Pheidole californica

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Pheidole californica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Species: P. californica
Binomial name
Pheidole californica
Mayr, 1870

Pheidole californica casent0006758 profile 1.jpg

Pheidole californica casent0006758 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Colonies have been found nesting variously under objects, in oak galls, or in open sandy soil (Cole 1934b; Mallis 1941). Stefan Cover reports a population in moist spots in a grazed Chihuahuan desert at 1295 m in Hidalgo, extreme southwest New Mexico. The colonies were nesting in soil with a high clay content; the most common other ant species was Temnothorax pergandei. (Wilson 2003)

Identification

The Pheidole californica complex comprises three closely related and partly sympatric species of seed harvesting ants restricted to the western Nearctic region. Pheidole clementensis Gregg may be distinguished from both Pheidole californica Mayr and Pheidole creightoni Gregg by the diagonal rather than longitudinal rugulae between the clypeus and the eye in lateral View. The closely related P. californica and P. creightoni are most readily distinguished from one another by the angle of their lateral cephalic setae. Pheidole californica has decumbent setae forming an angle of forty-five degrees or less with the lateral margins of the head in full face view, while the cephalic setae of P. creightoni emerge at an angle of approximately ninety degrees. (Burge, 2005.)

See also the description in the nomenclature section.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Pheidole californica is broadly distributed in the western Nearctic region (Burge, 2005); California north to Washington, east to Idaho and New Mexico (Wilson, 2003).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States (type locality).
Neotropical Region: Mexico.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Worker

Minor

Major

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • californica. Pheidole californica Mayr, 1870b: 987 (s.w.) U.S.A. Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 406 (q.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1972b: 243 (l.). Senior synonym of incenata, satura: Creighton, 1950a: 173; of pyramidensis: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1986g: 13; of oregonica (and its junior synonyms hagermani, shoshoni): Wilson, 2003: 564.
  • hagermani. Pheidole californica var. hagermani Cole, 1936a: 35 (s.w.) U.S.A. Junior synonym of oregonica: Creighton, 1950a: 173.
  • incenata. Pheidole californica var. incenata Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 407 (s.w.) U.S.A. Junior synonym of californica: Creighton, 1950a: 173.
  • nevadensis. Pheidole californica subsp. nevadensis Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 408 (s.w.q.) U.S.A. [Junior primary homonym of nevadensis Forel, above.] Replacement name: pyramidensis Emery, 1922e: 105.
  • oregonica. Pheidole oregonica Emery, 1895c: 291 (s.w.) U.S.A. Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 408 (q.). Subspecies of californica: Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 407; Creighton, 1950a: 173. Senior synonym of hagermani: Creighton, 1950a: 173; of shoshoni: Gregg, 1959: 19. Junior synonym of californica: Wilson, 2003: 564.
  • pyramidensis. Pheidole californica subsp. pyramidensis Emery, 1922e: 105. Replacement name for nevadensis Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 408. [Junior primary homonym of nevadensis Forel, 1901e: 353.] Junior synonym of californica: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1986g: 13.
  • satura. Pheidole californica var. satura Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 407 (s.w.) U.S.A. Junior synonym of californica: Creighton, 1950a: 173.
  • shoshoni. Pheidole californica var. shoshoni Cole, 1933: 618 (s.w.) U.S.A. Subspecies of californica: Creighton, 1950a: 174. Junior synonym of oregonica: Gregg, 1959: 19.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

From Wilson (2003): A member of the “pilifera subgroup” of the larger pilifera group, comprising Pheidole calens, Pheidole californica, Pheidole carrolli, Pheidole cavigenis, Pheidole clementensis, Pheidole creightoni, Pheidole hoplitica, Pheidole littoralis, Pheidole micula, Pheidole pilifera, Pheidole polymorpha, Pheidole rugulosa, Pheidole senex, Pheidole soritis, Pheidole tepicana and Pheidole torosa, which subgroup is distinguished by the following traits. Major: dorsal head surface extensively sculptured; occipital lobes horizontally rugulose (or, in littoralis, foveate, in carrolli, smooth, and in micula and soritis, carinulate); postpetiole from above diamond-shaped, trapezoidal, or spinose. Minor: eye medium-sized to large.

P. californica is distinguished by the following combination of traits. Color yellow.

Major: all of pronotum smooth and shiny; humerus in dorsal oblique view low and smoothly convex; propodeal spine in side view equilaterally triangular; postpetiole from above trapezoidal. Closest to clementensis, from which it differs by its smaller size (HW in californica major about 0.90 mm, in clementensis major about 1.10 mm) and proportionately larger eye (major EL/HW 0.20 in californica versus 0.13 in clementensis). Also, the sides of the major head are smooth and shiny in some, but not all, californica populations (Philip S. Ward, personal communication).

MEASUREMENTS (mm) Major (Palo Alto, California): HW 0.92, HL 1.06, SL 0.54, EL 0.18, PW 0.44. Minor (Palo Alto): HW 0.48, HL 0.56, SL 0.48, EL 0.12, PW 0.28.

