Oxyopomyrmex oculatus

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Oxyopomyrmex oculatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Oxyopomyrmex
Species: O. oculatus
Binomial name
Oxyopomyrmex oculatus
André, 1881

Oxyopomyrmex oculatus casent0101775 profile 1.jpg

Oxyopomyrmex oculatus casent0101775 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Workers have been found under olive tree bark (André 1881) and on olive trees (Tohmé & Tohmé 2014).

Identification

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - Worker. Oxyopomyrmex oculatus belongs to the species group that has distinctly punctate propodeum. It is distinguished from O. emeryi and Oxyopomyrmex negevensis by the lack of transverse striation on dorsal surface of the pronotum. Moreover, it can be distinguished from O. emeryi by the more rugulose genae and the darker body colouration and from O. negevensis it differs by having the shiny dorsal surface of the first abdominal tergite and the more dense and thicker hairiness at the scape and legs; from Oxyopomyrmex polybotesi and Oxyopomyrmex pygmalioni it differs in the lack of the rugosity and longitudinal striae on dorsal surface and edges of the promesonotum.

Gyne. Oxyopomyrmex oculatus is easily distinguished from Oxyopomyrmex emeryi, Oxyopomyrmex magnus, Oxyopomyrmex saulcyi and Oxyopomyrmex krueperi by the presence of rugosity on the gena, from Oxyopomyrmex nigripes it differs by having the longitudinal striae at its gena limited only to the posterior edge and the distinct punctation at the entire surface of its petiole and postpetiole.

Male. Oxyopomyrmex oculatus is the only one known species with a distinct punctation occurring at the entire surface of scutum and scutellum (except three smooth stripes at the scutum). Only a few sparse longitudinal striae occur at the posterior edge of the scutum. In the rest of the known Oxyopomyrmex males the surface of the scutum and scutellum is covered mainly by striation and the punctation, if present, is limited to a small area.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Syria.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Israel (type locality), Lebanon, Syrian Arab Republic.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • oculatus. Oxyopomyrmex oculatus André, 1881b: 73, pl. 3, figs. 1-3 (w.) ISRAEL.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=22): HL: 0.649 ± 0.024 (0.592-0.682); HW: 0.606 ± 0.022 (0.556-0.637); SL: 0.484 ± 0.021 (0.444-0.514); EL: 0.251 ± 0.036 (0.223-0.369); EW: 0.134 ± 0.004 (0.126-0.145); ML: 0.782 ± 0.03 (0.743-0.838); PSL: 0.155 ± 0.015 (0.123-0.173); SDL: 0.114 ± 0.008 (0.101-0.128); PL: 0.27 ± 0.02 (0.235-0.304); PPL: 0.179 ± 0.013 (0.156-0.201); PH: 0.192 ± 0.009 (0.18-0.212); PPH: 0.191 ± 0.008 (0.179-0.212); PNW: 0.4 ± 0.016 (0.374-0.436); TL: 0.531 ± 0.029 (0.48-0.581); TW: 0.073 ± 0.007 (0.061-0.084); PW: 0.147 ± 0.007 (0.134-0.162); PPW: 0.216 ± 0.014 (0.196-0.245); HI: 93.3 ± 1.0 (91.5-94.9); SI1: 74.5 ± 0.8 (72.7-75.8); EI: 55.8 ± 2.0 (52.1-57.0); SI2: 79.9 ± 1.2 (77.8-81.6); MI: 195.8 ± 7.0 (186.3-208.8); SPI: 135.3 ± 13.9 (112.8-160.4); PI1: 138.3 ± 12.1 (121.2-146.8); PI2: 36.5 ± 2.3 (33.3-41.1); PPI1: 95.1 ± 8.9 (82.1-105.8); PPI2: 85.5 ± 2.2 (82.2-89.2); HTI1: 87.6 ± 1.8 (84.2-91.2); HTI2: 13.8 ± 0.9 (12.2-15.0).

Head, thorax and abdomen brown. Antennal scapes brown to yellowish brown at the apex, funiculus uniformly yellowish brown. Mandibles brown to pale brown. Femora brown to yellowish brown at the edges, tibiae pale brown to yellowish brow, tarsi yellowish brown.

