Odontomachus monticola

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Odontomachus monticola
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ponerinae
Tribe: Ponerini
Genus: Odontomachus
Species: O. monticola
Binomial name
Odontomachus monticola
Emery, 1892

Odontomachus monticola casent0179010 profile 1.jpg

Odontomachus monticola casent0179010 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms
Common Name
Agito-ari
Language: Japanese

Odontomachus monticola is widespread in Asia, including India, Myanmer, mainland China and Taiwan. In China, its range extends north of Beijing to beyond 40 degrees N latitude (Teranishi, 1936, the species there reported as O. haematodus Linnaeus; see also Yasumatsu, 1962). In Japan, O. monticola were originally confined to the southwestern part of the country. Nevertheless, their habitat range has expanded to Tokyo due to climate change over the last few decades. They use their powerful stings to prey upon termites. Although they are not aggressive toward humans, their stings cause intense pain and prolonged itching (Kazuma et al., 2017). Nests are found under stones and in rotten wood. When escaping, workers will often jump backwards for some centimeters propelled by the force of their jaws snapping on the ground. On Yaku Island, Japan, it occurs at altitudes as high as 1200 m (Japanese Ant Image Database).

Identification

A member of the Odontomachus rixosus group.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar (type locality), Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China, Japan.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Odontomachus monticola venom sting, sac, and gland: B - venom sac and gland dissected from the abdomen, C - venom sac and gland of panel B magnified.

Kazuma et al (2017) examined the composition of the venom of this ant through both transcriptomic and peptidomic analyses. They found: The transcriptome analysis yielded 49,639 contigs, of which 92 encoded toxin-like peptides and proteins with 18,106,338 mapped reads. We identified six pilosulin-like peptides by transcriptomic analysis in the venom gland. Further, we found intact pilosulin-like peptide 1 and truncated pilosulin-like peptides 2 and 3 by peptidomic analysis in the venom.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • monticola. Odontomachus monticola Emery, 1892d: 560 (diagnosis in key) (w.) MYANMAR.
    • Type-material: lectotype worker (by designation of Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 104), 4 paralectotype workers
    • Type-locality: lectotype Myanmar: Carin Checù, 1300-1400 m., ii.-iii.1888 (L. Fea); paralectotypes: 2 workers with same data, 2 workers Myanmar: Carin Asciuii Chebà, 800-1400 m., xii.1887 (L. Fea).
    • Type-depositories: MSNG (lectotype); MHNG, MSNG (paralectotypes).
    • Emery, 1895k: 463 (q.); Ogata, 1987: 126 (m.).
    • Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 51; Emery, 1895k: 463 (redescription); Forel, 1900c: 58; Bingham, 1903: 48; Emery, 1911d: 114; Forel, 1913e: 659; Wheeler, W.M. 1913e: 233; Santschi, 1920h: 159; Santschi, 1924c: 97; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44; Yasumatsu, 1962: 93; Brown, 1976a: 105, 157; Onoyama, 1980: 196; Morisita, et al. 1989: 29; Terayama, 1989a: 28; Wang, M. 1992: 678; Wu, J. & Wang, 1992: 1301; Wang, M. 1993a: 220 (in key); Radchenko, 1993a: 77; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Wu, J. & Wang, 1995: 34; Tang, J., Li, et al. 1995: 31; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000: 289; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Zhang, W. & Zheng, 2002: 218; Imai, et al. 2003: 212; Lin & Wu, 2003: 67; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 29; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102 (redescription); Terayama, 2009: 116; Zhou & Ran, 2010: 106; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 56; Jaitrong, Guénard, et al. 2016: 42; Chen, Shi & Zhou, 2018: 6 (in key).
    • Senior synonym of formosae: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93; Brown, 1976a: 105; Onoyama, 1980: 196; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Imai, et al. 2003: 212; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102; Terayama, 2009: 116; Guénard & Dunn, 2012: 60; Bharti, Guénard, et al. 2016: 52.
    • Senior synonym of hainanensis: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
    • Senior synonym of longi: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
    • Senior synonym of major: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102; Terayama, 2009: 116.
    • Senior synonym of pauperculus: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93; Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
    • Senior synonym of punctulatus: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
    • Senior synonym of striata: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 104.
    • Distribution: China, India, Japan, Laos, Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
  • formosae. Odontomachus monticola var. formosae Forel, 1912a: 46 (w.q.m.) TAIWAN.
    • Type-material: syntype workers, syntype queens, syntype males (numbers not stated).
    • Type-localities: Taiwan (“Formosa”): Kankan, Pilam, and Kosempo (H. Sauter).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Subspecies of monticola: Forel, 1913f: 183; Santschi, 1925f: 82; Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 59; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 61; Teranishi, 1940: 61; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44.
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93; Brown, 1976a: 105; Onoyama, 1980: 196; Bolton, 1995b: 295; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Imai, et al. 2003: 212; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102; Terayama, 2009: 116.
  • hainanensis. Odontomachus monticola var. hainanensis Stitz, 1925: 115, fig. 3 (w.) CHINA (Hainan I.).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: China: Hainan (Schoede).
    • Type-depository: MNHU.
    • Subspecies of monticola: Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 61; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44.
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 295; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
  • longi. Odontomachus monticola var. longi Forel, 1900c: 58 (w.) INDIA (Assam, Meghalaya).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-localities: India: Assam (Long), and India: Assam, Garo Hills, CI/6 (Long).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Subspecies of monticola: Bingham, 1903: 49; Forel, 1911d: 379; Emery, 1911d: 114; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44.
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
  • major. Odontomachus monticola var. major Forel, 1913f: 183 (w.) TAIWAN.
    • Type-material: 4 syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Taiwan (“Formosa”): Taihorin (H. Sauter).
    • Type-depository: MHNG, MSNG.
    • Subspecies of monticola: Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 59; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44.
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102; Terayama, 2009: 116.
  • pauperculus. Odontomachus monticola subsp. pauperculus Wheeler, W.M. 1921c: 530 (w.) CHINA (Zhejiang).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: China: Mokanshan (N.G. Gee).
    • Type-depository: MCZC.
    • Subspecies of monticola: Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 61; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 45.
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Yasumatsu, 1962: 93; Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 296; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
  • punctulatus. Odontomachus monticola r. punctulatus Forel, 1900c: 58 (w.) INDIA (Assam).
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: India: Assam, LXI’X/7 (Pennington).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Status as species: Bingham, 1903: 49; Emery, 1911d: 114; Wheeler, W.M. 1928c: 8; Mukerjee, 1930: 149; Wheeler, W.M. 1930h: 61; Wu, C.F. 1941: 149; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 45; Mathew & Tiwari, 2000: 290 (error).
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 297; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 102.
  • striata. Odontomachus latidens susbp. striata Menozzi, 1930d: 329 (w.) CHINA (Hong Kong).
    • Type-material: holotype queen.
    • Type-locality: China: Hong Kong (H. Eidmann).
    • Type-depository: IEUB.
    • Subspecies of latidens: Chapman & Capco, 1951: 44.
    • Junior synonym of monticola: Brown, 1976a: 105; Bolton, 1995b: 297; Zhou, 2001b: 26; Yoshimura, Onoyama & Ogata, 2007: 104.

Description

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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