Smith, F., 1874
This species seems to be restricted to cool-temperate to warm-temperate humid areas in East and Southeast Asia. It usually inhabits well-developed natural forests, man-made woody habitats (timber plantations, woody gardens, etc.) and forest edges, and nests mainly in rotting logs and other wood material, and sometimes in the litter/soil, and among root networks of vegetation on the rocks. (Eguchi 2008) Nests are in rotting wood or under stones on the forest floor. Okuno (1959) reported on foraging and worker recruitment patterns, and Ono (1984) and Ito & Higashi (1990) studied soldier production. According to their research the presence of hostile ants bears no relation to soldier production (Japanese Ant Image Database).
- 1 Photo Gallery
- 2 Identification
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Biology
- 5 Castes
- 6 Nomenclature
- 7 References
- 8 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Eguchi (2008) - Posterior margin of head of the minor is generally more convex in N. Vietnamese populations than in Korean and Japanese populations. However, in population(s) of Lao Cai and Lai Chau, N. Vietnam, the minor is variable not only in the convexity of posterior margin of head but also in the sculpture on frons and vertex. It is also possible that P. fervida recognized here actually includes two or more sibling species.
A variant of P. fervida (the minor having sculptured frons and vertex) is similar to Pheidole ryukyuensis Ogata. However, in the major of P. ryukyuensis posterior margin of head in full-face view is rather deeply concave; and in the major and minor of P. ryukyuensis mound on the posterior slope of promesonotal dome is almost absent (see also Ogata 1982). Another variant of P. fervida (the minor having smooth head) is similar to a variant of Pheidole vulgaris (the major having almost smooth vertexal lobe). However, in the major of P. vulgaris the head rather long; and in the major and minor of P. vulgaris the mound on the posterior slope of promesonotal dome is almost absent.
The gular dentition of the soldiers and the shape of the posterior part of the head in workers of P. fervida are similar to those of Pheidole ryukyuensis and Pheidole pieli. P. ryukyuensis resembles P. fervida in coloration, but P. fervida can be distinguished from it by the relative length of the antennal scapes in the soldiers and the shape of the mesosoma in the workers. The distributions of these two species are not known to overlap: P. fervida is found on Yaku Island and northwards, while P. ryukyuensis is found in the Yaeyama Islands. P. fervida is distinguishable from P. pieli by the shape of its mesonotum. (Japanese Ant Image Database)
Keys including this Species
Known from N. Vietnam, mainland Japan, N. Ryukyus and Korean Peninsula.
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 43.08333333° to 22.88333333°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
Watanabe et al. (2019) conducted an observational study of the aphid species Macrosiphoniella yomogicola (Matsumura) and the ants that tended their colonies. This aphid has been found to be an obligate ant mutualist. Nine aphid colonies were monitored in Sapporo, Japan over a multi-week period in August and September. Lasius japonicus, Tetramorium tsushimae and Pheidole fervida were found attending the aphids, with each ant species exclusively tending the aphid colony where each was observed. The only aphid colonies to survive through the monitoring period were those tended by Lasius japonicus. This suggests, but the he number of observed colonies was not sufficient to conclude, that P. fervida is not a mutualist of the aphid and is only opportunistically tending the colonies where it was found.
Association with Other Organisms
- This species is a associate (details unknown) for the phorid fly Hypogeophora macrothrix (a associate (details unknown)) (Quevillon, 2018).
- This species is a host for the cestode Raillietina tetragona (a parasitoid) (Quevillon, 2018) (encounter mode secondary; indirect transmission; transmission outside nest).
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- fervida. Pheidole fervida Smith, F. 1874: 406 (s.q.) JAPAN. Forel, 1900e: 285 (w.); Wheeler, W.M. 1928d: 107 (q.); Ogata, 1982: 195 (m.); Imai, 1966: 119 (k.). Current subspecies: nominal plus kwazana. See also: Kupyanskaya, 1990: 124; Eguchi, 2008: 28.
Eguchi (2008) - Syntypes: major & queen, Hiogo [Hyogo, Japan], not examined. Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Eguchi (2008) - Major (n=5). — HL 1.30–1.43 mm; HW 1.31–1.47 mm; CI 94–104; SL 0.68–0.78 mm; SI 50–53; FL 0.88–1.06 mm; FI 66–73. Minor (n=5). — HL 0.62–0.66 mm; HW 0.58–0.63 mm; CI 88–95; SL 0.58–0.72 mm; SI 94–124; FL 0.60–0.77 mm; FI 102–133.
