Polyrhachis hector

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Polyrhachis hector
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Camponotini
Genus: Polyrhachis
Subgenus: Myrmhopla
Species: P. hector
Binomial name
Polyrhachis hector
Smith, F., 1857

Polyrhachis hector-HUMCZ002L.jpg

Polyrhachis hector-sp002MindanaoD.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Identification

A member of the Polyrhachis hector species group.

Kohout (2008) - Specimens of Polyrhachis hector feature a set of distinct, spur-like spines along the inner edge of the hind tibia, that are lacking in Polyrhachis abdominalis. The latter species is also distinctly more slender.

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore (type locality).
Oriental Region: India, Myanmar.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • rubiginosa. Formica ruiginosa Le Guillou, 1842: 316 (w.) BORNEO. [Junior primary homonym of Formica rubiginosa Latreille, 1802c: 170.] Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1990b: 760 (l.). Combination in Polyrhachis: Roger, 1863b: 7 (spelling emended to rubiginosa); in P. (Myrmhopla): Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 130. Senior synonym of hector Smith, F. 1857a: 62, hence the latter the first available replacement name for rubiginosa Le Guillou: Dorow, 1995: 55.
  • hector. Polyrhachis hector Smith, F. 1857a: 62 (w.) SINGAPORE. Imai, Brown, et al. 1984: 68 (k.). Combination in P. (Myrmhopla): Emery, 1925b: 193. [Earliest junior synonym of rubiginosa Le Guillou, 1842: 316 (junior primary homonym of rubiginosa Latreille, 1802c: 170) and hence first available replacement name: Dorow, 1995: 55.] Senior synonym of malignus, reversa: Bolton, 1974b: 174; of achilles: Dorow, 1995: 55.
  • malignus. Polyrhachis malignus Smith, F. 1858b: 70, pl. 4, fig. 44 (q.) PHILIPPINES. Combination in P. (Myrmhopla): Emery, 1925b: 195. Junior synonym of hector: Bolton, 1974b: 174.
  • achilles. Polyrhachis achilles Forel, 1893c: 24 (diagnosis in key) (w.) MYANMAR. Junior synonym of abdominalis: Bingham, 1903: 398; of hector: Dorow, 1995: 55.
  • reversa. Polyrhachis abdominalis var. reversa André, 1896b: 253 (w.) PHILIPPINES. Combination in P. (Myrmhopla): Emery, 1925b: 192. Junior synonym of hector: Bolton, 1974b: 174.

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Polyrhachis hector

Holotype worker in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “SING. 9” (= Singapore) and with a Donisthorpe type-label.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 21, 2n = 42 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).

References

  • André, E. 1896d. Fourmis nouvelles d'Asie et d'Australie. Rev. Entomol. (Caen) 15: 251-265.
  • Bolton, B. 1974b [1973]. New synonymy and a new name in the ant genus Polyrhachis F. Smith (Hym., Formicidae). Entomol. Mon. Mag. 109: 172-180 (page 174, Senior synonym of malignus and reversa)
  • Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenb. 185: 1-113 (page 55, Senior synonym of achilles)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 193, Combination in P. (Myrmhopla))
  • Imai, H. T.; Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kubota, M.; Yong, H.-S.; Tho, Y. P. 1984. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from western Malaysia. II. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 34: 66-69 (page 68, karyotype described)
  • Kohout, R.J. 2008a. A review of the Polyrhachis ants of Sulawesi with keys and descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 52:255-317.
  • Smith, F. 1857a. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 62, worker described)
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 8, Replacement name: andromache)
  • Smith, F. 1859a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at the islands of Aru and Key. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 3: 132-158 (page 142, worker described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • André E. 1896. Fourmis nouvelles d'Asie et d'Australie. Rev. Entomol. (Caen) 15: 251-265.
  • Ashmead W. H. 1904. A list of the Hymenoptera of the Philippine Islands, with descriptions of new species. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 12:1-22.
  • Bolton B. 1974. New synonymy and a new name in the ant genus Polyrhachis F. Smith (Hym., Formicidae). Entomol. Mon. Mag. 109: 172-180
  • Emery C. 1886. Saggio di un catalogo sistematico dei generi Camponotus, Polyrhachis e affini. Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna 5: 363-382
  • Fayle T. M., E. C. Turner, J. L. Snaddon, V. Khen Chey, A. Y. C. Chung, P. Eggleton, and W. A. Foster. 2010. Oil palm expansion into rain forest greatly reduces ant biodiversity in canopy, epiphytes and leaf-litter. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 337–345.
  • Figueras G. S., and O. M. Nuneza. 2013. Species diversity of ants in karst limestone habitats in Bukidnon and Davao Oriental, Mindanao, Philippines. Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society 5(3): 306-315.
  • Floren A., W. Wetzel, and M. Staab. 2013. The contribution of canopy species to overall ant diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in temperate and tropical ecosystems. – Myrmecological News 19: 65-74.
  • Hashimoto Y., Y. Morimoto, E. S. Widodo, and M. Mohamed. 2006. Vertical distribution pattern of ants in a Bornean tropical rainforest (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 47(3): 697- 710.
  • Kohout R.J., and M. Mohamed. 2008. A preliminary list of the Polyrhachis ants of the Maliau Basin Conservation area in Sabah, Borneo (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Asian Myrmecology 2: 63-70.
  • Mathew R. 2003. On Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Nongkhyllem Wild Life Sanctuary, Ri-Bhoi District, Meghalaya. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 101:195-207.
  • Mohanraj P., M. Ali, and K. Veerakumari. 2010. Formicidae of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal). Journal of Insect Science 10: Article 172
  • Mohanraj, P., M. Ali and K. Veenakumari. 2010. Formicidae of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Indian Ocean: Bay Of Bengal). Journal of Insect Science 10:172.
  • Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
  • Robson Simon Database Polyrhachis -05 Sept 2014
  • Sukimin S., M. Mohamed, and H. Aris. 2010. Ant diversity of Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 6:89-101.
  • Tanaka H. O., S. Yamane, and T. Itioka. 2012. Effects of a fern-dwelling ant species, Crematogaster difformis, on the ant assemblages of emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 105(4): 592-598.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.
  • Way M. J., and B. Bolton. 1997. Competition between ants for coconut palm nesting sites. Journal of Natural History 31: 439-455.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1909. Ants of Formosa and the Philippines. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 26: 333-345.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1919. The ants of Borneo. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 63:43-147.
  • Widodo E. S., T. Naito, M. Mohamed, and Y. Hashimoto. 2004. Effects of selective logging on the arboreal ants of a Bornean rainforest. Entomological Science 7: 341-349.
  • Widodo E.S., M. Mohamed, and Y. Hashimoto. 2001. Canopy ant diversity assessment in the fragmented rainforest of Sabah, East Malaysia. Nature and Human activities 6: 13-23.
  • Yamane S.; Nona, A. R. 1994. Ants from Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak. Pp. 222-226 in: Inoue, T.; Hamid, A. A. (eds.) 1994. Plant reproductive systems and animal seasonal dynamics. Long-term study of dipterocarp forests in Sarawak. Kyoto: Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, vii + 255 pp.