Head oval, longer than wide. Anterior margin of the clypeus smooth and slightly curved downward. Eyes elongate, gently narrowing downward, reaching anteroventral margin of head, 0.4 times as long as length of the head. Scape short, 0.8 times as long as width of the head, at base 0.5 times as wide as in apex, gradually widened, slightly bent downward. Funiculus short, 1.7 times as long as scape, first segment elongate, triangular, 1.0 times as long as wide on apex, 1.0 times as long as second segment, length ratio of segments 100:50:35:35:40:40:60:80:100:190, apical segments 1.6 times as wide as basal segments. Surface of the scape with very fine microsculpture, shiny, covered with short and semierect setae.

Promesonotum 1.2 times as long as wide, gently convex in profile. Promesonotal suture distinct, the border between dorsal and posterior surfaces of the promesonotum gently curved in profile view. Propodeum quadrate, 1.0 times as long as wide, propodeal spines short, triangular, rising obliquely upwards. Petiole rounded with short peduncle, its anterior face straight, node angulated in profile. Posterior face slightly rounded. Ventral margin of petiole straight. Postpetiole regularly rounded in profile. Postpetiole 1.0 times as long as wide in dorsal view, regularly widened from base to top, apical half with gently rounded sides.

Mandibles rounded, with outer and dorsal edges straight and smooth, inner margin 7-8 small teeth, the apical tooth massive and long. Clypeus on entire surface microreticulate and shiny. Frontal carinae short, extending to upper edge of antennal fossa, antennal fossa deeply impressed, shiny, frontal lobes with thin longitudinal striae, rugulose, shiny between rugosities. Frons shiny, with longitudinal striae and rugulose in central part, lateral surfaces rugulose. Area above eyes shiny and distinctly rugulose, tempora and ventral surface of the head microgranulate, gena slightly rugulose to microgranulate (Figs. 56, 57). Entire head bearing setae, posterior margin with sparse erect setae directed forward, lateral surfaces of the head with appressed setae directed toward anterior margin, frontal area with sparse, appressed to semierect setae placed transversely, directed to the center of the head, ventral surface of the head with a prominent psammophore and appressed to erect long setae. Pronotum shiny, finely punctate on the entire surface. Dorsal suface of pronotum shiny and punctate. Mesonotum punctate on entire surface, propodeum punctate, with a few longitudinal striae below spiracles (Figs. 55, 56). Dorsal suface of mesosoma with at least five thin and long setae in theon anterior half, mesonotum and anterior propodeum with a few setae. Base of petiole and postpetiole punctate on the entire surface, nodes punctate, shiny with sparse punctation on the top, covered with sparse setae. Gaster shiny micropunctae or shagreened, bearing sparse, erect setae.

Legs short, hind femora 0.8 times as long as mesosoma length, hind tibia 0.7 times as long as hind femora, hind tarsi 1.4 times as long as hind femora. Dorsal surface of femora with short, sparse, appressed pubescence, inner margin with a row of the sparse, short, appressed setae, tibiae bearing short, appressed pubescence on the entire surface.

Queen

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=1): HL: 0.804; HW: 0.777; SL: 0.558; EL: 0.268; EW: 0.179; ML: 1.337; PSL: 0.257; SDL: 0.168; PL: 0.439; PPL: 0.268; PH: 0.257; PPH: 0.307; PNW: 0.715; TL: 0.637; TW: 0.123; PNH: 0.302; PW: 0.235; PPW: 0.223; HI: 96.6; SI1: 69.4; EI: 66.8; SI2: 71.8; MI: 187.0; SPI: 153.0; PI1: 170.8; PI2: 117.2; PPI1: 31.2; PPI2: 31.2; HTI1: 82.0; HTI2: 19.3.

Whole body black to dark brown, only mandibles partly reddish, Antennal scapes brown to pale brown on the apex, funiculus pale brown. Mandibles brown to pale brown. Legs pale brown, tarsi pale brown to yellowish brown.

Head oval, longer than wide, lateral surfaces below eyes straight, gently rounded on the posterior edges. Anterior margin of the clypeus softly convex. Eyes longitudinal, strongly narrowing downward, reaching anteroventral margin of head, 0.3 times as long as length of the head. Ocelli large. Scape short, 0.7 times as long as width of the head, at base 0.6 times as wide as in apex then gradually widened without preapical constriction. Funiculus short, 1.6 times as long as scape, first segment elongate, triangular, 1.8 times as long as wide on apex, 2.2 times as long as second segment, length ratio of segments 100:45:36:36:36:50:59:86:91:200, apical segments 1.75 times as wide as basal segments. Surface of the scape with very fine microsculpture, shiny, covered with short, dense, appressed to semierect setae.

Mesosoma 1.7 times as long as head, relatively high and robust, very feeble convex with rounded pronotal corners in profile view. Scutum 0.8 times as wide as long, posterior margin regularly semicircular. Propodeum located considerably lower than mesosomal plate, propodeal spines short rising obliquely upwards and triangular. Petiole sharply rounded with short peduncle, its anterior face straight, node sharply rounded on dorsal surface, posterior face slightly concave. Ventral margin of petiole straight with smooth tooth-like lobe. Postpetiole in profile regularly rounded. In dorsal view postpetiole 0.9 times as long as wide, regularly widened from base to top, apical half with gently rounded sides.

Mandibles rounded with distinct longitudinally striation, shiny, inner margin with 7-8 teeth, the apical tooth massive and the longest. Clypeus with longitudinal striae, shiny. Frontal carinae short, extending to 1/3 length of eye; antennal fossa deeply impressed, microreticulate, frontal lobes rugulose with thick longitudinal striae, shiny between rugosities. Frons shiny, all surface with thick longitudinal striae and sparse rugulose. Area above eyes sparse rugulose, shiny with thick longitudinal striae slightly bent outward at the outer surface. Ventral surface of the head with fine striation and rugulose, gena shiny, finely rugulose with a few longitudinal striae at the posterior edge. Entire head bearing setae, posterior margin with sparse erect setae directed forward, lateral surfaces of the head with sparse appressed to semierect setae directed toward anterior margin, frontal area with sparse, appressed to semierect setae placed transversely, directed to the center of the head, ventral surface of the head with a prominent psammophore and appressed to erect long setae. Sides of the pronotum and anepisternum rugulose with weak longitudinal striae, katepisternum finely rugulose with oblique striation directed downward, metanepisternum, metakatepisternum and lateral surfaces of the propodeum with distinct longitudinal striae, microreticulate and shiny. Scutum with dense longitudinal striae. Scutellum with longitudinal striae, shiny and smooth between them. Metanotum punctate and dull. Propodeum rugulose with transverse and longitudinal striae in anterior half of lateral surfaces, rugulose with longitudinal striae in posterior half of lateral surfaces. Area between propodeal spines shiny and micropunctate. Dorsal suface of propodeum transversely and diffusely carinate, transversely reticulo-striate between and below the spines. Dorsal suface of mesosoma with dense, semierect to erect, long setae on anterior half, anterior propodeum with a few long setae. Base of petiole and postpetiole rugulose to punctate on the entire surface, nodes of the petiole punctate on the top and lateral surfaces, postpetiole node punctate, sparser punctation on the top, shiny. Gaster shiny with sparse micropunctation, bearing sparse, short, appressed to semierect setae.

Legs short, hind femora 0.7 times as long as mesosoma length, hind tibia 0.7 times as long as hind femora, hind tarsi 1.1 times as long as hind femora. Dorsal surface of femora with short, sparse, semierect setae, inner margin with a row of the sparse, long, appressed to semierect setae, tibiae bearing long, semierect setae on the entire surface, inner margins with a row of semierect setae.

Male

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=2): HL: 0.48-0.581; HW: 0.458-0.547; SL: 0.273-0.346; EL: 0.212-0.251; EW: 0.162-0.19; ML: 1.027-1.514; PSL: 0.19; SDL: 0.19; PL: 0.458; PPL: -; PH: 0.223; PPH: -; PNW: 0.682-0.866; TL: 0.668-0.827; TW: 0.067-0.089; PW: -; PPW: -; HI: 94.1-95.4; SI1: 56.9-59.6; EI: 75.7-76.4; SI2: 59.6-63.3; MI: 150.6-174.8; SPI: 100.0; PI1: 205.4; PI2: -; PPI1: -; PPI2: -; HTI1: 145.8-151.2; HTI2: 10.0-10.8.

Whole body uniformly black. Antennae and legs dark brown. Mandibles black to dark brown.