Major — Head in full-face view relatively shallowly concave posteriorly, in lateral view roundly convex dorsally, not impressed on vertex; frons and vertex rugose longitudinally, with interspaces smooth; vertexal lobe smooth and shining (but rarely dimly rugosed); frontal carina weak, or inconspicous just as rugula(e); antennal scrobe almost absent, or present but inconspicuous; median part of clypeus smooth, without a median longitudinal carina absent (rarely with a very weak carina); hypostoma with median and submedian processes in addition to conspicuous lateral processes; submedian processes always conspicuous, but median process often less conspicuous than submedian processes; antenna with a 3-segmented club; maximal diameter of eye longer than antennal segment X; outer surface of mandible smooth (excluding the basal area), with relatively long decumbent hairs. Promesonotal dome sparsely rugose transverselly, with interspaces smooth and shining, in lateral view with a low to inconspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus not or very weakly produced laterad; the dome at the humeri as broad as at the bottom, or narrower than at the bottom. Petiole longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive, sometimes with its lateral corner forming a conspicuous horn. First gastral tergite smooth and shining entirely.
Minor — Dorsum of head variable in sculpture, usually rugoso-reticulate or rugoso-punctate at least partly, but sometimes smooth and shining almost entirely; preoccipital carina present dorsally and laterally, but often very weak dorsally; median part of clypeus smooth and shining; median longitudinal carina absent, or present but inconspicuous; antenna with a 3-segmented club; scape usually exceeding posterior margin of head by the length of antennal segment II or more; maximal diameter of eye almost as long as or shorter than antennal segment X. Dorsum of promesonotal dome smooth and shining with several rugulae or rugoso-reticulate with enclosures almost smooth and shining, or rarely rugoso-punctuate largely; the dome in lateral view with a low to inconspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus of the dome in dorsal-oblique view hardly or very weakly produced laterad; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum usually punctured very weakly or weakly. Petiole longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive.
- n = 10, 2n = 20 (Japan) (Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969).
- Eguchi, K. 2008. A revision of Northern Vietnamese species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Zootaxa 1902:1-118.
- Forel, A. 1900h. Fourmis du Japon. Nids en toile. Strongylognathus Huberi et voisins. Fourmilière triple. Cyphomymrex Wheeleri. Fourmis importées. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 10: 267-287 (page 285, worker described)
- Hisasue, Y. 2018. Ant fauna of Matsuyama Castle. ARI 39: 18-36.
- Hisasue, Y. 2019. Ants collected from Akita Prefecture (Japan) in August 2017. ARI 40: 15-18.
- Hisasue, Y. 2020. A checklist of the ants of Mt. Hiko-san (Kyushu, Japan). Korasana 93: 31-38.
- Imai, H. T. 1966b. The chromosome observation techniques of ants and the chromosomes of Formicinae and Myrmicinae. Acta Hymenopterol. 2: 119-131 (page 119, karyotype described)
- Imai, H.T., Kihara, A., Kondoh, M., Kubota, M., Kuribayashi, S., Ogata, K., Onoyama, K., Taylor, R.W., Terayama, M., Yoshimura, M., Ugawa, Y. 2003. Ants of Japan. 224 pp, Gakken, Japan.
- Kim, G., Lyu, D. 2012. Distribution of Ants (Insecta, Hymenoptera) in Chiaksan Mountain, Prov. Gangweon, Korea. Journal of Korean Nature 5, 127–129 (doi:10.7229/jkn.2012.5.2.127).
- Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. (page 124, see also)
- Kwon, T.-S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8, 152–157 (doi:10.1016/j.japb.2015.05.001).
- Liu, C., Fischer, G., Hita Garcia, F., Yamane, S., Liu, Q., Peng, Y.Q., Economo, E.P., Guénard, B., Pierce, N.E. 2020. Ants of the Hengduan Mountains: a new altitudinal survey and updated checklist for Yunnan Province highlight an understudied insect biodiversity hotspot. ZooKeys 978, 1–171 (doi:10.3897/zookeys.978.55767).
- Ogata, K. 1982. Taxonomic study of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood of Japan, with a description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Kontyû 50: 189-197 (page 195, male described)
- Park, S.-H., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K., Kuboki, Y. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies 337, 545–552 (doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003).
