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Temporal range: Early/Lower Campanian, Cretaceous Ola Formation, Tenkinskii, Russian Federation
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Uncertain
Genus: Poneropterus
Dlussky, 1983
Type species
Poneropterus sphecoides
Single species: Poneropterus sphecoides



This taxon is known from Ola Formation, Tenkinskii, Russian Federation (Early/Lower Campanian, Cretaceous).



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • PONEROPTERUS [incertae sedis in Formicidae]
    • Poneropterus Dlussky, 1983: 73. Type-species: †Poneropterus sphecoides, by original designation.

Taxonomic history

  • Poneropterus in †Armaniidae: Dlussky, 1983: 67; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77; Grimaldi, et al. 1997: 7.
  • Poneropterus in †Sphecomyrminae: Wilson, 1987: 49.
  • Poneropterus in †Armaniinae, †Armaniini: Bolton, 1994: 187; Bolton, 2003: 260.
  • Poneropterus incertae sedis in Formicidae: Borysenko, 2017: 14.
  • Poneropterus as junior synonym of †Sphecomyrma: Wilson, 1987: 49; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9.
  • Poneropterus as genus: Wilson, 1987: 49; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77; Carpenter, 1992: 494; Grimaldi, et al. 1997: 7; subsequent authors.
  • Poneropterus catalogues: Bolton, 1995b: 363.
  • Poneropterus references: Grimaldi, et al. 1997: 5 (notes).


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 187, Poneropterus in Armaniinae)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 363, Poneropterus as genus)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 260, Poneropterus in Armaniinae, Armaniini)
  • Borysenko, L.H. 2017. Description of a new genus of primitive ants from Canadian amber, with the study of relationships between stem- and crown-group ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insecta Mundi 570: 1–57.
  • Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part R. Arthropoda 4. Volume 4. Superclass Hexapoda. Boulder: Geological Society of America, pp. i-ii, 279-655. (page 494, Poneropterus revived from synonymy)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1983. A new family of Upper Cretaceous Hymenoptera: an "intermediate link" between the ants and the scolioids. Paleontol. Zh. 1983(3 3: 65-78 (page 67, 73, Poneropterus as genus; Poneropterus in Armaniidae)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 77, Poneropterus revived from synonymy; Poneropterus in Armaniidae)
  • Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. Am. Mus. Novit. 3208: 1-43 (page 7, Poneropterus in Armaniidae; Poneropterus as genus)
  • Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 9, Junior synonym of Sphecomyrma)
  • Wilson, E. O. 1987b. The earliest known ants: an analysis of the Cretaceous species and an inference concerning their social organization. Paleobiol. 13: 44-53 (page 49, Junior synonym of Sphecomyrma; Poneropterus in Sphecomyrminae)