Protanilla bicolor

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Protanilla bicolor
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Leptanillinae
Tribe: Anomalomyrmini
Genus: Protanilla
Species: P. bicolor
Binomial name
Protanilla bicolor
Xu, Z., 2002

Protanilla bicolor casent0235341 p 1 high.jpg

Protanilla bicolor casent0235341 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Constructs nest in soil in the forest in mountain areas. A colony including 23 workers was observed. (Xu 2002)


Xu (2002) - Close to Protanilla rafflesi, but with head relatively broader, and alitrunk comparatively longer.

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: China (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • bicolor. Protanilla bicolor Xu, 2002a: 119, figs. 21-23 (w.) CHINA. See also: Xu & Zhang, 2002: 140.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Borowiec et al. (2011) - In the catalogue of Bolton et al. (2007) the names Leptanilla yunnanensis, Protanilla bicolor and Protanilla concolor are attributed to Xu & Zhang, 2002, who provided a key to differentiate the leptanilline species found in China, and not to Xu, 2002, who formally described the three species. This stems from the publication dates available for the two papers, with the Xu & Zhang paper predating the formal descriptions, according to imprint. However, the latest edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) provides regulations (Articles 16.1, 16.4) that do not allow considering the Xu & Zhang treatment as a publication of valid new names. According to article 16.4, each name published after 1999 must be accompanied by explicit type designation along with information on the place of deposition. Additionally, article 16.1 states that each new name published after 1999 must be explicitly indicated as intentionally new. The Xu & Zhang paper of 2002 does not meet the above mentioned requirements, and therefore the correct authorship of Leptanilla yunnanensis, Protanilla bicolor and P. concolor is Xu, 2002.



Zu and Zhang 2002 leptanillinae Fig 1-9.jpg

Holotype. TL 3.0, HL 0.53, HW 0.43, CI 81, SL 0.47, SI 108, PW 0.37, AL 0.87, PNL 0.24, PNW 0.19, PNH 0.30, PPNL 0.24, PPNW 0.21, PPNH 0.32. Head longer than broad, narrowed forward. In full-face view occipital margin shallowly emarginate, occipital corners roundly prominent. Lateral sides evenly convex, each side with a prominence near the antennal socket position. Clypeus longitudinally depressed, without a depressed longitudinal central line, anterior margin emarginate. Mandibles long triangular, curved down at apex, masticatory margin with 11 peg-like teeth. Antennae stout, apex of antennal scape just reached occipital corner, segments 4 - 10 broader than long. In profile view promesonotum higher than propodeum, mesothorax weakly constricted. Promesonotal suture distinct, metanotal groove shallowly depressed. Dorsum of propodeum straight, about 2 times as long as declivity, posterodorsal corner rounded. In profile view petiolar node narrowed upward, both anterior and posterior faces slope-like, dorsum convex, anterodorsal and posterodorsal corners rounded. Anteroventral corner of petiolar sternite bluntly extruded, with a circular subtransparent fovea. Postpetiolar node strongly inclined forward, anterodorsal corner roundly prominent, sternite longer than high. In dorsal view both petiolar node and postpetiolar node elliptic and longer than broad. First gastral segment large and about 3/5 as long as the gaster. Mandibles, head, alitrunk, petiole, postpetiole and gaster smooth and shining. Head and body with sparse suberect hairs and dense subdecumbent pubescence. Scapes and tibiae with sparse suberect hairs and dense decumbent pubescence. Body in color brownish yellow, posterior portion of mesothorax, metathorax, propodeum, petiole, postpetiole and first gastral segment black.

Paratypes: TL 2.7-3.0, HL 0.50-0.53, HW 0.42-0.45, CI 78-87, SL 0.43-0.47, SI 96-108, PW 0.33-0.38, AL 0.83-0.87, PNL 0.22-0.24, PNW 0.19-0.21, PNH 0.30-0.33, PPNL 0.24-0.26, PPNW 0.21-0.24, PPNH 0.32-0.35 (n = 8). As holotype.

Type Material

Holotype: worker, No. A97-2240, 1600 m, Papo Village, Meng’a Town, Menghai County, Yunnan Province, from a colony nesting in soil in deciduous broad-leaf forest, 1997.IX.9 (Xu Zhenghui). Paratypes: 22 workers, from the same colony as holotype and with the same data.


  • Borowiec, M.L., Schulz, A., Alpert, G.D. & Baňař, P. 2011. Discovery of the worker caste and descriptions of two new species of Anomalomyrma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Leptanillinae) with unique abdominal morphology. Zootaxa 2810:1-14.
  • Xu, Z.-H. 2002a. A systematic study on the ant subfamily Leptanillinae of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 45: 115-120 (page 119, figs. 21-23 worker described)
  • Xu, Z.-H.; Zhang, J.-L. 2002. Two new species of the ant subfamily Leptanillinae from Yunnan, China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Entomol. Sin. 27: 139-144 (page 140, (diagnosis in key) worker described)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Xu Z. H. 2002. A systematic study on the ant subfamily Leptanillinae of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 45: 115-120.
  • Xu Z. 2002. A systematic study on the ant subfamily Leptanillinae of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 45(1): 115-120.