- Ryu, J., Kim, Y.-K., Suh, S.J., Choi, K.S. 2021. The Insect database in Dokdo, Korea: An updated version in 2020. Biodiversity Data Journal 9, e62011 (doi:10.3897/bdj.9.e62011).
- Saito-Morooka, F., Fukuhara, K., Suda, K. 2015. The ant fauna of Rissho University at Kumagaya, Saitama Prefecture (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bulletin of geo-environmental science (17), 35-39.
- Smith, F. 1874b. Descriptions of new species of Tenthredinidae, Ichneumonidae, Chrysididae, Formicidae, &c. of Japan. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1874: 373-409 (page 406, soldier, queen described)
- Sunamura, E., Tamura, S., Urano, T., Shoda-Kagaya, E. 2020. Predation of invasive red-necked longhorn beetle Aromia bungii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) eggs and hatchlings by native ants in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 55, 291–298 (doi:10.1007/S13355-020-00681-Y).
- Tanaka, K., Tokuda, M. 2020. Negative correlation between dispersal investment and canopy openness among populations of the ant-dispersed sedge, Carex lanceolata. Plant Ecology. (doi:10.1007/S11258-020-01065-6).
- Vatanparast, M., Park, Y. 2021. Comparative RNA-Seq analyses of Solenopsis japonica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reveal gene in response to cold stress. Genes 12, 1610 (doi:10.3390/genes12101610).
- Watanabe, S., Y. Murakami, and E. Hasegawa. 2019. Effects of Attending Ant Species on the Fate of Colonies of an Aphid, Macrosiphoniella yomogicola (Matsumura) (Homoptera: Aphididae), in an Ant-Aphid Symbiosis. 128(4):325-332.
- Wheeler, W. M. 1928d. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Japan and Korea. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. R. Sc. Super. Agric. 22: 96-125 (page 107, queen described)
- Yamane, S., Hosoishi, S. 2020. Identification of the Japanese species of the ant genus Pheidole based on queen characters. Japanese Journal of Entomology 23 (2):37-53.
- Zhong, Y. 2021. Taxonomy of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Fujian, China with description of a new species. Entomotaxonomia 43(4): 1-5 (doi:10.11680/entomotax.2021035).
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Anonymous 1986. A list of ants collected at Akiyoshi-dai (Yamaguchi-ken) by members of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) in 1985. Ari 14:5-6.
- Anonymous. A list of ants collected at Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture by the members of the Myrmecological Society of Japan in 1992. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 31
- Azuma M. 1938. A list of ants found in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Entomological World. Tokyo 6:238-243.
- Azuma M. 1955. A list of ants (Formicidae) from Hokkaido Is. Hyogo Biology 3:79-80.
- Bui T.V., and K. Eguchi. 2003. Ant survey in Hoang Lien Son Nature Reserve, Lao Cai, N. Vietnam. ANeT Newsletter 5: 4-11.
- Chen Y. Q., Q. Li, Y. L. Chen, Z. X. Lu, X. Y. Zhou. 2011. Ant diversity and bio-indicators in land management of lac insect agroecosystem in Southwestern China. Biodivers. Conserv. 20: 3017-3038.
- Cheng D., Z. Chen, and S. Zhou. 2015. An analysis on the ant fauna of Jinzhongshan Nature Reserve in Gunagxi, China. Journal of Guangxi Normal University: Natural Science Edition 33(3): 129.137.
- Choi B.-M. 1987. Taxonomic study on ants (Formicidae) in Korea (1). On the genus Monomorium. Journal of the Institute of Science Education (Cheongju National Teachers' College) 11:17-30.
- Choi B.M. 1986. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea. Journal of Chongju National Teacher College 23: 317-386.
- Choi B.M. 1988. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (5) Ant fauna in Is. Kanghwado. Chongju Sabom Taehak Nonmunjip (Journal of Chongju National Teacher' College) 25: 217-231.
- Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16) - Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean J. Soil. Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
- Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16): Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
- Choi B.M. 1996. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (15) -Ant fauna islands Ullungdo and Dokdo. Journal of Chongju National University of Education 33: 201-219.
- Choi B.M. 1997. Distribution of Ants (Formicidae) in Korea (18). Ants Fauna in island Paekryongdo and Taechongdo. Journal of Chongju National University of Education 34: 119-138.
