This species inhabits well-developed lowland and hill forests, and usually nests in rotting wood blocks on the ground.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Eguchi (2001) - P. sauberi is most closely related to Pheidole elisae, Pheidole sarawakana and Pheidole tandjongensis (see under P. elisae), and is sympatric with P. elisae and P. sarawakana in several localities. In P. elisae and P. sarawakana occipital lobe of the major is smooth and shining; and in P. sarawakana eye of both the subcastes is relatively small.
Keys including this Species
- Key to Pheidole majors and minors of Borneo
- Key to Pheidole majors of Borneo
- Key to Pheidole minors of Borneo
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 4.966666667° to 3.7225°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.
Association with Other Organisms
- This species is a host for the nematode Mermithidae (species unspecified) (a parasite) in Philippines (General & Buenavente, 2021).
Life History Traits
- Queen number: monogynous
- Mean colony size: 600 (500 minor workers, 100 major workers)
- Nest site: dead wood
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- sauberi. Pheidole sauberi Forel, 1905c: 18 (s.w.) INDONESIA (Java). See also: Eguchi, 2001a: 25; Eguchi, 2001b: 112.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Eguchi (2001a) - Major (n=7): TL 2.1-2.7 mm, HL 1.00-1.20 mm, HW 0.91-1.09 mm, SL 0.53-0.61 mm, FL 0.66-0.78 mm, CI 89-91, 51 53-59, FI 68-74. Head broadest at 3/5-2/3 distance of head (as measured from the mid-point of a transverse line spanning the anteriormost and posteriormost projecting points, respectively) (Fig. 46A), in profile not impressed on vertex (Fig. 46B). Hypostoma bearing a pair of median processes (Fig. 46C). Clypeus without a median longitudinal carina, with anterior margin emarginate medially. Eye situated at about 1/3 distance of head; distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye 1.4-1.7 times as long as maximal diameter of eye; 6-7 ommatidia present on longest axis of eye. Frontal carina inconspicuous, extending backward to 3/5-2/3 distance of head. Antennal scrobe present only around antennal insertion. Antenna with 3-segmented club; antennal scape reaching about 3/5 distance of head; terminal segment 1.1-1.2 times as long as preceding two segments together. Masticatory margin of mandible with apical and pre apical teeth, and a denticle in front of basal angle. Promesonotum forming a high dome, without a prominence on its posterior declivity (Fig. 46D); each dorsolateral portion of the dome not produced outward. Mesopleuron divided by a transverse impression into two parts, of which lower part is distinctly margined dorsally. Propodeal spine horn-like, 2-2.5 times as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle. Petiole 1.8-2.0 times as long as postpetiole (excluding helcium); petiolar node high (Fig. 46D), in posterior view not emarginate at apex. Postpetiole high, 1.4-1.5 times as broad as petiolar node.
Dorsum of head completely covered with longitudinal rugulae (Fig. 46A; sometimes rugoso-reticulate around posterodorsal extremity of occipital lobe); lateral face of occipital lobe smooth and shining, or finely rugoso-punctured and dull; promesonotum smooth and shining, with several transverse rugulae dorsally; remainder of alitrunk smooth and shining, or weakly punctured; lateral faces of petiole and postpetiole weakly punctured; dorsa of petiole and postpetiole, and gaster smooth and shining. Outer face of mandible sparsely covered with decumbent hairs, which are 0.08-0.11 mm in length and much longer than distance between piligerous punctures. Body yellowish-brown, brown, reddish-brown or dark reddish-brown; antennae and legs a little lighter than alitrunk.
Minor (n=7): TL 1.4-1.8 mm, HL 0.48-0.58 mm, HW 0.43-0.51 mm, SL 0.47-0.56 mm, AL 0.63-0.75 mm, FL 0.50-0.61 mm, CI88-92, SI 102-112, FI 110-120. Head in full-face view almost straight posteriorly (Fig. 46E); occipital carina almost absent dorsally on bead. Clypeus without median longitudinal carina, with anterior margin in full-face view slightly convex or truncate medially. Eye situated just in front of midlength of head; distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye 0.8-0.9 times as long as maximal diameter of eye (Fig. 46F); 5-6 ommatidia present on longest axis of eye. Frontal carina sometimes present as an evanescent rugula which extends to 1/2-2/3 distance of head (as measured from anteriormost and posteriormost of head). Antennal scrobe present only around antennal insertion. Antenna with 3-segmented club; scape extending beyond posterior border of head by its 1/4-1/5 length; terminal segment 1.1-1.2 times as long as preceding two segments together. Promesonotum convex, without any prominence on its posterior declivity (Fig. 46G). Mesopleuron divided by transverse impression into two parts of which lower part is distinctly margined dorsally. Propodeal spine almost twice as long as diameter of propodeal spiracle. Petiole 1.9-2.0 times as long as postpetiole (excluding helcium); petiolar node high (Fig. 46G), in posterior view not emarginate at apex. Postpetiole high, 1.3-1.4 times as broad as petiolar node.
Gena with several rugulae; remainder of head including clypeus, and promesonotum smooth and shining; remainder of alitrunk smooth and shining, or weakly punctured partly; lateral face of petiole inconspicuously punctured; dorsum of petiole, and postpetiole and gaster smooth and shining. Body light yellowish-brown, light brown, brown or dark brown; flagella and legs a little lighter than alitrunk.
