Wheeler, W.M., 1906
P. desertorum occurs to at least 1700 m in a wide range of desert habitats, including mesquite or acacia-dominated bajadas, rocky slopes, and desert grasslands. The colonies construct large crater nests with single entrance holes. Helms (1995) reports that colonies in southeastern Arizona are large, at maturity comprising 2,500–25,000 workers and one to multiple queens, and often occur in multiple nests. Foragers, mostly minors but with a few majors also present, are active outside the nest at night and following rains. On diet, Stefan Cover (personal communication) has stated from extensive personal experience, “Contrary to previous reports in the literature (Davidson 1977a, b; Whitford 1978), P. desertorum is an aggressive predator and scavenger, not a granivore. Seeds are only rarely collected, and then in small quantities.” Most colonies produce reproductives each year, which are extremely sex-biased from colony to colony. Winged reproductives have been found in nests from early June to late August. According to Helms, mating flights occur prior to sunrise in the late summer, following rainfall. Males form aerial swarms into which the winged queens fly; mating then occurs on the ground, after which the queens fly away in search of nest sites. Colonies are usually founded by single queens, but occasionally by small groups. Droual (1983) has described the remarkably efficient maneuvers of nest defense and evacuation by desertorum colonies under attack by army ants (Neivamyrmex nigrescens). Droual and Topoff (1981) have demonstrated that emigrations to new nest sites also occur at a high frequency even under apparently stable environmental conditions. (Wilson 2003)
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
The majors of this species are easily recognized by the long scapes, which extend nearly to the posterior lateral corners, or even past the corners. The dorsum of the head is rugose, the regions between the rugae are mostly shining, although they may be somewhat granulose. (Mackay and Mackay 2002)
Also see the description in the nomenclature section.
Keys including this Species
Abundant from western Oklahoma and Texas west to southern Utah, Nevada, and California, and south into northern Mexico. (Wilson 2003)
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Wheeler's (1906) account of this species included the following: "The types of this species, comprising several specimens of each of the above described phases, were taken at Fort Davis, Texas (5400 feet), during June,. 1902. It forms rather populous colonies under stones or in rough crater nests, often in very dry spots in the desert, and like Ph. dentata is highly carnivorous. I have taken it also at Ash Fork, Prescott, Phoenix, and Tucson, Arizona (May, 1905). In Prescott one of the colonies was found nesting in a dry pine log. In both soldiers and workers from this locality the epinotal spines are very short, almost absent in the worker."
Mackay and Mackay (2002) - Habitat Sagebrush, desert scrub, arid grasslands, black grama grassland, fluff grass habitat, to oaks, pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa pine forests, up to 1600 meters in eleva-tion. Biology Nests are found under stones in areas of rocky loam and coarse sand, as well as gravel. These ants are very alert, fast and aggressive when the a large nest is disturbed. Brood was found in nests in March, April, August, and September, reproductives in August. This species may be polygynous, as multiple, dealate females are found in nests. This is a very common species in New Mexico, especially in arid ecosystems.
Wheeler and Wheeler (1986) - Araeoschizus sp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (det. T.J. Spilman) was taken from a nest in Kyle Canyon (Oark Co.) 4,800 ft.
Association with Other Organisms
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- comanche. Pheidole desertorum var. comanche Wheeler, W.M. 1906d: 339 (s.w.) U.S.A. Junior synonym of desertorum: Creighton, 1950a: 178.
- desertorum. Pheidole desertorum Wheeler, W.M. 1906d: 337 (s.w.q.m.) U.S.A. Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988: 95 (k.). Senior synonym of comanche, maricopa: Creighton, 1950a: 178. See also: Wilson, 2003: 284.
- maricopa. Pheidole desertorum var. maricopa Wheeler, W.M. 1906d: 339 (s.w.) U.S.A. Junior synonym of desertorum: Creighton, 1950a: 178.
TEXAS: Ft. Davis, Jeff Davis Co., 1650 m, col. W. M. Wheeler. Museum of Comparative Zoology - as reported in Wilson (2003) Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
From Wilson (2003): Similar to Pheidole hyatti, Pheidole portalensis, Pheidole vistana; see also Pheidole ariel, Pheidole sitiens and Pheidole skwarrae, distinguished from these and other members of the fallax group as follows.
Major: slender; yellow; antennal scapes very long, slightly exceeding the occipital corner; humerus subangular in dorsal-oblique view; propodeal spines short and slender in side view; a loose rugoreticulum extends from the lateral margins of each frontal lobe to the eye; central half of the dorsum of the head, mesopleuron, propodeum, and waist foveolate and opaque; the rest of the body smooth and shiny.
Minor: slender; yellow; antennal scape very long, exceeding the occipital corner by almost half its length; occiput greatly narrowed, its profile concave in full-face view, but lacking nuchal collar.
MEASUREMENTS (mm) Lectotype major: HW 1.36, HL 1.42, SL (scape missing), EL 0.28, PW 0.64 (Portal, Arizona, major, HW 1.36, SL 1.32). Paralectotype minor: HW 0.58, HL 0.82, SL 1.10, EL 0.22, PW 0.40.
COLOR Major: reddish yellow except for gaster, which is yellowish brown.
Minor: concolorous reddish yellow.
Figure. Upper: lectotype, major (antennae missing; companion outline of full-face view of head shows antennal scape of major from Portal, Arizona, to illustrate scape). Lower: paralectotype, minor. Scale bars = 1 mm.
- 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (USA) (Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988).
L desertorum, of the wastelands (deserts). (Wilson 2003)
- Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (page 284, fig. major, minor described)
- Alatorre-Bracamontes, C.E., Vásquez-Bolaños, M. 2010. Lista comentada de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del norte de México. Dugesiana 17(1): 9-36.