- Choi B.M., Bang, J.R. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (9). Ant fauna in Mt. Togyusan. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 31:101-112.
- Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
- Choi B.M., Kim, C.H., Bang, J.R. 1993. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (13). A checklist of ants from each province (Do), with taxonomic notes. Cheongju Sabom Taehakkyo Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National University of Education) 30: 331-380.
- Choi B.M., and H.S. Lee. 1999. Studies on the distribution ants in Korea (21) - Ant fauna in Kwanaksan. Korean J. Soil Zoology 4(1): 1-4.
- Choi B.M., and J. R. Bang. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (12): the analysis of ant communities in 23 islands. Journal of Cheongju National University of Education 30:317-330.
- Collingwood C. A. 1976. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 68:
- Eguchi K. 2008. A revision of Northern Vietnamese species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Zootaxa 1902: 1-118.
- Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
- Ha S.J, S.J. Park, and B.J. Kim. 2002. Comparative ant faunas between Seonyudo and seven other islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(2): 75-79.
- Harada Y. S. Koto, N. Kawaguchi, K. Sato, T. Setoguchi, R. Muranaga, H. Yamashita, A. Yo, and S. Yamane. 2012. Ants of Jusso, Isa City, Kagoshima Prefecture, southwestern Japan. Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Japan 67: 143-152.
- Harada Y., H. Yadori, M. Yoneda, R. Takinami, K. Nagahama, Y. Matsumoto, A. Oyama, S. Maeda, and S. Yamane. 2009. Ant fauna of Tanegashima (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nankiseibutu, the Nanki Biological Society 51(1): 15-21.
- Harada Y., K. Nishikubo, K. Matsumoto, M. Matsuda, Y. Inazawa, Y. Ozono, S. Koto, N. Kawaguchi, and S. Yamane. 2011. Ant fauna of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) forests in southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 66: 115-127.
- Harada Y., Y. Matsumoto, S. Maeda, A. Oyama, and S. Yamane. 2009. Comparison of ant fauna among different habitats of Yaku-shima Island, southern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 64: 125-134.
- Harada Y., Yadori H., Takinami R., Nagahama K., Matsumoto Y., Oyama A., Maeda S. and Yamane S.K. 2013. Ants of the southernmost Fagus crenata forest in Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 39: 113-118
- Hayashida K. 1957. Ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and vicinity. (Preliminary report.). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series VI. Zoology 13:173-177.
- Hayashida K. 1961. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and its vicinity (1 et 2). Insectes Sociaux 7: 125-162.
- Hayashida K. 1964. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Kutchan and its adjacent area. Journal of the Sapporo Otani Junior College 2: 107-129.
- Hayashida K. 1971. Vertical distribution of ants in the southern part of the Hidaka mountains. [In Japanese.]. Memoirs of the National Science Museum (Tokyo) 4:29-38.
- Hisamatsu M. 2004. List of Hymenoptera Recorded in Ibaraki Prefecture. Bulletin of Ibaraki Nature Museum 7: 125-164.
- Hisamatsu M., and S. Suzuki. 1998. A list of Insects collected at and around Sugao Marsh. Bulletin of Ibaraki Nature Museum 1: 119-140.
- Hosaka T., L. Di, K. Eguchi, and S. Numata. 2019. Ant assemblages on littered food waste and food removal rates in urban–suburban parks of Tokyo. Basic and Applied Ecology 37: 1–9.
- Hosoichi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Hosoichi S., W. Tasen, S. H. Park. A. Le Ngoc, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2015. Annual fire resilience of ground-dwelling ant communities in Hiraodai Karst Plateau grassland in Japan. Entomological Science 18: 254–261.
- Hosoishi S. 2006. Ant fauna of Noko Island. pp99-107. In: The floristic and faunistic surveys of the Noko Island.
- Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Huong N. T. T., P. V. Sang, and B. T. Viet. 2015. A preliminary study on diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at Hon Ba Nature Reserve. Environmental Scientific Conference 7: 614-620.
- Ichinose K. 1990. The Ant Fauna of the Tomakomai Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Notes on the Nuptial Season. Research Bulletins of College Experiment Forests 47(1) 137-144.
