Pseudomyrmex urbanus

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Pseudomyrmex urbanus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae
Genus: Pseudomyrmex
Species: P. urbanus
Binomial name
Pseudomyrmex urbanus
(Smith, F., 1877)

Pseudomyrmex urbanus casent0005878 profile 1.jpg

Pseudomyrmex urbanus casent0005878 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Identification

Ward (1989) - P. urbanus belongs to a difficult species complex that also includes Pseudomyrmex caeciliae and Pseudomyrmex cubaensis (s.l.). P. urbanus workers are characterized by a combination of intermediate size (HW 0.58-0.66), relatively long eyes and broad fore femur and (typically) orange-brown body. P. urbanus differs from Pseudomyrmex elongatus by its shinier appearance, particularly the presence of conspicuous sublucid areas on the head and pronotum, and by its lighter color. The eyes of P. urbanus workers tend to be shorter than those of P. elongatus, and the petiole is relatively lower.

Distribution

Known from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Ward (1989) - Little biological information is available about P. urbanus. Collections come from rain forest localities as well as areas typified by drier forest. The type series of P. chodati was collected in cauline swellings of Cordia longituba, that of P. ogloblini in the branches of "Thecoma ipe" [ = Tecoma obtusata] accompanied by coccids; both records suggest a propensity for this species to nest in live plant cavities.

Castes

Worker

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • urbanus. Pseudomyrma urbana Smith, F. 1877b: 65 (w.) BRAZIL. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kusnezov, 1964: 83. Senior synonym of chodati, ogloblini: Ward, 1989: 427.
  • chodati. Pseudomyrma chodati Forel, 1921a: 201 (w.) PARAGUAY. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 217. Junior synonym of urbanus: Ward, 1989: 427.
  • ogloblini. Pseudomyrma ogloblini Santschi, 1936d: 402, figs. 1-3 (w.) ARGENTINA. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 222. Junior synonym of urbanus: Ward, 1989: 427.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Ward (1989) - Some problematic series are in the material listed below. These include unusually dark brown workers from Dpto. Beni, Bolivia and large cubaensis-like workers from Ecuador (Piedrero) and Venezuela (Edo. Zulia). The type specimens of P. chodati (Forel) and P. ogloblini (Santschi) from Paraguay and Argentina, respectively, appear to be rather typical P. urbanus insofar as they are in the appropriate size range (HW 0.58-0.61) and have a light orange-brown, sub lucid integument; the eyes, however, are rather short (REL2 0.69-0.72). Future studies may reveal more than one species here.

Description

Worker

Ward (1989) - measurements (n=21). HL 0.76-0.95, HW 0.58-D066, MFC 0.014-0.026, CI 0.69-0.76, OI 0.52-0.58, REL 0.51-0.56, REL2 0.69-0.78, OOI 0.29-1.12, VI 0.76-0.85, FCI 0.022-0.041, SI 0.44-0.48, SI2 0.58-0.67, FI 0.44-0.53, PDI 1.08-1.53, MPI 0.028-0.063, NI 0.51-0.65, PLI 0.76-0.88, PWI 0.55-0.71, PPWI 1.06-1.48.

diagnosis. A relatively small species (HW 0.58-D.66), with moderately elongate eyes (REL2 0.69-0.78); sides of head subparallel to broadly convex, rounding somewhat gradually into the flat to weakly concave occipital margin; second and third funicular segments broader than long (FLI 1.15-1.58, n=7). Fore femur relatively broad; metanotal groove well marked; basal face of Propodeum subequal to, or longer than, the declivitous face and usually rounding gently into the latter. Petiole longer than high, with soft dorsolateral margination, and a conspicllous anteroventral process; postpetiole broader than long. Mandibles striato-punctate; head densely punctate, sublucid, the punctures often separated by shiny interspaces, especially between the ocelli and compound eye, and immediately posterior to the compound eye, where some punctures are separated by half their diameters or more. Mesosoma punctate to coriarious-imbricate, tending to be sublucid dorsally and on the side of the pronotum, more opaque elsewhere. Petiole, postpetiole, and gaster sublucid, the lustre dulled by numerous fine piligerous punctures. Fine erect pilosity and appressed pubescence present on most of body, including mesosoma dorsum. Body usually light to medium orange-brown, with varying degrees of infuscation of the gaster, hindfemur, and (sometimes) head; mandibles and tarsi paler. In a few individuals (Opto. Beni, Bolivia; Isla Fernando Noronha, Brazil) entire body darker brown.

