Pheidole boruca

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Pheidole boruca
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Species: P. boruca
Binomial name
Pheidole boruca
Wilson, 2003

Pheidole boruca inbiocri002279551 p 1 high.jpg

Pheidole boruca inbiocri002279551 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Longino (1997): very common in Winkler samples from mature wet forest, from 50 m elevation at La Selva Biological Station to cloud forest in the Talamancas and at Monteverde. Longino found nests under pieces of dead wood on the ground, and observed workers foraging on the ground day and night.


See the description in the nomenclature section.

Keys including this Species


Atlantic slope and montane regions of Costa Rica (Longino 1997).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 15.6864989° to 9.4817844°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Colombia, Costa Rica (type locality), Honduras.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb







The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • boruca. Pheidole boruca Wilson, 2003: 172, figs. (s.w.) COSTA RICA.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.


Major: carinulae originating on the frontal lobes curve laterally above the eyes, many reaching the lateral margins of the head seen in full-face view; posterior quarter of dorsal surface of head, including occiput, covered by scattered conspicuous foveae. Media caste present in type series (a possible developmental anomaly). Similar to Pheidole violacea of Costa Rica, especially in the peculiar pattern of cephalic carinulae, but nests on the ground (instead of in arboreal ant gardens), lacks the bluish reflections on the body of the minor, has a media caste, and is different in the major and minor castes in many details of body form, sculpturing, and pilosity as illustrated. See also the less similar Pheidole aculifera (in the fallax group), Pheidole prostrata and Pheidole variegata (= Pheidole pubiventris).

MEASUREMENTS (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.10, HL 1.10, SL 0.78, EL 0.20, PW 0.48. Paratype minor: HW 0.54, HL 0.66, SL 0.84, EL 0.12, PW 0.36.

COLOR Major: body dark, almost blackish brown; appendages medium brown.

Minor: body blackish brown, appendages medium brown.

Pheidole boruca Wilson 2003.jpg

Figure. Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor, and partial head of media. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Type Material

COSTA RICA: Monteverde, Puntarenas, 10°18'N 84°48'W, 1500 m, col. J. T. Longino. Museum of Comparative Zoology


Named after the Boruca Amerindians, one of the surviving native tribes of Costa Rica.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013.
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at
  • Ottonetti L., L. Tucci, F. Frizzi, G. Chelazzi, and G. Santini. 2010. Changes in ground-foraging ant assemblages along a disturbance gradient in a tropical agricultural landscape. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 22: 73–86.
  • Smith M. A., W. Hallwachs, D. H. Janzen. 2014. Diversity and phylogenetic community structure of ants along a Costa Rican elevational gradient. Ecography 37(8): 720-731.
  • Wilson, E.O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Genus. Harvard University Press