- Ito. F., Kondoh. M., Kubota. S., Masuko. K., Morishita. M., Murata. K., Ogata. K., Sato. T., Takamine. H., Yamaoka. H. and Kondoh. M. 1986. A list of ants collected at Akiyoshi-dai (Yamaguchi-ken) by the members of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) in 1985. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 14: 5-6
- Johnson R. Personnal Database. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://www.asu.edu/clas/sirgtools/resources.htm
- Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, 2003. Report of Rapid Biodiversity Assessments at Damingshan National Nature Reserve, Central Guangxi, China, April and September 2000. South China Forest Biodiversity Survey Report Series (Online Simplified Version): No. 34. KFBG, Hong Kong SAR, ii + 20 pp.
- Kawahara Y., S. Hosoyamada, and S. Yamane. 1999. Ant fauna of the Terayama Station for Education and Research on Nature, Kagoshima University. Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University. Natural Science 50: 147-156.
- Kida Y., and S. Hori. 2013. Ants from Okushiri-Island, Hokkaido, Japan. Ari 35: 1-5.
- Kim B., Ryu D., Park S., and J. Kim. 1994. Systematic study on ants from coasts of Korean Peninsula (Hym: Formicidae). Korean journal of entomology 24: 293-309.
- Kim B.J. 1986. A systematic study of ants in Island Ullungdo of Korea on the basis of external fine features. The journal of Natural Science 5(2): 84-94.
- Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
- Kim B.J., K.G. Kim, D.P. Ryu, J.H. Kim. 1995. Ants of Chindo island in Korea (Hymenoptera; Formicidae). The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 11(1): 101-113.
- Kim B.J., K.G. Kim, J.H. Kim, S.J. Park. Ants from Mt. Mirok. Korean J. Soil Zoology 2(2): 115-128.
- Kim B.J., S.J. Park, and J.H. Kim. 1996. Ants from Naejangsan national park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Korean J. Soil. Zoology &(2): 120-133.
- Kim C.H., B.M. Choi, and J.R. Bang. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (8)-Ant fauna in 10 islands, Chollanam-do. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 31(4): 345-359.
- Kim K.I., C.H. Kim, and B. Choi. 1989. The ant fauna of the southern shore in Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea. Journal of Gyeongsang Nat. Univ. 28(2): 213-226.
- Kim et al. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo Province. Koran Journal of Entomology 23(3): 117-141.
- Kim, Byung-Jin, Ky-Gyong Kim, Dong-Pyo Ryu and Joong-Hyon Kim. 1995. The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology. 11(1):101-113.
- Kishimoto R., and N. Tsurusaki. 2011. Ant fauna of Tottori Sand dunes and surrounding sand erosion control forests. Sanin Natural History Research 6: 37-44.
- Kondoh M. 1988. Ant communities at the submountain zone of Seimoh, Gumma Prefecture, in relation to vegetation types. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 2
- Kubota. S., and M. Terayama. 1988. Ant fauna of Tokyo. (1) A list of ants collected at the parks. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 14-16
- Kupianskaya A. N., Lelej, A.S., and Urbain, B. K. 2000. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist. 92:1-21.
- Kupianskaya, A. N., Lelej, A.S., and Urbain, B. K. 2000. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist. 92:1-21.
- Kwon T. S. 2012. Korean ant atlas. Korea Forest Research Institute 162 pages.
- Kwon T. S. 2015. Ant assemblages along the Baekdudaegan Mountain Range in South Korea: Human roads and temperature niche. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8: 152-157.
- Kwon T. S. 2018. High competition between ant species at intermediate temperatures. Journal of Thermal Biology 72: 59-66.
- Kwon T. S., S. S. Kim, and J. H. Chun. 2014. Pattern of ant diversity in Korea: An empirical test of Rapoport's altitudinal rule. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 17: 161167.
- Kwon T.-S., M.-Y. Song, S.-C. Shin, and Y.-S. Park. 2005. Effects of aerial insecticide sprays on ant communities to control pine wilt disease in Korean pine forests. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40(4): 563574.
- Kwon T.S., C. M. Lee, J. H. Chun, J. H. Sung, and S. K. Kim. 2011. Ants in Hongneung forest. Korea Forest Research Institute, 92 pages.
- Lelej A. S. 2012. Annotated catalogue of the Insects of Russian Far East. Volume 1. Hymenoptera. Dalnauka: Vladivostok. 635 p.
- Li Q., Y. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and S. Wang. 2009. Diversity of ants in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Pu'er City, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science 17(3): 233-239.
- Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
- Lyu D.P. 2003. Systematics of Myrmicinae from Korea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PhD thesis Faculty of the Graduate School of Chungbuk National University 330 pages.