COLOR Major: concolorous yellow; gaster a slightly contrasting brownish yellow.

Minor: yellow with a slight brownish tinge.


Pheidole californica Wilson 2003.jpg

Figure. Upper: major. Lower: minor. CALIFORNICA: Palo Alto. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Type Material

San Francisco. Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna - as reported in Wilson (2003)

Etymology

Based on the state of origin of the type series. (Wilson 2003)

References

  • Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (page 564, Senior synonym of oregonica)
  • Alatorre-Bracamontes, C.E., Vásquez-Bolaños, M. 2010. Lista comentada de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del norte de México. Dugesiana 17(1): 9-36.
  • Burge, D.O. 2005. Taxonomy, biology, and distribution of seed harvesting ants in the Pheidole californica complex (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14, 137-150.
  • Cole, A. C., Jr. 1934b. An ecological study of the ants of the southern desert shrub region of the United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 27: 388–405.
  • Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 173, senior synonym of incenata and satura)
  • Mallis, A. 1941. A list of the ants of California with notes on their habits and distribution. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 40: 61–100.
  • Mayr, G. 1870b. Neue Formiciden. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 20: 939-996 (page 987, soldier, worker described)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972b. Ant larvae of the subfamily Myrmicinae: second supplement on the tribes Myrmicini and Pheidolini. J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7: 233-246 (page 243, larva described)
  • Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. (page 13, senior synonym of pyramidensis)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915b. Some additions to the North American ant-fauna. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 34: 389-421 (page 406, queen described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Allred D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist 42: 415-511.
  • Allred, D.M. 1982. The ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511.
  • Boulton A. M., Davies K. F. and Ward P. S. 2005. Species richness, abundance, and composition of ground-dwelling ants in northern California grasslands: role of plants, soil, and grazing. Environmental Entomology 34: 96-104
  • Burge D. O. 2005. Taxonomy, biology, and distribution of seed harvesting ants in the Pheidole californica complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14: 137-150
  • Clarke K.M., Fisher B.L. and LeBuhn G. 2008. The influece of urban park characteristics on ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) communities. Urban Ecosyst 11: 317-334
  • Cole A. C., Jr. 1933. Descriptions of two new ants of the genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 26: 616-618.
  • Cole A. C., Jr. 1936. An annotated list of the ants of Idaho (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Canadian Entomologist 68: 34-39.
  • Cole A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28: 358-388.
  • Cole, A.C. 1936. An annotated list of the ants of Idaho (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). Canadian Entomologist 68(2):34-39
  • Cover S. P., and R. A. Johnson. 20011. Checklist of Arizona Ants. Downloaded on January 7th at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/AZants-2011%20updatev2.pdf
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
  • Des Lauriers J., and D. Ikeda. 2017. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California, USA with an annotated list. In: Reynolds R. E. (Ed.) Desert Studies Symposium. California State University Desert Studies Consortium, 342 pp. Pages 264-277.
  • Fisher B. L. 1997. A comparison of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on serpentine and non-serpentine soils in northern California. Insectes Sociaux 44: 23-33
  • Hoey-Chamberlain R. V., L. D. Hansen, J. H. Klotz and C. McNeeley. 2010. A survey of the ants of Washington and Surrounding areas in Idaho and Oregon focusing on disturbed sites (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 56: 195-207
  • Holway D.A. 1998. Effect of Argentine ant invasions on ground-dwelling arthropods in northern California riparian woodlands. Oecologia. 116: 252-258
  • Johnson, R.A. and P.S. Ward. 2002. Biogeography and endemism of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Baja California, Mexico: a first overview. Journal of Biogeography 29:1009–1026/
  • La Rivers I. 1968. A first listing of the ants of Nevada. Biological Society of Nevada, Occasional Papers 17: 1-12.
  • Mallis A. 1941. A list of the ants of California with notes on their habits and distribution. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 40: 61-100. 
  • Ratchford, J.S., S.E. Wittman, E.S. Jules, A.M. Ellison, N.J. Gotelli and N.J. Sanders. 2005. The effects of fire, local environment and time on ant assemblages in fens and forests. Diversity and Distributions 11:487-497.
  • Rees D. M., and A. W. Grundmann. 1940. A preliminary list of the ants of Utah. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 31(5): 1-12.
  • Smith F. 1941. A list of the ants of Washington State. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 17(1): 23-28.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Ward P. S. 1987. Distribution of the introduced Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) in natural habitats of the lower Sacramento Valley and its effects on the indigenous ant fauna. Hilgardia 55: 1-16
  • Wetterer, J. K.; Ward, P. S.; Wetterer, A. L.; Longino, J. T.; Trager, J. C.; Miller, S. E. 2000. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Santa Cruz Island, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 99:25-31.
  • Wetterer, J.K., P.S. Ward, A.L. Wetterer, J.T. Longino, J.C. Trager and S.E. Miller. 2000. Ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Santa Cruz Island, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 99(1):25-31.
  • Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1915. Some additions to the North American ant-fauna. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 34: 389-421.
  • Wilson, E.O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Genus. Harvard University Press