Parasites and Parasitoids

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A parasite is an organism that lives in or on another species (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense, resulting in the death of the host. A parasitoid is an insect whose larvae live as parasites that eventually kill their hosts (typically other insects).

This differs from social parasitism, where the "parasite" does not feed directly on their host, but rather benefits from exploiting the host's colony.

Diptera

Chloropidae

Gonzalez et al. (2016) found that Pseudogaurax paratolmos, a fly in the family Chloropidae, parasitizes larvae of Apterostigma dentigerum. Larval flies are solitary ectoparasitoids, each of which attaches to a single ant larva and develops from larva to pupa in 2 wk, consuming nearly the entire host, and then ecloses as an adult 1 wk later. Overall parasitism prevalence was 6.8% of 203 nests, and flies were active during both the dry and rainy seasons. Intensity of parasitism ranged from 18.2 to 100% of larvae attacked per parasitized nest. No other species of Apterostigma that nested in the same localities were parasitized by the flies, including Apterostigma pilosum (n = 93 nests) and Apterostigma auriculatum (n = 10 nests). All immature ants, parasitized or not, as well as immature stages of Pseudogaurax paratolmos, were attended by adult ants that exhibited normal brood care behavior, including covering immatures with mycelia, grooming, and maintaining brood in the fungus garden.

Phoridae

See Phorid Flies for further details.

List of Ants Known to Host Phorid Flies

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Pachycondyla harpax Apocephalus sp. Wheeler and Wheeler, 1952
Pachycondyla harpax Metopina pachycondylae Wheeler and Wheeler, 1952
Solenopsis geminata Pseudacteon bifidus Porter et al. 2018

Hymenoptera

Agaonidae

The family Agaonidae is a group of pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps. They spend their larval stage inside the fruits of figs. The pollinating wasps (Agaoninae, Kradibiinae, and Tetrapusiinae) are the mutualistic partners of the fig trees. The non-pollinating fig wasps are parasitic.

List of Ants Known to Host Agaonid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Crematogaster scutellaris Blastophaga psenes Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Aphelinidae

The Aphelinidae are a moderate-sized family of tiny parasitic wasps, with about 1160 described species in some 35 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack pupae, and others are hyperparasites). Males and females may have different hosts and different life histories. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.

List of Ants Known to Host Aphelinid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus nylanderi Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Coccophagus chaetosus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Coccophagus saltator Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Coccophagus tetrastichoides Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster dohrni Coccophagus saltator Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus Coccophagus pumilus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus thoracicus Coccophagus diminutus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus thoracicus Coccophagus pumilus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aerata Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Cales noacki Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Eretmocerus sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Solenopsis xyloni Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Tapinoma erraticum Aphytis melinus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Chalcididae

The Chalcididae are a moderate-sized family within the Chalcidoidea, composed mostly of parasitoids and a few hyperparasitoids. As presently defined, there are over 85 genera and over 1460 species worldwide.

List of Ants Known to Host Chalcid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus compressus Epitranus chilkaensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Oecophylla smaragdina Smicromorpha doddi Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Oecophylla smaragdina Smicromorpha keralensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Oecophylla smaragdina Smicromorpha masneri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Pheidole titanis Notaspidium sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Diapriidae

The Diapriidae are a family of parasitoid wasps. These tiny insects have an average length of 2–4 mm and never exceed 8 mm. They typically attack larvae and pupae of a wide range of insects, especially flies. The about 2,300 described species in 150 genera occur world-wide.

List of Ants Known to Host Diapriid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Acromyrmex ambiguus Gymnopria lucens Brazil, Uruguay Loiacono, 1987; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lobicornis Szelenyiopria pampeana Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lobicornis Trichopria formicans Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lundii Bruchopria hexatoma Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Acromyrmex lundii Doliopria myrmecobia Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton Szelenyiopria sp. Loiacono, 1987; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton burchellii Doliopria collegii Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton dulcium Notoxoides pronotalis Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton quadriglume Doliopria collegii Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Eciton quadriglume Szelenyiopria reichenspergeri Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Linepithema humile Basalys sp. Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Linepithema humile Trichopria sp. Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex carettei Asolenopsia rufa Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex legionis Szelenyiopria reichenspergeri Brazil, Argentina Loiacono, 1987; Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex pseudops Notoxoides pedissequus Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Neivamyrmex sulcatus Notaxoides pronatalis Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis richteri Bruchopria hexatoma Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis richteri Bruchopria pentatoma Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis richteri Trichopria myrmecophila Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016
Solenopsis saevissima Pentapria cf. nodicornis Argentina Loiacono, 2013; Gonzalez et al., 2016

Encyrtidae

Encyrtidae is a large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3710 described species in about 455 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack larvae, others are hyperparasites, and some Encyrtidae develop as parasitoids of ticks). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.

