AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Myrmoxenus
Ruzsky, 1902
Type species
Myrmoxenus gordiagini, now Temnothorax gordiagini

Myrmoxenus gordiagini casent0178548 p 1 high.jpg

Myrmoxenus gordiagini casent0178548 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

This genus is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Temnothorax.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • MYRMOXENUS [junior synonym of Temnothorax]
    • Myrmoxenus Ruzsky, 1902b: 474. Type-species: Myrmoxenus gordiagini, by monotypy.
    • Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Myrmetaerus: Buschinger, Winter & Faber, 1984: 336.
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105 [incorrect seniority].
    • Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Epimyrma: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162.
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Temnothorax: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • EPIMYRMA [junior synonym of Myrmoxenus]
    • Epimyrma Emery, 1915a: 262. Type-species: Epimyrma kraussei, by original designation.
    • Epimyrma senior synonym of Myrmoxenus (and its junior synonym Myrmetaerus): Buschinger, 1990: 245 (provisional synoynym); Bolton, 1994: 105 [incorrect seniority].
    • Epimyrma junior synonym of Myrmoxenus: Schulz & Sanetra, 2002: 162.
  • MYRMETAERUS [junior synonym of Myrmoxenus]
    • Myrmetaerus Soudek, 1925a: 33. Type-species: Myrmetaerus microcellatus (junior synonym of Myrmoxenus gordiagini), by monotypy.
    • [Myrmetaerus also described as new by Soudek, 1925b: 14.]
    • Myrmetaerus junior synonym of Camponotus: Snelling, R.R. 1981: 404 (error).
    • Myrmoxenus junior synonym of Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105.
    • Myrmetaerus junior synonym of Myrmoxenus: Buschinger, Winter & Faber, 1984: 336; Bolton, 2003: 248.


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Myrmoxenus as junior synonym of Epimyrma (seniority incorrect, Myrmoxenus has priority))
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 248, Myrmoxenus in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini)
  • Buschinger, A. 1990b. Sympatric speciation and radiative evolution of socially parasitic ants - Heretic hypotheses and their factual background. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch. 28: 241-260 (page 245, Myrmoxenus as junior synonym of Epimyrma (provisional synonym))
  • Buschinger, A.; Winter, U.; Faber, W. 1984 [1983]. The biology of Myrmoxenus gordiagini Ruzsky, a slave-making ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Psyche (Camb.) 90: 335-342 (page 336, Myrmoxenus senior synonym of Myrmetaerus)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 42, Myrmoxenus in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 262, Myrmoxenus in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 245, Myrmoxenus in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)
  • Ruzsky, M. 1902b. Neue Ameisen aus Russland. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 17: 469-484 (page 474, Myrmoxenus as genus)
  • Schulz, A.; Sanetra, M. 2002. Notes on the socially parasitic ants of Turkey and the synonymy of Epimyrma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomofauna 23(14): 157-172 (page 162, Myrmoxenus revived from synonymy and senior synonym of Epimyrma)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 139, Myrmoxenus in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 664, Myrmoxenus in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini)