Every Ant Tells a Story - And Their Stories Are Here
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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae
Genus: Pachysima
Emery, 1912
Type species
Tetraponera aethiops

MCZ ENT Tetraponera-aethiops hal.jpg

MCZ ENT Tetraponera-aethiops had.jpg

Specimen Label

This genus is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Tetraponera.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • PACHYSIMA [junior synonym of Tetraponera]
    • Pachysima Emery, 1912b: 97 [as subgenus of Sima]. Type-species: Tetraponera aethiops, by monotypy.
    • Pachysima raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1918c: 308 (footnote); Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 112, 654.
    • Pachysima subgenus of Sima: Emery, 1921f: 22.
    • Pachysima junior synonym of Tetraponera: Ward, 1990: 470.


  • Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 159-270 (page 174, Pachysima as subgenus of Sima)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 136, Pachysima as junior synonym of Tetraponera )
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 183, Pachysima as junior synonym of Tetraponera (provisional))
  • Emery, C. 1912b. Études sur les Myrmicinae. [I-IV.]. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 56: 94-105 (page 97, Pachysima as subgenus of Sima)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 22, Pachysima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini; Pachysima as subgenus of Sima)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 240, Pachysima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini)
  • Ward, P. S. 1990. The ant subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): generic revision and relationship to other formicids. Syst. Entomol. 15: 449-489 (page 470, Pachysima as junior synonym of Tetraponera )
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1918c. A study of some ant larvae, with a consideration of the origin and meaning of the social habit among insects. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 57: 293-343 (page 308, Pachysima as genus (footnote))
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 112, 654, Pachysima in Pseudomyrminae; Pachysima as genus )