List of Ants Known to Host Encyrtid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Azteca xanthochroa Aenasius tachigaliae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus Arketypon vaderi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus acvapimensis Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus brutus Ooencyrtus sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus flavomarginatus Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus nylanderi Leptomastix dactylopii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Aenasius tachigaliae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Astymachus phainae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Encyrtus ingae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Encyrtus ludmilae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster Metaphycus monastyrskii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster curvispinosa Aenasius tachigaliae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster dohrni Encyrtus ingae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster luctans Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus Microterys roseni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus thoracicus Microterys roseni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Iridomyrmex rufoniger Ananusia longiscapus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Anicetus beneficus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Bothriothorax intermedius Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Syrphophagus aphidivorus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lepisiota capensis Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Comperiella bifasciata Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Leptomastix dactylopii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Metaphycus anneckei Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Metaphycus hageni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Linepithema humile Metaphycus lounsburyi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Monomorium Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmica rubra Syrphophagus aphidivorus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmicaria opaciventris Ooencyrtus sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Neoponera goeldii Blanchardiscus pollux Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ochetellus glaber Ananusia australis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Oecophylla longinoda Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Oecophylla smaragdina Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole Holcencyrtus wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Anagyrus ananatis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Anagyrus lopezi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Anagyrus saccharicola Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala Blepyrus schwarzi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole tepicana Holcencyrtus wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Solenopsis xyloni Comperiella bifasciata Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Tapinoma erraticum Leptomastix dactylopii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Eucharitidae

Parasitic eucharitid wasp.

The Eucharitidae are a family of parasitic wasps and are members of the superfamily Chalcidoidea with 55 genera and 417 species. They are found in tropical regions of the world.

Eucharitids are specialized parasitoids of ants, with each species usually only parasitic of one genus of ant. They are one of the few parasitoids that have been able to use ants as hosts, despite ants’ effective defence systems against most parasitoids. Eucharitid parasitism occurs year-round, with a majority of it occurring during hot and humid months. However, the amount of parasitism that occurs depends primarily on the size of the ant colony and the number of host pupae in them, and not on the season.

See Eucharitid Wasps for further details.

List of Ants Known to Host Eucharitid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Anoplolepis Athairocharis vannoorti Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Calomyrmex purpureus Stilbuloida calomyrmecis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Ancylotropus manipurensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Lophyrocera variabilis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Mateucharis rugulosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Pseudochalcura gibbosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Pseudochalcura nigrocyanea Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus Rhipipalloidea madangensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Rhipipalloidea sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Stilbuloida doddi Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Zulucharis campbelli Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus aethiops Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus atriceps Obeza floridana Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus herculeanus Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus maculatus Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus novaeboracensis Pseudochalcura gibbosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus planatus Pseudochalcura sculpturata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Cataglyphis bicolor Eucharis bedeli Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Cataglyphis bicolor Eucharis bytinskisalzi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate and primary host
Cataglyphis nodus Eucharis microcephala Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Diacamma scalpratum Schizaspidia diacammae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Diacamma scalpratum Schizaspidia diacammae Thailand Peeters et al. 2015
Dinoponera lucida Kapala sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Eciton burchellii Isomerala azteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Eciton quadriglume Orasema rapo Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma Tricoryna ectatommae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Ectatomma brunneum Dicoelothorax platycerus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum Isomerala azteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum Isomerala coronata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma ruidum Kapala sulcifacies Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Ectatomma tuberculatum Dilocantha lachaudii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum Isomerala azteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Ectatomma tuberculatum Isomerala coronata Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica Eucharis esakii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica fusca Eucharis esakii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica oreas Orasema coloradensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica rufa Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica rufa Eucharis bedeli Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica subnitens Orasema coloradensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Gnamptogenys menadensis Pogonocharis browni Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Hypoponera Neolosbanus gemma Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Hypoponera Neolosbanus palgravei Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lasius Pseudometagea schwarzii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lasius fuliginosus Pseudometagea sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lasius neoniger Pseudometagea schwarzii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor Eucharis punctata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor barbarus Eucharis adscendens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor barbarus Eucharis punctata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Messor concolor Eucharis punctata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Monomorium Zuparka monomoria Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia Austeucharis sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia Chalcura affinis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia forficata Austeucharis fasciiventris Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia forficata Austeucharis myrmeciae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia gulosa Austeucharis fasciiventris Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Myrmecia pilosula Austeucharis implexa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus Kapala sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Odontomachus chelifer Latina rugosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Odontomachus haematodus Chalcura deprivata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus haematodus Kapala terminalis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus haematodus Schizaspidia convergens Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus insularis Kapala terminalis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus rixosus Schizaspidia nasua Heraty et al., 2015; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Odontomachus ruficeps Chalcura affinis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pachycondyla crassinoda Kapala cuprea Myers, 1931:276
Pachycondyla crassinoda Kapala cuprea Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Australosema valgius Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Hayatosema assectator Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasema minuta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasema sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasema susanae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasema tolteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasemorpha eribotes Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole Orasemorpha myrmicae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole alfaroi Orasema wayqecha Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole bicarinata Orasema coloradensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole bicarinata Oresema sp. Arizona Stefan Cover (pers. obs.)
Pheidole capensis Timioderus acuminatus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole ceres Orasema wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole dentata Orasema evansi Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole dentata Orasema robertsoni Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole desertorum Orasema simulatrix Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole flavens Orasema costaricensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole hirtula Orasema tolteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole hyatti Orasema tolteca Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole megacephala Ivieosema fraudulenta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole nitidula Orasema argentina Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole nitidula Orasema worcesteri Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole proxima Orasemorpha tridentata Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole radoszkowskii Orasema worcesteri Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole sciophila Orasema wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tasmaniensis Orasemorpha xeniades Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tepicana Orasema viridis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tepicana Orasema wheeleri Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pogonomyrmex badius Kapala floridana Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pogonomyrmex serpens Galearia coleopteroides Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Polyrhachis Rhipipalloidea sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Polyrhachis Stilbula arenae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Polyrhachis'' sp., ''Cyrtomyrma'' sp.
Polyrhachis dives Stilbula polyrhachicida Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Polyrhachis femorata Rhipipalloidea mira Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera Tricoryna ectatommae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera Tricoryna iello Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera metallica Chalcura nigricyanea Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera metallica Tricoryna chalcoponerae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera metallica Tricoryna minor Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera victoriae Tricoryna minor Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera violacea Stilbula cyniformis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Rhytidoponera violacea Tricoryna sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis geminata Orasema taii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema salebrosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema simplex Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Solenopsis invicta Orasema xanthopus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis macdonaghi Orasema salebrosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis molesta Orasema coloradensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis quinquecuspis Orasema aenea Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis richteri Orasema salebrosa Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis richteri Orasema simplex Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis richteri Orasema xanthopus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis saevissima Orasema xanthopus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Solenopsis tenuis Orasema sixaolae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Solenopsis xyloni Orasema taii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Temnothorax allardycei Orasema minuta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Wasmannia auropunctata Orasema minutissima Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Wasmannia sigmoidea Orasema minutissima Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host

