Neivamyrmex kiowapache

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Neivamyrmex kiowapache
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dorylinae
Genus: Neivamyrmex
Species: N. kiowapache
Binomial name
Neivamyrmex kiowapache
Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, R.R., 2007

Neivamyrmex kiowapache casent0102762 profile 1.jpg

Neivamyrmex kiowapache casent0102762 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

No information about the biology of this species has been published. Presumably it is similar in many ways to Neivamyrmex carolinensis, a species that it was once thought to be until it was split off as a distinctive western United States form.


Snelling and Snelling (2007) - Worker: Eye lens present or replaced by eye spot; head slightly longer than broad; antennal scape barely exceeding level of eye spot; mesosomal dorsum subopaque to opaque; pronotal disc coarsely punctate between weak longitudinal rugae; pronotal side smooth and shiny; petiole in dorsal view slightly longer than broad, dorsal node weakly sculptured and shiny; postpetiole about as long as broad in dorsal view, disc smooth and shiny. Queen: Color pale yellow, Head about as broad as long; distinct yellow eyes spot present; preoccipital lobes rounded; clypeal margin straight but slightly concave in middle; Scape thickened distally, not reaching eye level; subantennal lamella absent. Dorsal surface of propodeum longer than declining face, smooth and shining with widely scattered coarse punctures.. Petiole approximately twice as broad as long, posterolateral corners of petiole well developed and angulate. Male: Head less that 1.5mm wide measured across eyes; smooth and shiny with scattered small punctures; OOD at least 1.5 x OD. Mandible blade-shaped, approximately parallel-sided and tapering to blunt tip.

This is the western form that had been identified as Neivamyrmex carolinensis by previous authors. It differs from that species in the distinctly smaller size in all castes, but most notably the sexual forms. In addition to the smaller size, the males differ from those of N. carolinensis by the relatively shorter and broader, more strongly pyriform, antennal scape. The queen differs from that of N. carolinensis by its smaller size, the presence of a distinct yellow eye spot and a prominent subpetiolar process. These differences are not great, but they are consistent. That workers of N. carolinensis and N. kiowapache are very similar is without question. In view of this similarity we would be hesitant to describe the western form based solely on the worker caste. We are fortunate to have the sexual castes as well and the differences, particularly in size, are consistent and non-overlapping and non-convergent. The westernmost samples that we have seen of N. carolinensis (from Mississippi and Arkansas) and the easternmost samples of N. kiowapache (from Kansas and eastern Texas) demonstrate no tendency toward intergradation in size or other features.

Keys including this Species


United States: Kansas, Colorado, south to Texas, west to Arizona. Mexico: Chihuahua.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States (type locality).
Neotropical Region: Mexico.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb






The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • kiowapache. Neivamyrmex kiowapache Snelling, G.C. & Snelling, R.R., 2007: 474, figs. 7, 21, 37, 52, 67, 91, 93, 97-99, 126, 138 (w.q.m.) U.S.A.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



measurements (mm) (n = 12): HW 0.45-0.81 (0.79); HL 0.55-0.83 (0.82); SL 0.28¬ 0.51 (0.51); SW 0.08-0.16 (0.16); PW 0.18-0.25 (0.25); PL 0.165-0.28 (0.28); PpL 0.19-0.29 (0.28); PpW 0.21-0.29 (0.29); HFL 0.40-0.74 (0.71); HFW 0.11-0.21 (0.16). Indices: CI 87-100 (96); FI 21¬27 (23); SI 51-62 (63).

Head: slightly longer than broad, sides weakly convex in frontal view and narrowing above; vertex corners rounded and preoccipital carina weakly developed at angle. Front of head shiny between scattered fine punctures; yellow eye spot present. Antennal scape barely exceeding level of eye spot, about 3.2 x longer than wide. Subantennal lamella prominent across median 0.33 of antennal fossa. Mandible triangular, upper margin acutely angulate at juncture with masticatory margin, latter with three or more small indistinct teeth, but tooth at juncture distinct.

Mesosoma: dorsum sub-opaque to opaque, pronotal disc coarsely puncture between weak longitudinal rugae; pronotal side smooth and shiny. Promesonotal suture indistinct; promesonotum slightly convex in profile, disc moderately shiny, with sparse coarse punctures, interspaces weakly to moderately sculptured. Propodeum slightly depressed below mesonotum, disc and sides granulate; dorsal face about as long as slightly concave declivitous face.

Petiole in dorsal view slightly longer than broad, dorsal face lightly granulate and shiny, sides weakly longitudinally striate, shiny; subpetiolar tooth minute. Postpetiole about as long as broad in dorsal view, smooth and shiny.

Gaster smooth and shiny, with abundant long semi-erect hairs.


measurements (mm) (n = 8): HW 1.21-1.26; HL 1.16-1.24; SL 0.47-0.54; SW 0.18¬0.22; PW 0.61-0.68; ML 0.57-0.64. Indices: CI 105; SI 46.

