(Wheeler, W.M., 1906)
According to JADG (1998) P. watasei lives in the soil of glossy-leaved evergreen forests. Choi et al. (1985) report the presence of P. watasei in the Korean peninsula. (Baroni Urbani and de Andrade 2003)
|At a Glance||• Larval Hemolymph Feeding|
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
A member of the pergandei clade. Outgroup of Proceratium compitale and Proceratium creek but differing from both species, in the worker and gyne, by the first funicular joint 1/3 longer than broad instead of 1/2 longer than broad, by the funicular joints about as long as broad instead of longer than broad and by the gastral tergite I strongly round on the curvature instead of slightly angulate. (Baroni Urbani and de Andrade 2003)
Keys including this Species
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 35.13333333° to 33.367°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Palaearctic Region: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Japan (type locality), Republic of Korea.
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.
Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- watasei. Sysphincta watasei Wheeler, W.M. 1906c: 303, pl. 41, fig. 5 (w.q.) JAPAN.
- Type-material: 1 syntype worker, 1 syntype queen.
- Type-localities: worker Japan: Okayama, Bizen (H. Sauter), queen Japan: Sagami Gulf, Kamakura (H. Sauter).
- Type-depository: DEIB?
- [Note: Wheeler does not nominate a type-depository, and no depository is noted by either Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002: 43, or Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003b: 215. It may be assumed that they are in the Sauter collection in DEIB.]
- [Misspelled as watsoni by Chapman & Capco, 1951: 77.]
- Ogata, 1987: 107 (m.); Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002: 45 (m.).
- Combination in Proceratium: Brown, 1958g: 248.
- Status as species: Emery, 1909c: 362; Yano, 1910: 418; Emery, 1911d: 51; Wheeler, W.M. 1928d: 98; Azuma, 1950: 34; Azuma, 1951: 86; Azuma, 1953: 1; Brown, 1958g: 248; Collingwood, 1976: 300; Azuma, 1977: 112; Onoyama, 1980: 196; Morisita, et al. 1989: 15; Bolton, 1995b: 367; Kim, Kim & Kim, 1998: 151; Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002: 43 (redescription); Imai, et al. 2003: 217; Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003b: 215 (redescription); Radchenko, 2005b: 132.
- Distribution: Japan, Korea.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2003) - Head longer than broad, with sides subparallel in the two anterior thirds and strongly convex in the posterior third. Anteromedian part of the clypeus rectangular and strongly protruding anteriorly. Anteromedian part of the clypeus, dorsally, with a variably impressed inverted Y-shaped carina. Frontal carinae gently diverging posteriorly, slightly raised and not very close each other. Lateral expansions of the frontal carinae narrow. Head anterolaterally with a short, longitudinal carina. Genal carina absent. Gular area not impressed. Eyes small, composed by a dark dot below or whithin the integument. First funicular joint 1/3 longer than broad. Funicular joints 2-10 about as broad as long. Last funicular joint slightly shorter than the sum of joints 8-10. Scapcs slightly short of the vertexal margin and gently thickening apically. Antennal torulus behind the lateral border of the clypeus. Masticatory margin of the mandibles with 5-6 denticles before the pointed apical tooth. Palp formula 4,3.
Mesosoma about as long as or slightly longer than the head (mandibles included). Promesopleural and meso-metapleural sutures impressed ventrally only. Propodeal dorsum between basal and declivous faces slightly incised. Basal and declivous faces of the propodeum dorsally separated by a narrow lamella interrupted medially. Declivous face of the propodeum with a broad, semitransparent lamella on each side, the lamella slightly denticulate apically, broader on the posterior half. Propodeal spiracle round and over the mid height in lateral view.