Eulophidae

The Eulophidae are a large family of hymenopteran insects, with over 4,300 described species in some 300 genera. The larvae of a very few species feed on plants, but the majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of arthropods at all stages of development. Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid beetles).

List of Ants Known to Host Eulophid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Camponotus Horismenus microdonophagus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Camponotus Horismenus myrmecophagus Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus atriceps Horismenus floridensis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster Myrmokata diparoides Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster Myrmokata sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster crinosa Melittobia australica Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Crematogaster depressa Pediobius acraconae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Dolichoderus Myrmobomyia malayana Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Achrysocharoides niveipes Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis assis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis collaris Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis nephereus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis orbicularis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Chrysocharis pilicoxa Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Cirrospilus curvineurus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Cirrospilus vittatus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Derostenus gemmeus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Dicladocerus westwoodii Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Elachertus artaeus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Pediobius metallicus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Pnigalio longulus Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Pnigalio pectinicornis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Sympiesis gordius Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Sympiesis sericeicornis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica aquilonia Sympiesis xanthostoma Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica fusca Melittobia acasta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica pratensis Melittobia acasta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Formica sanguinea Melittobia acasta Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Lepisiota Pediobius marjoriae Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Technomyrmex fulvus Microdonophagus woodleyi Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Eupelmidae

Eupelmidae is a family of parasitic wasps in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. As presently defined, there are over 905 described species in 45 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids, commonly on beetle larvae, though many other hosts are attacked, including spiders, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats.

List of Ants Known to Host Eupelmid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Pseudomyrmex elongatulus Anastatus reduvii Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Temnothorax purpuratus Anastatus myrmecobius Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Eurytomidae

The Eurytomidae are a family within the superfamily Chalcidoidea. As presently defined, some 1420 species in 87 genera are described. Unlike most chalcidoids, the larvae of many are phytophagous (feeding in stems, seeds, or galls), while others are more typical parasitoids, though even then the hosts are usually found within plant tissues. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and a few are considered pests.

List of Ants Known to Host Eurytomid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Azteca Aximopsis affinis Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Azteca alfari Aximopsis aztecicida Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Azteca constructor Aximopsis aztecicida Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Camponotus Camponotophilus delvarei Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Formica obscuripes Sycophila sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

Pteromalidae

The Pteromalidae are a very large family of mostly parasitoid wasps, with some 3,450 described species in about 640 genera. The majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents.

List of Ants Known to Host Pteromalid Wasps

Ant Wasp Species Locality Source Notes
Atta mexicana Spalangia attae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Atta texana Spalangia attae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Crematogaster scutellaris Philotrypesis caricae Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius fuliginosus Spalangia crassicornis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius fuliginosus Spalangia nigripes Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Asaphes vulgaris Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Caenacis sp. Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Lasius niger Pachyneuron aphidis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmica rubra Asaphes vulgaris Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Myrmica rubra Pachyneuron aphidis Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate

References