Pogonomyrmex carbonarius

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Pogonomyrmex carbonarius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Pogonomyrmecini
Genus: Pogonomyrmex
Species group: rastratus
Species: P. carbonarius
Binomial name
Pogonomyrmex carbonarius
Mayr, 1868

Pogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103527 profile 1.jpg

Pogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103527 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


This species can be common along the sides of roads in northern Patagonia. Nest entrances are exposed, and built in an open area, with no vegetation surrounding the nest. Workers were relatively abundant and conspicuous on the ground. (N. Kusnezov).


Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: -34.604° to -41.135°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Argentina (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Aput et al. (2019) assessed how prevelant introduced plant seeds were in the diet of this seed harvester. A field trial showed the ants foraged in two daily bouts (morning and evening), and introduced species made up a small percentage of the seeds they gathered. Pogonomyrmex carbonarius foragers showed a clear preference for the native grass Pappostipa speciosa (Trin. & Rupr.) in preference trials that included both native and introduced plant seeds.



Images from AntWeb

Pogonomyrmex variabilis casent0173350 head 1.jpgPogonomyrmex variabilis casent0173350 profile 1.jpgPogonomyrmex variabilis casent0173350 dorsal 1.jpgPogonomyrmex variabilis casent0173350 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0173350. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MHNG, Geneva, Switzerland.


Images from AntWeb

Pogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103391 head 1.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103391 profile 1.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103391 profile 2.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103391 dorsal 1.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103391 label 1.jpg
Queen (alate/dealate). Specimen code casent0103391. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by USNM, Washington, DC, USA.


Images from AntWeb

Pogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103526 head 1.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103526 profile 1.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103526 profile 2.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103526 dorsal 1.jpgPogonomyrmex carbonarius casent0103526 label 1.jpg
Male (alate). Specimen code casent0103526. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by USNM, Washington, DC, USA.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • carbonarius. Pogonomyrmex carbonarius Mayr, 1868b: 172 (w.) ARGENTINA.
    • Junior synonym of rastratus: Mayr, 1887: 611; Dalla Torre, 1893: 119.
    • Revived from synonymy as subspecies of rastratus: Emery, 1906c: 157; Gallardo, 1932b: 136.
    • Revived status as species: Kusnezov, 1951a: 251; Johnson, 2021: 57.
  • kusnezovi. Pogonomyrmex kusnezovi Cuezzo & Claver, 2009: 105, figs. 3, 4 (w.) ARGENTINA.
    • Junior synonym of carbonarius: Johnson, 2021: 57.
  • variabilis. Pogonomyrmex vermiculatus var. variabilis Santschi, 1916b: 511 (w.m.) ARGENTINA.
    • Raised to species: Kusnezov, 1951a: 253.
    • Junior synonym of carbonarius: Johnson, 2021: 57.
  • neuquensis. Pogonomyrmex weiseri var. neuquensis Santschi, 1922d: 243 (w.) ARGENTINA.
    • Junior synonym of rastratus: Kusnezov, 1951a: 252.
    • Junior synonym of carbonarius: Johnson, 2021: 57.

Type Material

Taxonomic Notes

Cuezzo & Claver (2009), discussing Pogonomyrmex kusnezovi - Scape short (SI: 62-66), longitudinally striated, with suberect hairs, without pubescence. Clypeal area between frontal lobes with 3-4 rugae always present. Upper propodeal spine short and stout, connected by conspicuous keel to contralateral tooth. Lower propodeal spine present, triangular and well developed. This species is close to Pogonomyrmex andinus from which it can be differentiated by the following characters: CI: 101-103. P. kusnezovi is larger than P. andinus, with shorter scape, and darker body. The development of the upper and lower propodeal spine is another useful character to distinguish both species.



  • Aput, L. M., A. G. Farji-Brener, and G. I. Pirk. 2019. Effects of Introduced Plants on Diet and Seed Preferences of Pogonomyrmex carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Patagonian Steppe. Environmental Entomology. 48:567-572. doi:10.1093/ee/nvz022
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 119, Senior synonym of rastratus)
  • Emery, C. 1906c [1905]. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. XXVI. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 37: 107-194 (page 157, Revived from synonymy as variety of rastratus)
  • Gallardo, A. 1932c. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Mirmicinas, segunda sección Eumyrmicinae, tribu Myrmicini (F. Smith), género Pogonomyrmex Mayr. An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. B. Aires 37: 89-170 (page 136, Revived from synonymy as variety of rastratus)
  • Johnson, R.A. 2021. A taxonomic revision of South American species of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part II. Zootaxa 5033, 1–230 (doi:10.11646/zootaxa.5033.1.1).
  • Kusnezov, N. 1951e. El género Pogonomyrmex Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Acta Zool. Lilloana 11: 227-333 (page 251, Revived status as species)
  • Mayr, G. 1868b. Formicidae novae Americanae collectae a Prof. P. de Strobel. Annu. Soc. Nat. Mat. Modena 3: 161-178 (page 172, worker described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bruch C. 1914. Catálogo sistemático de los formícidos argentinos. Revista del Museo de La Plata 19: 211-234.
  • Cuezzo, F. 1998. Formicidae. Chapter 42 in Morrone J.J., and S. Coscaron (dirs) Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica Ediciones Sur, La Plata. Pages 452-462.
  • Gallardo A. 1932. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Mirmicinas, segunda sección Eumyrmicinae, tribu Myrmicini (F. Smith), género Pogonomyrmex Mayr. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 37: 89-170.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1951. El género Pogonomyrmex Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Acta Zoologica Lilloana 11: 227-333.
  • Kusnezov N. 1960. La fauna de hormigas en el oeste de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 17: 321-401.
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • Santschi F. 1916. Descriptions de fourmis nouvelles d'Afrique et d'Amérique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 84: 497-513.
  • Santschi F. 1922. Myrmicines, dolichodérines et autres formicides néotropiques. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 54: 345-378.