Eguchi (2001b) - major and minor: Sarawak, Borneo. Six syntypes (3 majors and 3 minors, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève) were examined, of which one major is designated as the lectotype.
- Eguchi, K. 2001a. A revision of the Bornean species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Tropics Monograph Series. 2:1-154.
- Eguchi, K. 2001b. A taxonomic study on Asian Pheidole (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): new synonymy, rank changes, lectotype designations and redescriptions. Insecta Koreana. 18:1-35. (page 25, see also)
- Eguchi, K. 2003. A Study on the Male Genitalia of Some Asian Species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 41(2): 317-355 (page 335, figs. 25A, B male genitalia described)
- Forel, A. 1905f. Ameisen aus Java. Gesammelt von Prof. Karl Kraepelin 1904. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 22: 1-26 (page 18, soldier, worker described)
- General, D.E.M., Buenavente, P.A.C. 2021. The real deal: the ant species, Pheidole sauberi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), first description of the queen and first record of a mermithergate in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 15(1): 1-8 (doi:10.26757/pjsb2021a1500x).
- Khachonpisitsak, S., Yamane, S., Sriwichai, P., Jaitrong, W. 2020. An updated checklist of the ants of Thailand (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 998, 1–182 (doi:10.3897/zookeys.998.54902).
- Tseng, S.-P. 2020. Evolutionary history of a global invasive ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Dissertation_全文 ). Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University.
- Tseng, S.-P., Hsu, P.-W., Lee, C.-C., Wetterer, J.K., Hugel, S., Wu, L.-H., Lee, C.-Y., Yoshimura, T., Yang, C.-C.S. 2020. Evidence for common horizontal transmission of Wolbachia among ants and ant crickets: Kleptoparasitism added to the list. Microorganisms 8, 805. (doi:10.3390/MICROORGANISMS8060805).
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Abe T., S. Yamane, and K. Onoyama. Ants collected on the Krakatau Islands 100 years after the great eruptions. Biogeography 14: 65-75.
- Asfiya W., R. Ubaidillah, and Sk. Yamane. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Krakataus, and Sebesi and Sebuku islands. Treubia 36: 1-9.
- Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
- Eguchi K. 2001. A revision of the Bornean species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Tropics Monograph Series 2: 1-154.
- Eguchi K. 2001. A taxonomic study on Asian Pheidole (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): new synonymy, rank changes, lectotype designations and redescriptions. Insecta Koreana 18: 1-35.
- Eguchi K. 2003. A study on the male genitalia of some Asian species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 41: 317-355.
- Eguchi K., and S. Yamane. 2003. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a lowland rainforest, northwestern Borneo. New Entomol. 52(1,2): 49-59.
- Forel A. 1905. Ameisen aus Java. Gesammelt von Prof. Karl Kraepelin 1904. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 22: 1-26.
- Jaitrong W., and T. Ting-Nga. 2005. Ant fauna of Peninsular Botanical Garden (Khao Chong), Trang Province, Southern Thailand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(2): 137-147.
- Jaitrong W.; Nabhitabhata, J. 2005. A list of known ant species of Thailand. The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(1): 9-54.
- Kishimoto-Yamata K., F. Hyodo, M. Matsuoka, Y. Hashimoto, M. Kon, T. Ochi, S. Yamane, R. Ishii, and T. Itioka. 2012. Effects of remnant primary forests on ant and dung beetle species diversity in a secondary forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Insect Conservation DOI 10.1007/s10841-012-9544-6
- Mezger D., and M. Pfeiffer. 2011. Partitioning the impact of abiotic factors and spatial patterns on species richness and community structure of ground ant assemblages in four Bornean rainforests. Ecography 34: 39-48.
- Mezger D., and M. Pfeiffer. 2011. Partitioning the impact of abiotic factors and spatial patterns on species richness and community structure of ground assemblages in four Bornean rainforest. Ecography 34: 39-48.
- Pfeiffer M., D. Mezger, and J. Dyckmans. 2013. Trophic ecology of tropical leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a stable isotope study in four types of Bornean rain forest. Myrmecological News 19: 31-41.
- Pfeiffer M., and D. Mezger. 2012. Biodiversity Assessment in Incomplete Inventories: Leaf Litter Ant Communities in Several Types of Bornean Rain Forest. PLoS ONE 7(7): e40729. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040756
- Pfeiffer M., and D. Mezger. 2012. Biodiversity Assessment in Incomplete Inventories: Leaf Litter Ant Communities in Several Types of Bornean Rain Forest. PLoS ONE 7(7): e40729. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040932
- Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
- Watanasit S., and T. Nhu-eard. 2011. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in two rubber plantations in Songkhla Province, Soutern Thailand. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 33(2): 151-161.
- Woodcock P., D. P. Edwards, R. J. Newton, C. Vun Khen, S. H. Bottrell, and K. C. Hamer. 2013. Impacts of Intensive Logging on the Trophic Organisation of Ant Communities in a Biodiversity Hotspot. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60756. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060756
- Woodcock P., D. P. Edwards, T. M. Fayle, R. J. Newton, C. Vun Khen, S. H. Bottrell, and K. C. Hamer. 2011. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 366: 3256-3264.
- Yamane S. 2013. A Review of the ant fauna of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. Hum. Hist. Ser: A, 11: 1-66