Type Material

Syntype workers, Ega, Amazonas, Brazil (The Natural History Museum) [Examined]; one worker here designated as LECTOTYPE.

Pseudomyrma chodati Syntype workers, Paraguay (Chodat) (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève) [Examined]. One worker here designated LECTOTYPE.

Pseudomyrma ogloblini Syntype workers, Loreto, Misiones, Argentina (A. Ogloblin) (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel) [Examined].

References

  • Kusnezov, N. 1964 [1963]. Zoogeografía de las hormigas en Sudamérica. Acta Zool. Lilloana 19: 25-186 (page 83, Combination in Pseudomyrmex)
  • Smith, F. 1877b. Descriptions of new species of the genera Pseudomyrma and Tetraponera, belonging to the family Myrmicidae. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1877: 57-72 (page 65, worker described)
  • Ward, P. S. 1989a. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaest. Entomol. 25: 393-468 (page 427, Senior synonym of chodati and ogloblini)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Baroni Urbani C. 1977. Katalog der Typen von Formicidae (Hymenoptera) der Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Basel (2. Teil). Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Basel (n.s.) 27: 61-102.
  • Bluthgen N., M. Verhaagh, W. Goitia, K. Jaffe, W. Morawetz, and W. Barthlott. 2000. How plants shape the ant community in the Amazonian rainforest canopy: the key role of extrafloral nectaries and homopteran honeydew. Oecologia 125: 229-240.
  • Brandao C. R. F., F. A. Esteves, and L. P. Prado. 2010. A catalogue of the Pseudomyrmecinae ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao paulo, Brazil. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 50(45): 693-699.
  • Brandao, C.R.F. 1991. Adendos ao catalogo abreviado das formigas da regiao neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 35: 319-412.
  • Cuezzo, F. 1998. Formicidae. Chapter 42 in Morrone J.J., and S. Coscaron (dirs) Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica Ediciones Sur, La Plata. Pages 452-462.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1921. Fourmis trouvées dans des galles de Cordia et d'Agonandra, etc. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de Genève. (2)12: 201-208.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Kempf W. W. 1978. A preliminary zoogeographical analysis of a regional ant fauna in Latin America. 114. Studia Entomologica 20: 43-62.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Santschi F. 1936. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes de la République Argentine. Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro). 6: 402-421.
  • Silvestre R., C. R. F. Brandão, and R. R. Silva da 2003. Grupos funcionales de hormigas: el caso de los gremios del cerrado. Pp. 113-148 in: Fernández, F. (ed.) 2003. Introducción a las hormigas de la región Neotropical. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xxvi + 424 pp.
  • Vittar, F. 2008. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la Mesopotamia Argentina. INSUGEO Miscelania 17(2):447-466
  • Ward P. S. 1992. Ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Dominican amber, with a synopsis of the extant Antillean species. Psyche (Cambridge) 99: 55-85
  • Ward, P. S. 1989. Systematic Studies on Pseudomyrmecine Ants: Revision of the Pseudomyrmex Oculatus and P. Subtilissimus Species Groups with Taxonomic Comments on Other Species. Questiones Entomologicae 25: 393-468
  • Wild, A. L. "A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Zootaxa 1622 (2007): 1-55.
  • da Silva de Oliveira A. B., and F. A. Schmidt. 2019. Ant assemblages of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in forest and pasture habitats in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(2): 329-344.
  • da Silva, R.R., C.R.F. Brandao, and R. Silvestre. 2004. Similarity Between Cerrado Localities in Central and Southeastern Brazil Based on the Dry Season Bait Visitors Ant Fauna. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 39(3):191-199.