- Maeto K. and S. Sato. 2004. Impacts of forestry on ant species richness and composition in warm-temperate forests of Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 187: 213223.
- Manabe K. 1994. Ants of the shrine forest in Fukuoka Prefecture (second report; ants of mountain zone). Ari 17: 8.
- Mano T., and N. Kanie. 2004. Investigations of insects at Hirosawagawa river in the northern area of Toyota City (Aichi Prefecture). Yahagi research (?????) 8: 123-147.
- Masuko K. 1982. A data on the myrmecofauna of Miyake Island. Ari 10: 1-2.
- Masuko, K. 2010. Nest density and distribution of subterranean ants in an evergreen broadleaf forest in Japan with special reference to Amblyopone silvestrii. Entomological Science 13:193
- Matsumura S. and Yamane Sk. 2012. Species composition and dominant species of ants in Jigenji Park, Kagoshima City, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 38: 99107
- Matsumura S., and S. Yamane. 2012. Species composition and dominant species of ants in Jigenji Park, Kagoshima City, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 38: 99-107.
- Mizota K. 2002. A check list of insects in Kinkazan Island, Miyagi Pref., Northeastern Japan: A bibliographical Survey. Bulletin of Miyagi University of Education Environmental Education 5: 69-78.
- Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletin of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University 36:509-516.
- Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests Hokkaido University 36(2): 509-516.
- Morisita M. 1945. Ants of the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan. [In Japanese.] Mushi 16:21-28.
- Ogata K. 1982. Taxonomic study of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood of Japan, with a deszcription of a new species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Kontyu, Tokyo 50(2): 189-197.
- Ogata K., Y. Hirashima, T. Miura, Y. Maeta, K. Yano, and J. Ko. 1985. Ants collected in pine forests infested by the pine needle gall midge in Korea (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Esakia (23): 159-163.
- Ogata. K., Touyama, Y. and Choi, B. M. 1994. Ant fauna of Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 18-25
- Paik W.H. 1984. A checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Korea. Korean J. Plant Prot. 23(3): 193-195.
- Pan Y.S. 2007. Systematic Study on the Ant Genera Pheidole Westwood and Aphaenogaster Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formincidae : Myrmicinae) In China. Guangxi Normal University, Guangxi, China. 73 pages.
- Park S. H., S. Hosoishi, K. Ogata, and Y. Kuboki. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003
- Park S. J., and B. J. Kim. 2000. Genetic and morphological variation of Pheidole fervida (Hym., Formicidae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 30: 169-175.
- Park S. J., and B. J. Kim. 2000. Systematic study of Pheidolini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 30: 107-114.
- Park S.J., and B.J. Kim. 2002. Faunal comparison of ants among Cheongsando and other islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(1): 7-12.
- Park S.J.; Kim, B.J. 2000. Systematic study of Pheidolini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 30: 107-114.
- Park, Seong, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Faunal Comparison of Ants among Cheongsando and Other Islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Jornal of Entomology. 32(1):7-12.
- Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55: 127-221.
- Radchenko, A. 2005. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici 55(2): 127-221.
- Sakai H. 2002. Reproductive flight season of Japanese ants. Ari 26: 33-39.
- Sato T., N. Tsurusaki, K. Hamaguchi, and K. Kinomura. 2010. Ant fauna of Tottori prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of the Tottori Prefectural Museum 47: 27-44.
- Shimazaki, A. and Miyashita, T. 2005. Variable dependence on detrital and grazing food webs by generalist predators: aerial insects and web spiders. Ecography 28: 485-495.
- So, Ha, Seong, Jin, Park, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Comparitive Ant Faunas between Seonyudo and Seven other Islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology. 32:75-79.
- Song Y., Z. H. Xu, C. L. Li, Y. Q. Hao, and H. B. Li. 2014. Ant communities of Nangun River Nature Reserve in Yunnan. Journal of West China Forestry Science 45(5): 93-100.
- Song Y., Z. Xu, C. Li, N. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Mo. 2013. An Analysis on the Ant Fauna of the Nangun river Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Forest Research 26(6): 773-780.
- Tamura H., Y. Nakamura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Fujikawa. 1969. An ecological survey of soil fauna in Hidaka-Mombetsu, Southern Hokkaido. Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University, Zoology 17(1): 17-57.