Head oval, longer than wide, lateral surfaces below eyes straight, rounded on the posterior edges. Anterior margin of the clypeus straight. Eyes oval, 0.4 times as long as length of the head. Ocelli large. Antenna with 12 segments. Scape short, 0.6 times as long as width of the head, at base 0.7 times as wide as in apex, straight. Funiculus short, 3.4 times as long as scape, first segment elongate, triangular, 0.5 times as long as wide on apex, 0.9 times as long as second segment, length ratio of segments 100:114:54:54:63:63:81:81:86:91:163, apical segments 0.8 times as wide as basal segments. Surface of the scape with very fine microsculpture, shiny, covered with short, dense, semierect to erect setae.

Mesosoma 2.6 times as long as head, relatively high and robust, very feeble convex with rounded pronotal corners in profile. Scutum 0.9 times as wide as long, posterior margin regularly semicircular. Propodeum located considerably lower than mesosomal plate, propodeal spines lobe-like, short. Petiole rounded with long peduncle, its anterior face straight, node slightly rounded on dorsal surface, posterior face slightly convex. Ventral margin of petiole straight without lobe. Postpetiole regularly rounded in profile view. Postpetiole regularly widened from base to top in dorsal view, apical half with gently rounded sides.

Mandibles elongate with longitudinal striae, shiny, inner margin with 4-5 teeth, the apical tooth massive and the longest. Clypeus with longitudinal striae, shiny. Frontal carinae curved outward to merge with the rugae that surround antennal sockets; antennal fossa impressed, shiny and rugulose, frontal lobes punctate with longitudinal striae, shiny between rugosities. Frons punctate with longitudinal striae in central part to punctate towards eyes, area above eyes and ventral surface of the head punctate, gena shiny, punctate to micropunctate. Entire head bearing setae, posterior margin with dense, very long semierect to erect setae directed forward, lateral surfaces of the head with dense, long, semierect setae directed toward anterior margin, frontal area with dense, semierect to erect, long setae placed transversely, directed toward center of the head, ventral surface of the head with a prominent psammophore and appressed to erect long setae.

Sides of the pronotum punctate with longitudinal striae, anepisternum smooth to punctate with longitudinal striae, katepisternum smooth to punctate with oblique striation directed downward, metanepisternum smooth to micropunctate, metakatepisternum smooth to punctate with longitudinal striae at the posterior edge. Scutum distinctly punctate with a few longitudinal striae at the outer surface, except three longitudinal stripes located at the centre and outer edges of the scutum which are smooth and shiny with a fine longitudinal striae. Central stripe wide, narrowing toward central part, reach only half of the length of the scutum. Scutellum punctate. Propodeum punctate on lateral surfaces, area between propodeal spines shiny and smooth. Dorsal suface of propodeum punctate, punctate to smooth and shiny between and below the spines. Dorsal suface of mesosoma with dense, long, erect setae in theon anterior half, anterior propodeum without setae. Base of petiole and postpetiole on the entire surface punctate, nodes of the petiole punctate on lateral surfaces, dorsal surface of the petiole node punctate, postpetiole node punctate, punctate to micropunctate on the top. Gaster shiny with sparse micropunctation, bearing sparse, long, semierect to erect setae.

Legs short, hind femora 0.6 times as long as mesosoma length, hind tibia 0.9 times as long as hind femora, hind tarsi 1.3 times as long as hind femora. Dorsal surface of femora with several, short, semierect setae, inner margin with a row of the sparse, long, semierect setae, tibiae bearing long, appressed to semierect setae on the entire surface, inner margins with a row of appressed to semierect setae.

Type Material

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - Rishon le Zion n. Jaffa, Israel. Neotype worker (present designation): 1 worker—Rishon le Zion PALESTINE 10.III.1942 Bytlinski-Salz ISRAEL Rishon LeZion 53 m, 31°58’ N/34°46’ E, 03.1942 leg. Bytlinski-Salz (Tel Aviv University Entomological Collection).

The type specimen of the O. oculatus is lost. In André’s collection (Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle), at the place where the type specimen is supposed to be, a label with information that the type of O. oculatus has been lost is pinned. According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (article 75.3.4, 75.3.6), due to the possibility of misinterpretation of cryptic species in the genus Oxyopomyrmex, we decided to designate a neotype, which comes from a locality situated 6 km at the south-west from the type locality noted by André (1881).

References