Pseudomyrmex filiformis

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Pseudomyrmex filiformis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae
Genus: Pseudomyrmex
Species: P. filiformis
Binomial name
Pseudomyrmex filiformis
(Fabricius, 1804)

Pseudomyrmex filiformis casent0173752 profile 1.jpg

Pseudomyrmex filiformis casent0173752 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


Ward (1996) suggests this ant is a temporary social parasite of a number of common, co-occurring Pseudomyrmex species, including Pseudomyrmex elongatus, Pseudomyrmex holmgreni and Pseudomyrmex (sp. PSW-14).

At a Glance • Temporary parasite  


Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 19.58333° to -22.809943°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Ward (1996) - Incipient colonies of this species have been found inhabiting a nest in small dead twigs with several workers of a different Pseudomyrmex species. This contrasts with mature colonies, which form large monospecific nests with a single functional queen. This suggests the queens are temporary social parasites.

Gillette et al. (2015) in a Chaipas, Mexico field study of twig-nesting ants in coffee plants found P. ejectus occurred in 9% of the twigs with nests. All of its nests were below 1300 m.



Images from AntWeb

Pseudomyrmex filiformis casent0178622 head 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis casent0178622 profile 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis casent0178622 dorsal 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis casent0178622 label 1.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0178622. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MIZA, Maracay, Venezuela.
Pseudomyrmex filiformis lacm ent 142543 head 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis lacm ent 142543 profile 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis lacm ent 142543 dorsal 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis lacm ent 142543 label 1.jpg
Specimen code lacm. .


Images from AntWeb

Pseudomyrmex filiformis casent0173753 head 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis casent0173753 profile 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis casent0173753 dorsal 1.jpgPseudomyrmex filiformis casent0173753 label 1.jpg
Queen (alate/dealate). Specimen code casent0173753. Photographer April Nobile, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by ALWC, Alex L. Wild Collection.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • filiformis. Formica filiformis Fabricius, 1804: 405 (q.) CENTRAL AMERICA. Wheeler, W.M. 1919i: 125 (w.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1956: 384 (l.). Combination in Leptalea: Erichson, 1839: 309; in Pseudomyrma: Roger, 1862c: 289; in Pseudomyrmex: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1956: 384. Senior synonym of cephalica: Roger, 1862c: 289; of biconvexa: Wheeler, W.M. 1919i: 125; of longiceps Forel, longiceps Stitz: Ward, 1989: 438.
  • cephalica. Pseudomyrma cephalica Smith, F. 1855c: 168 (w.q.m.) BRAZIL. Junior synonym of filiformis: Roger, 1862c: 289.
  • biconvexa. Pseudomyrma biconvexa Forel, 1899c: 95, pl. 4, fig. 10 (w.) GUATEMALA. Junior synonym of filiformis: Wheeler, W.M. 1919i: 125.
  • longiceps. Pseudomyrma biconvexa var. longiceps Forel, 1906d: 229 (w.) COLOMBIA. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 218. Subspecies of filiformis: Wheeler, W.M. 1919i: 131. Junior synonym of filiformis: Ward, 1989: 438.
  • longiceps. Pseudomyrma longiceps Stitz, 1933: 68 (q.) VENEZUELA. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of longiceps Wheeler, above.] Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 221. Junior synonym of filiformis: Ward, 1989: 438.


Type Material

Ward (1989):

Syntype dealate queen, Essequibo, Guyana (Smidt) (Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen) [Examined]; here designated as LECTOTYPE. A second syntype dealate queen in ZMUC, lacking head, metasoma, and a locality label, has been labelled paralectotype.

Pseudomyrma cephalica F. Smith, 1855:168. Dealate queen, labelled as type, Santarem, Brazil (Bates); two workers. probable syntypes, Villa Nova, Brazil (Bates) (The Natural History Museum) [Examined].

Pseudomyrma biconvexa Forel, 1899:95. Syntype workers, Pantaleon, Guatemala (Champion) (BMNH, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève); Costa Rica (Tonduz) (BMNH) [Examined].

Pseudamyrma biconvexa var. longiceps Forel, 1906:229. Syntype worker, Santa Marta, Colombia (A. Forel) (MHNG) [Examined].

Pseudomyrma longiceps Stitz, 1933:69. Holotype queen, Macuto, near La Guayra, Venezuela (e. Gazgo) (not in Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum der Universität Hamburg. probably destroyed during World War II).

The syntype worker of P. longiceps (Forel) is simply a large P. filiformis worker, with a rather elongate head and a conspicuous subpetiolar tooth. I have seen such variant workers within nest-series of typical P. filiformis from elsewhere in Central and South America. Although the unique type of P. longiceps (Stitz) is lost, the original description (particularly as it pertains to head length, position of eyes, and petiole shape) is closer to that of P. filiformis than any other species known to me.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

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