Head a little broader than long, sides convex in frontal view and dorsolateral corners rounded; front of head smooth and shiny between numerous small punctures. Clypeal free margin mostly straight, but slightly concave in middle. Mandible blade-shaped, about half as long as head, with strong convexity at midpoint of inner margin, tapering to sharp apex. Scape thickened distally, not reaching level of eye-spot. Frontal carinae low and rounded; frons with deep median groove from base of clypeus to about level of eye-spot. Subantennal lamella absent.

Mesosoma. Pronotum rounded anteriorly in dorsal view; promesonotal suture indistinct; promesonotum in side view arched, but mesonotum slightly concave; metanotal suture distinct; all segments smooth and shiny. Dorsal face of propodeum longer than declivitous face, smooth and shiny between scattered coarse punctures.

Petiole smooth and shiny, about twice as wide as long; posterolateral corners well developed and angulate; subpetiolar process well-developed and triangular in profile.

Gaster smooth and shiny.

Pilosity of head consisting of scattered long erect hairs among more numerous shorter curved hairs; anterior margin of pronotum with scattered curled hairs among more numerous shorter erect hairs; gastral terga 1-4 with hairs along posterior margins, segment 5 with short hairs over entire surface.

Color uniformly pale yellow.


measurements (mm) (n = 2): HW 1.1-1.3; HL 0.79-0.81; ML 0.15-0.17; SL 0.42-0.45; SW 0.18-0.22; EL 0.50-0.54 (0.54); EW 0.37-0.44; OD 0.16-0.18; OOD 0.26-0.29; IOD 0.34; OMD 0.07-0.12; PW 1.135. Indices: CI 150 SI 36

Head about twice as wide as long, dorsolateral corners rounded into preoccipital margin, not projecting; frons smooth and shiny; surface between lateral ocelli flat. Free margin of clypeus slightly concave. Frontal carinae sharp below, becoming rounded above, curving lateral to form moderate swelling above antennal fossae; frontal area with deep elongate groove. Mandible blade-shaped, approximately parallel-sided and tapering to blunt tip. Scape somewhat pyriform.

Mesosomal dorsum with dense fine punctures and widely scattered coarser punctures, only slightly shiny; sides shiny between scattered large punctures.

Petiole about twice as wide as long, posterolateral corners broadly rounded; densely punctate and slightly shiny.

Gaster: segments slightly shiny between dense fine punctures. Subgenital plate shovel-like, with strongly convex sides, lateral teeth large, median tooth broadly triangular. Paramere blade-shaped in profile, sides parallel before abruptly angling to sharp narrow tip, with broad shoulder at angle. Aedeagus in profile with apically rounded posterodorsal lobe and slightly longer out-turned sharply pointed posteroventral lobe. Volsella narrow basad, becoming broader at slightly angulate preapical curve; outer face without apical tubercles; numerous hairs along ventral margin and outer face.

Color: Head, mesosoma and appendages black; gaster reddish brown; wings clear brown.

Type Material

Holotype and numerous paratypes, U.S.A., Colorado, Jefferson Co., Red Rock Park, 5 May 1999 (L. Davis). Holotype and most paratypes in Museum of Comparative Zoology; paratypes in The Natural History Museum, California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, LDPC, University of California, Davis, National Museum of Natural History.


The name is derived from a combination of the names of two great Native American nations, the Kiowa of the midwestern states and the Apache of the southwestern states, a reflection of the broad distribution of this species.

Determination Clarifications

Snelling and Snelling (2007) - Specimens from Nebraska and Louisiana were recorded by M. R. Smith (1942) as N. carolinensis, but we have been unable to locate these specimens and cannot comment with certainty as to their identity. Based solely on distribution, we assume that the Nebraska record will prove to be referable to N. kiowapache. The Louisiana record remains problematic until the specimens can be examined. Rettenmeyer & Watkins (1978) noted the presence of multiple queens in a colony from Kansas identified as N. carolinensis. We have examined samples from this colony and find that they belong to N. kiowapache. In addition to the Kansas material cited in the paper, there were four samples from Georgia and South Carolina. We presume these samples to be true N. carolinensis, but were unable to examine the material during the course of this study, This phenomenon may be common, if not consistent, in both N. carolinensis and N. kiowapache judging from the number of occurrences reported.

Neivamyrmex carolinensis: Borgmeier, 1955: 507-511. Misidentification, in part. Watkins, 1976: 16, 27. Misidentification, in part. Watkins, 1985: 483, 485. Misidentification, in part. MacKay et al., 1985: 611 Misidentification MacKay & MacKay, 2002: 43, 45, 48, (w, m). Misidentification


  • Snelling, G. C.; Snelling, R. R. 2007. New synonymy, new species, new keys to Neivamyrmex army ants of the United States. In Snelling, R. R., B. L. Fisher, and P. S. Ward (eds). Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:459-550. PDF