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Strongylognathus testaceus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Strongylognathus
Mayr, 1853
Type species
Eciton testaceum, now Strongylognathus testaceus
26 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Strongylognathus testaceus casent0173184 profile 1.jpg

Strongylognathus testaceus

Strongylognathus testaceus casent0173184 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label


Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - The ant genus Strongylognatus comprises obligatory social parasites, so-called degenerate slavemakers, which live in nests of Tetramorium species. The parasite queen does not kill the host queen, but it pheromonally inhibits production of its sexual brood. The share of parasite workers in mixed colonies seldom exceeds 2%; under natural conditions, they only sporadically raid colonies of the host species to obtain more slaves.


Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - Morphologically Strongylognathus well differs from any known Palaearctic Myrmicinae genera by its highly specialized, long and narrow mandibles with not defined masticatory margin. Bolton (1976) proposed to divide this genus into two species-groups: testaceus- and huberi-group. The species of the first group are characterized by the strongly concave occipital margin and by prominent posterio-lateral corners of the head. In contrary, the species of the huberi-group have straight or at most very shallowly concave occipital margin and rounded, not prominent posterio-lateral corners of the head.  

Keys to Species in this Genus


Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - Strongylognathus species are distributed only in the Palaearctic Region, from Iberian Peninsula to Tien-Shan Mts. in the west, and also in eastern China, Korea and Japan. Nevertheless, at least three more new undescribed species are known from Iran (Paknia et al. 2008), Pakistan (Andres Schulz, pers. comm.) and Armenia (unpublished personal data).

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps


Association with Other Organisms

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Strongylognathus afer temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker ant Tetramorium alpestre host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host Wagner et al. 2017; Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus caeciliae host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Strongylognathus huberi slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus huberi slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus huberi slave maker ant Tetramorium semilaeve host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus italicus slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus kratochvili slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus kratochvili slave maker ant Tetramorium moravicum host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus minutus temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus pisarskii temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus potanini temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus testaceus slave maker ant Tetramorium alpestre host Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus testaceus slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host
Strongylognathus testaceus slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host Wagner et al. 2017
Strongylognathus tylonus temporary parasite ant unknown host



Worker Morphology

  • Antennal segment count: 12
  • Antennal club: 3
  • Palp formula: 4,3
  • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple
  • Eyes: present
  • Scrobes: absent
  • Sting: present


All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Karyotype Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Strongylognathus huberi 14 28 Switzerland Hauschteck, 1962


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • STRONGYLOGNATHUS [Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini]
    • Strongylognathus Mayr, 1853d: 389. Type-species: Eciton testaceum, by monotypy. Replacement name for Myrmus Schenck, 1853: 188. [Junior homonym of Myrmus Hahn, 1832: 81 (Hemiptera).]
  • MYRMUS [junior homonym, see Strongylognathus]
    • Myrmus Schenck, 1853: 188. Type-species: Myrmus emarginatus (junior synonym of Eciton testaceum), by monotypy. [Junior homonym of Myrmus Hahn, 1832: 81 (Hemiptera).]
    • Strongylognathus Mayr, 1853d: 389, replacement name for Myrmus Schenck.

Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - The taxonomy of Strongylognathus is comparatively well studied, while there are still several unresolved particular problems on this subject (Pisarski 1966, Baroni Urbani 1969, Radchenko 1985, 1991, Sanetra et al. 1999; see also Bolton 1995, Bolton et al. 2006).


  • Acosta Salmerón, F. J.; Martínez, M. D. 1982. Consideraciones sobre la dulosis en el género Strongylognathus Mayr, 1853. (Hym. Formicidae). Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomologia 6:121-124. [1982-12]
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1969b. Gli Strongylognathus del gruppo huberi nell'Europa occidentale: saggio di una revisione basata sulla casta operaia (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 99- 101: 132-168 (page 132, Revision of huberi-group)
  • Bolton, B. 1976. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Constituent genera, review of smaller genera and revision of Triglyphothrix Forel. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 34: 281-379 (page 304, Review of genus)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 225, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 129, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae )
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 770, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 42, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 285, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 457, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 245, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Mayr, G. 1853e. Ueber die Abtheilung der Myrmiciden, und eine neue Gattung derselben. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 3: 387-394 (page 389, Stronglyognathus replacement name for Myrmus Schenck, 1853. Myrmus Hahn, 1832 (Hemiptera), senior homonym of Myrmus Schenck, 1853)
  • Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien 5: 273-478 (page 430, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 21, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1991b. Ants of the genus Strongylognathus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR fauna. Zool. Zh. 70(1 10: 84-90 (page 89, Key to fauna of former U.S.S.R.)
  • Radchenko, A. & Dubovikoff, D. 2011. First record of the ant genus Strongylognathus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Afghanistan, with description of a new species. Annales Zoologici. 61(4):807-810. (
  • Sanetra, M.; Güsten,, R. 2001. The socially parasitic ant genus Strongylognathus Mayr in North Africa (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 20: 1-20.
  • Schenck, C. F. 1853b. Die nassauischen Ameisen-Species. (Fortsetzung.). Stett. Entomol. Ztg. 14: 185-198 (page 188, Myrmus Schenck, 1853 junior homonym of Myrmus Hahn, 1832 (Hemiptera))
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 134, Stronglyognathus in Poneridae, Myrmicidae)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 141, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 664, Stronglyognathus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)