers of Vietnamese species have the following features. Worker monomorphic; head in full-face view oval or subrectangular with round posterior corners and straight posterior margin; frontal lobe in full-face view relatively large, completely concealing torulus; frontal carina indistinct or absent; antennal scrobe absent; median portion of clypeus with roundly convex anterior margin; posteromedian portion of clypeus broadly inserted between frontal lobe; median clypeal seta absent; mandible relatively narrow, with 4 teeth; antenna 7-segmented, gradually incrassate or with indistinct 3-segmented club; eye large and strongly convex laterad, located behind midlength of side of head in full-face view and relatively high on side in lateral view; mesosoma in lateral view short and high; promesonotum in lateral view a little higher than anterodorsal border of propodeum; promesonotal suture a weak or faint dorsal impression; anteroventral corner of promesonotum forming an acute angle or spine; metanotal groove weakly impressed; posterior slope of promesonotum and dorsum of propodeum margined laterally with a carina that connects with a well-developed propodeal spine; propodeal lobe absent; legs slender and long; petiole with long anterior peduncle and well-developed node; subpetiolar process absent; postpetiole in lateral view relatively long; gastral shoulder present; sting well developed.

References

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