Nomadic lifestyle, with frequent nest emigrations (Kronauer et al. 2010). Ergatoid queens are highly specialized dichthadiiforms, i.e. they have a greatly enlarged gaster.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
Mackay and Mackay (2008) - This species would be unlikely to be confused with any other species, based on the lighter color, and the smaller size. Additionally, the eyes are smaller, which would separate it from Simopelta oculata. The finely punctate head would separate it from Simopelta paeminosa, which has granulose sculpture on the head. It could be separated from Simopelta minima on the basis of distribution (S. minima occurs in Brasil). This species would not be confused with Simopelta curvata and Simopelta mayri, which have four well-developed mandibular teeth.
Specimens from the state of Magdalena, Colombia differ by the nearly flat dorsal surface of the mesosoma, and the lack of a depression at the metanotal suture.
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
High elevation tropical forest, between 920 - 2500 m.
Kronauer et al. (2010): Queens mate with only one male, in sharp contrast to polyandrous army ants in subfamily Dorylinae.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.
- pergandei. Belonopelta pergandei Forel, 1909a: 242 (w.) GUATEMALA. Borgmeier, 1950a: 374 (q.l.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1957b: 192 (l.). Combination in B. (Simopelta): Mann, 1922: 10; in Simopelta: Wheeler, W.M. 1935d: 11; in Belonopelta: Baroni Urbani, 1975b: 300; in Simopelta: Bolton, 1995b: 383. See also: Gotwald & Brown, 1967: 265; Mackay & Mackay, 2008: 318.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Mackay and Mackay (2008) - The worker of this species is a small (total length about 3 mm), yellowish red ant, with the gaster and appendages slightly lighter in color. The mandible has three sharp teeth, which are approximately equal in size. The anterior medial border of the clypeus generally has a long (0.08 mm), slender spine (Figure 22), which is often somewhat widened apically, although the process may be reduced to a small (0.03 mm) angle. A short, clypeal carina is present. The eye is very small (maximum diameter 0.02-0.03 mm), located about four diameters from the anterior margin of the head, but noticeably larger than the punctures on the head. The head is nearly as wide (0.6 mm) as it is long (0.7 mm, excluding the spine). The posterior border of the head is nearly straight, the sides of the head nearly parallel, although they are slightly convex. The mesosoma is unusual for the genus, in that the dorsum is nearly straight, with only slight indentations at the promesonotal and metanotal sutures. The petiole is slender in profile, with a slightly concave anterior face, the two faces are nearly parallel, usually narrowest about 1/2 of the distance to the apex. The subpetiolar process is large and triangular or rectangular shaped, with a concave posterior face, which is angulate posteriorly.
Erect hairs are sparse, with a few on the mandibles, clypeus, few or none on the scapes, they are present on the posterior border of head, ventral surface of the head, dorsum of the mesosoma, dorsum of the petiole, and all surfaces of the gaster, appressed hairs are present on the scapes, head, mesosoma, gaster, the hairs on the tibiae are nearly appressed.
The mandibles are finely striolate, the head is densely and evenly punctate, as is the dorsum of the mesosoma, the sides of the mesosoma are granulate, with poorly defined striolae, and petiole is finely punctate, the dorsum of the gaster is mostly shining, with a few scattered punctures. The dorsum of the postpetiole is smooth and glossy.
Mackay and Mackay (2008) - The female is a small, yellowish ant, with a large, swollen scutum, the scutellum is poorly developed, or possibly fused with the scutum. The mandibles are without teeth, and two frontal lobes are more widely separated, and larger than in the worker. The petiole is large when viewed from the front and flattened and slender when viewed from the side.
Mackay and Mackay (2008) - Worker, Guatemala (without locality)
- Baroni Urbani, C. 1975b. Contributo alla conoscenza dei generi Belonopelta Mayr e Leiopelta gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 48: 295-310 (page 300, combination in Belonopelta)
- Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 383, combination in Simopelta, revived combination, catalogue)
- Borgmeier, T. 1950a. A fêmea dichthadiiforme e os estádios evolutivos de Simopelta pergandei (Forel), e a descriça~o de S. bicolor, n. sp. (Hym. Formicidae). Rev. Entomol. (Rio J.) 21: 369-380 (page 374, queen, larva described)
- Forel, A. 1909a. Ameisen aus Guatemala usw., Paraguay und Argentinien (Hym.). Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1909: 239-269 (page 242, worker described)
- Gotwald, W. H., Jr.; Brown, W. L., Jr. 1967 . The ant genus Simopelta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Camb.) 73: 261-277 (page 265, see also)
- Kronauer DJC 2009. Recent advances in army ant biology. Myrmecological News, 12: 51–65.
- Kronauer, D.J.C., O'Donnell S., Boomsma, J.J., Pierce, N.E. 2010. Strict monandry in the ponerine army ant genus Simopelta suggests that colony size and complexity drive mating system evolution in social insects. Molecular Ecology 20: 420-428.
- Kronauer, D.J.C., Boomsma, J.J., Pierce, N.E. 2010. Nine novel microsatellite markers for the army ant Simopelta pergandei (subfamily Ponerinae). Conservation Genetics Resources 3: 61-63.
- MacKay, W.P., MacKay, E.E. 2008. Revision of the ants of the genus Simopelta Mann (pp. 285-328). In Jíminez, E., Fernández, F., Arias, T.M. & Lozano-Zambrano, F.H. (eds). Sistematica, biogeografia y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia: 609 pp. Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota. PDF
- Mann, W. M. 1922. Ants from Honduras and Guatemala. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 61: 1-54 (page 10, combination in B. (Simopelta))
- Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1957b. The larva of Simopelta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 59: 191-194 (page 192, larva described)
- Wheeler, W. M. 1935d. Ants of the genera Belonopelta Mayr and Simopelta Mann. Rev. Entomol. (Rio J.) 5: 8-19 (page 11, combination in Simopelta)