- Tanaka H. O., T. F. Haraguchi, I. Tayasu, and F. Hyodo. 2019. Stable and radio-isotopic signatures reveal how the feeding habits of ants respond to natural secondary succession in a cool-temperate forest. Insectes Sociaux 66(1): 37-46.
- Tang J., Li S., Huang E., Zhang B. and Chen Y. 1995. Hymenoptera: Formicidae (1). Economic Insect Fauna of China 47: 1-133.
- Taniwaki T., H. Kuno, and H. Hosoda. 2005. Annual changes of community structure of ground insects at the isolated small stands in suburbs of Tokyo. Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 30(3): 552-560.
- Terayama M. 1977. Checklist of the known ants of Saitama Prefecture. Insects and nature 12(4): 26-27
- Terayama M. 1983. Kagoshima-ken-hondo no ari. Kanagawa-chucho (Journal of the Kanagawa Entomologists Association): 13-24.
- Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
- Terayama M. 1994. Ants of Okushiri-to Island, Hokkaido. Ari 18: 28-29.
- Terayama M., Choi, B.M., Kim, C.H. 1992. A check list of ants from Korea, with taxonomic notes. Bulletin of the Toho Gakuen 7:19-54.
- Terayama M., K. Ogata, and B.M. Choi. 1994. Distribution records of ants in 47 prefectures of Japan. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17.
- Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
- Terayama M., and K. Murata. 1987. Relation between ant communities and vegetations of Toshima island, the Izu Islands. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 42(9): 57-63.
- Terayama M., and K. Murata. 1990. Effects of area and fragmentation of forests for nature conservation: Analysis by ant communities. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 45(2): 11-17.
- Terayama M., and R. Sonobe. 2002. Ants from the Nasu Imperial Villa, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Flora and fauna of the Tochigi Prefectural Museum research report Nasu Imperial Villa 157-161.
- Terayama M., and S. Kubota. 2002. Ants of Tokyo, Japan. ARI 26: 1-32.
- Terayama M., and S. Yamane. 1984. Ants of Yaku-shima Island, the northern Ryukyus, with reference to their altitudinal distribution (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Cons. Rep. Yaku-shima Wildness Area, Kyushu, Japan, pp. 643-667. Nat. Cons. Bureau, Env. Agency, Japan.
- Terayama. M. 1994. Ants of Okushiri-to Island, Hokkaido. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 28-29
- Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:23
- Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:30
- Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:31
- Terayama. M. 2004. Geological and ecological distribution of Japanese ants communities. (translated from Japanese) Reports of the Saitama Prefecture Animal Research Association. 48:32
- Teruyama. M. 1988. Ant fauna of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 4-13
- Touyama Y., N. Nakagoshi, and T. Yamamoto. 1997. Myrmecofauna of lucidophyllous forests in different developmental stages in south-western Japan. Ecological Research 12: 131-138.
- Wheeler W. M. 1928. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Japan and Korea. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 22: 96-125.
- Xu Z., Liu T.-Y., He Y.-F. and Zeng G. 1998. A comparative study on the ant communities in primeval and secondary forests of four vegetation subtypes in Xishuangbanna of China. Zoological Research 20: 360-364.
- Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
- Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.
- Yamauchi K. 1968. Additional Notes on the Ecological Distribution of Ants in Sapporo and the Vicinity . Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokaido University, series VI, Zoology 16(3): 382-395.
- Yamazaki Y., S. Yamane, T. Hishida, T. Kuwahara, and N. Inoue. 2009. Ant fauna on the grounds of the Kashima-Jingu Shrine, Ibaraki, Central Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Ibaraki Nat. Mus. 12: 5-14.
- Yoshimura M., T. Hirata, A. Nakajima, and K. Onoyama. 2003. Ants found in scats and pellets taken from the nests of the Japanese Wryneck Jynx torquilla japonica. Ornithol. Sci. 2: 127-131.
- Yoshitomi H., and S. Matsuno. 2012. List of species of Hymenoptera and Diptera in Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. pp. 167-176. In: Committee for Surveys of Natural Environment of Matsuyama City (Chief Editor: Kazuo ISHIKAWA) (ed.) Checklist of the Wild Animals, Fungi, and Plants of Matsuyama City, 2012. Published by the Department of Environment, Matsuyama City, 404 pp.
- Zhang Xiang, and Hou You-Ming. 2009. Five new record genus and thirty one new records species of ants (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) in Fujian Province. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University 38(5): 479-484.