- Baker, A.J., Heraty, J.M., Mottern, J., Hang, J.Z., Hines, H.M., Lemmon, A.R., Lemmon, E.M. 2019. Inverse dispersal patterns in a group of ant parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae: Oraseminae) and their ant hosts. Systematic Entomology 45: 1–19 (doi:10.1111/syen.12371).
- Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 178, Senior synonym of comanche and maricopa)
- Davidson, D. W. 1977a. Species diversity and community organization in desert seed-eating ants. Ecology 58: 711–724.
- Droual, R. 1983. The organization of nest evacuation in Pheidole desertorum Wheeler and P. hyatti Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 12: 203–208.
- Droual, R. and H. Topoff. 1981. The emigration behavior of two species of Pheidole (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Psyche (Camb.) 88: 135–150.
- Helms, K. R. 1995. Natural history of the ant Pheidole desertorum Wheeler in a desert grassland habitat. Psyche (Camb.) 102(1–2):35–47.
- Helms, Ken R. & Rissing, Steven W. 1990. Single Sex Alate Production by Colonies of Pheidole desertorum and Pheidole xerophila tucsonica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche. Volume 97 (1990), Issue 3-4, Pages 213-216PDF
- Huang M H. 2010. Multi-phase defense by the big-headed ant, Pheidole obtusospinosa, against raiding army ants. Journal of Insect Science 10: 1-10.
- Pirk, G.I., Casenave, J.L.de 2006. Diet and seed removal rates by the harvester ants Pogonomyrmex rastratus and Pogonomyrmex pronotalis in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Insectes Sociaux 53, 119–125 (doi:10.1007/s00040-005-0845-6).
- Taber, S. W.; Cokendolpher, J. C. 1988. Karyotypes of a dozen ant species from the southwestern U.S.A. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Caryologia 41: 93-102 (page 95, karyotype described)
- Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles.
- Wheeler, W. M. 1906. The ants of the Grand Cañon. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 22: 329–345. (page 337, soldier, worker, queen, male described)
- Whitford, W. G. 1978. Structure and seasonal activity of Chihuahua desert ant communities. Ins. Soc. 25: 79–88.
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Alatorre-Bracamontes, C.E. and M Vasquez-Bolanos. 2010. Lista comentada de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del norte de México. Dugesiana 17(1):9-36
- Allred D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist 42: 415-511.
- Allred, D.M. 1982. The ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511.
- Andersen A. N. 1997. Functional Groups and Patterns of Organization in North American Ant Communities: A Comparison with Australia. Journal of Biogeography. 24: 433-460
- Bestelmeyer B. T., and J. A. Wiens. 2001. Local and regional-scale responses of ant diversity to a semiarid biome transition. Ecography 24: 381-392.
- Cole A. C., Jr. 1937. An annotated list of the ants of Arizona (Hymen.: Formicidae). [part]. Entomological News 48: 97-101.
- Cole A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28: 358-388.
- Cole A. C., Jr. 1953. Studies of New Mexico ants. V. The genus Pheidole with synonymy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 28: 297-299.
- Cover S. P., and R. A. Johnson. 20011. Checklist of Arizona Ants. Downloaded on January 7th at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/AZants-2011%20updatev2.pdf
- Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2944
- Des Lauriers J., and D. Ikeda. 2017. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California, USA with an annotated list. In: Reynolds R. E. (Ed.) Desert Studies Symposium. California State University Desert Studies Consortium, 342 pp. Pages 264-277.
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1043
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1044
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1045
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1046
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1047
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1048
- DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-1049
- Eastlake Chew A. and Chew R. M. 1980. Body size as a determinant of small-scale distributions of ants in evergreen woodland southeastern Arizona. Insectes Sociaux 27: 189-202
- Gregg, R.T. 1963. The Ants of Colorado.
- Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/resources.htm
- La Rivers I. 1968. A first listing of the ants of Nevada. Biological Society of Nevada, Occasional Papers 17: 1-12.
- Mackay W. P., and E. E. Mackay. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp.
- Mackay, W., D. Lowrie, A. Fisher, E. Mackay, F. Barnes and D. Lowrie. 1988. The ants of Los Alamos County, New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). pages 79-131 in J.C. Trager, editor, Advances in Myrmecololgy.
- Mackay, W.P. and E. Mackay. XXXX. The Ants of New Mexico
- Moody J. V., and O. F. Francke. 1982. The Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Western Texas Part 1: Subfamily Myrmicinae. Graduate Studies Texas Tech University 27: 80 pp.
- O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
- Roeder K. A., and D. V. Roeder. 2017. The Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Oklahoma: new species records and distributional notes. Check List 13(2): 2071.
- Sanders N. J., J. Moss, and D. Wagner. 2003. Patterns of ant species richness along elevational gradients in an arid ecosystem. Global Ecology & Biogeography 12: 93102.
- Smith M. R. 1936. A list of the ants of Texas. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 44: 155-170.
- Taber S. W., and J. C. Cokendolpher. 1988. Karyotypes of a dozen ant species from the southwestern U.S.A. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Caryologia 41: 93-102.
- Van Pelt, A. 1983. Ants of the Chisos Mountains, Texas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) . Southwestern Naturalist 28:137-142.
- Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
- Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler. 1986. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp.
- Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1985. A checklist of Texas ants. Prairie Naturalist 17:49-64.
- Whitford W. G. 1978. Structure and seasonal activity of Chihuahua desert ant communities. Insectes Sociaux 25(1): 79-88.
- Wilson, E.O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Genus. Harvard University Press