Petiole convex in profile, with the sides diverging on the anterior third and strongly convex posteriorly in dorsal view. Anterior border of the petiole gently concave and carinate, the carina sometimes forming a denticle on each side. Ventral process of the petiole lamelliform, short and triangular. Postpetiole anteriorly as broad as the petiole; its sides diverging on the anterior half and gently convex on the posterior half. Postpetiolar sternite anteromedially with a marked subtriangular projection. Posterior half of the postpetiolar sternite convex. Constriction between postpetiole and first gastral segment impressed. Gastral tergite I strongly round and slightly recurved forwards.
Legs slender. All tibiae with a pectinate spur. Spurs of fore legs with basal spine. Fore basitarsi as long as the mid ones. Hind basitarsi about 1/7 shorter than hind tibiae. Second tarsomere of hind legs longer than the pretarsus. Pretarsal claws simple. Arolia absent.
Sculpture. Head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole minutely reticulate-punctate sparsely and irregularly rugulose, the reticulation broader, deeper and resembling irregular foveae in some parts of the mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole. Gaster superficially shining and covered by minute, piligerous impressions. Legs punctate.
Body covered by hairs of three main types: (1) short, dense, subdecumbent on the whole body, sparse and suberect on the funicular joints; (2) longer than type (1), sparse and suberect on the whole body, absent on the funiculi; (3) shorter than hair type (1), dense and decumbent on the funicular joints only. In addition the funicular joints bear whitish, thick, appressed, short, sparse hairs, and the scapes with sparse hairs similar to type (2) but shorter.
Colour dark fesrugineous.
Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 4.68-5.20; HL 1.04-1.12; HW 0.87-0.96; EL 0.03-0.04; SL 0.81-0.89; WL 1.32-1.44; PeL 0.41-0.48; PeW 0.37-0.41; HFeL 0.96-1.08; HTiL 0.81-0.90; HBaL 0.68-0.80; LS4 0.39-0.41; LT4 1.08-1.22; CI 83.6-85.7; SI 78.0-79.5; IGR 0.34-0.36.
Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2003) - Differing from the worker in the following details: eyes about 1/7 of the head length and with well defined ommatidia. Ocular pilosity present. Ocelli present.
Mesosoma robust. Scutellum as long as the sides of the basal face of the propodeum; its lateral parts gently converging into a convex posterior border. Metanotum without denticle. Propodeal lamellae dorsally connected.
Fore wings of our type 1, hind wings of our type 2 as defined in the description of the genus.
Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 5.60; HL 1.16; HW 1.00; EL 0.16; SL 0.91; WL 1.62; PeL 0.48; Pew 0.46; WFeL 1.14; HTiL 0.95; HBaL 0.83; LS4 0.55; LT4 1.46; CI 86.2; SI 78.4; IGR 0.38.
Baroni Urbani and de Andrade (2003) - Worker and gyne. Type locality Okayama (Bizen) and Kamakaur (Sagami Gulf), Japan. Type material not available for the present study.
- Baroni Urbani, C., de Andrade, M.L. 2003. The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie, 36, 1–492. (page 215, fig. 90 worker described)
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1958g. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. II. Tribe Ectatommini (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 118: 173-362 (page 248, Combination in Proceratium)
- Hisasue, Y. 2018. Ant fauna of Matsuyama Castle. ARI 39: 18-36.
- Ogata, K. 1987a. A generic synopsis of the poneroid complex of the family Formicidae in Japan (Hymenoptera). Part 1. Subfamilies Ponerinae and Cerapachyinae. Esakia 25: 97-132 (page 107, male described)
- Onoyama, K. ; Yoshimura, M. 2002. The ants of the genus Proceratium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Entomol. Sci. 5(1): 29-49 (page 45, male described)
- Park, S.-H., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K., Kasuya, E. 2014. Changes of species diversity of ants over time: A case study in two urban parks. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 59(1), 71–76.
- Park, S.-H., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K., Kuboki, Y. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies 337, 545–552 (doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003).
- Wheeler, W. M. 1906h. The ants of Japan. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 22: 301-328 (page 303, pl. 41, fig. 5 worker, queen described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
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- Collingwood C. A. 1976. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from North Korea. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 68:
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