Strongylognathus

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Strongylognathus
Strongylognathus testaceus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Strongylognathus
Mayr, 1853
Type species
Eciton testaceum, now Strongylognathus testaceus
Diversity
27 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Strongylognathus testaceus casent0173184 profile 1.jpg

Strongylognathus testaceus

Strongylognathus testaceus casent0173184 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships

Rostromyrmex






Cardiocondyla



Ocymyrmex






Nesomyrmex



Xenomyrmex





Terataner




Atopomyrmex



Cataulacus










Carebara



Diplomorium






Melissotarsus



Rhopalomastix






Calyptomyrmex



Strongylognathus,
Tetramorium





Cyphoidris



Dicroaspis










Aretidris



Vollenhovia





Dacetinops



Indomyrma








Crematogaster



Meranoplus






Lophomyrmex




Adlerzia



Recurvidris






Stereomyrmex




Trichomyrmex





Eutetramorium




Royidris




Malagidris



Vitsika








Huberia



Podomyrma





Liomyrmex



Metapone













Kartidris



Mayriella





Tetheamyrma




Dacatria



Proatta









Dilobocondyla



Secostruma






Acanthomyrmex



Myrmecina





Perissomyrmex



Pristomyrmex









some Lordomyrma



Propodilobus





Lasiomyrma




[some Lordomyrma




Ancyridris



some Lordomyrma









Paratopula




Poecilomyrma




Romblonella



Rotastruma








Gauromyrmex



Vombisidris





Temnothorax




Harpagoxenus



Formicoxenus



Leptothorax













Based on Ward et al. (2014) and Blaimer et al. (2018).

The ant genus Strongylognatus comprises obligatory social parasites, and include species which are dulotic, degeneratively dulotic as well as are queen-tolerant inquilines. All live in nests of various Tetramorium species. The parasite queen does not kill the host queen, but it pheromonally inhibits production of its sexual brood. The share of parasite workers in mixed colonies seldom exceeds 2%; under natural conditions, they only sporadically raid colonies of the host species to obtain more slaves. (Radchenko & Duibovikoff, 2011)

Ward et al. (2014) found that Strongylognathus is a synonym of Tetramorium, and note that it has nomenclatural priority over Tetramorium (meaning that all species of Tetramorium should be transferred to Strongylognathus). Transfer of the hundreds of valid Tetramorium species names to Strongylognathus, with consequent changes in spelling to many of them (because the gender of Tetramorium is neuter while Strongylognathus is masculine), would create considerable confusion. In this instance a ruling by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature would be required to validate a reversal of precedence (ICZN Article 23.9.3). In the interim they maintained current usage as two separate genera and refrained from synonymizing them.

Identification

Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - Morphologically Strongylognathus well differs from any known Palaearctic Myrmicinae genera by its highly specialized, long and narrow mandibles with not defined masticatory margin. Bolton (1976) proposed to divide this genus into two species-groups: testaceus- and huberi-group. The species of the first group are characterized by the strongly concave occipital margin and by prominent posterio-lateral corners of the head. In contrary, the species of the huberi-group have straight or at most very shallowly concave occipital margin and rounded, not prominent posterio-lateral corners of the head.  

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - Strongylognathus species are distributed only in the Palaearctic Region, from Iberian Peninsula to Tien-Shan Mts. in the west, and also in eastern China, Korea and Japan. Nevertheless, at least three more new undescribed species are known from Iran (Paknia et al. 2008), Pakistan (Andres Schulz, pers. comm.) and Armenia (unpublished personal data).

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Association with Other Organisms

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
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Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Strongylognathus afer temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker ant Tetramorium alpestre host Kutter, 1920; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018 host as ''Tetramorium caespitum'' in early literature
Strongylognathus alpinus slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host Kutter, 1920; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al. 2017
Strongylognathus caeciliae host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Spain García & Espadaler, 2010; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Strongylognathus christophi slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 sometimes as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''caespitum''
Strongylognathus christophi slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''impurum''
Strongylognathus dao slave maker ant Tetramorium tsushimae host China Radchenko et al., 2017 uncommon
Strongylognathus destefanii slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Menozzi, 1921; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 sometimes as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''impurum''
Strongylognathus destefanii slave maker ant Tetramorium semilaeve host de la Mora et al., 2021; Menozzi, 1921; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 sometimes as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''semilaeve''
Strongylognathus huberi slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host Baroni Urbani, 1962; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Strongylognathus huberi slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host Baroni Urbani, 1962; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Strongylognathus huberi slave maker ant Tetramorium semilaeve host Seifert, 2018; de la Mora et al., 2021
Strongylognathus italicus slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus italicus slave maker ant Tetramorium impurum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline ant Tetramorium caespitum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 sometimes as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''caespitum''
Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline ant Tetramorium ferox host Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline ant Tetramorium impurum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''impurum''
Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline ant Tetramorium inerme host Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline ant Tetramorium moravicum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Radchenko, 1991; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus karawajewi inquiline ant Tetramorium sulcinode host de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus koreanus slave maker ant Tetramorium tsushimae host Japan Collingwood, 1976
Strongylognathus kratochvili slave maker ant Tetramorium caespitum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 degenerate dulosis? tolerant of host queen?
Strongylognathus kratochvili slave maker ant Tetramorium moravicum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000 degenerate dulosis? tolerant of host queen?
Strongylognathus minutus temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus pisarskii temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus potanini temporary parasite ant unknown host
Strongylognathus silvestrii slave maker ant Tetramorium lucidulum host Buschinger & Douwes, 1993; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus silvestrii slave maker ant Tetramorium semilaeve host Buschinger & Douwes, 1993; de la Mora et al., 2021; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000
Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline ant Tetramorium alpestre host de la Mora et al., 2021; Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline ant Tetramorium brevicorne host de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 1996; Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline ant Tetramorium caespitum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 1996; Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline ant Tetramorium ferox host de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018 sometimes as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''ferox''
Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline ant Tetramorium impurum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Seifert, 1996; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 2018; Wagner et al. 2017
Strongylognathus testaceus inquiline ant Tetramorium moravicum host de la Mora et al., 2021; Novák & Sadil, 1941; Sanetra et al., 1994; Sanetra et al., 1999; Sanetra & Buschinger, 2000; Seifert, 1996; Seifert, 2018 sometimes as ''Tetramorium'' cf. ''moravicum''
Strongylognathus tylonus temporary parasite ant unknown host

Flight Period

All Flight Records for Genus

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Taxon Month Source Notes
Strongylognathus alpinus Jul Aug Sep Oct Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus bulgaricus Jul Aug Sep Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus huberi Jul Aug Sep Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus italicus Aug Sep Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus kratochvili Jul Aug Sep Seifert, 2018
Strongylognathus testaceus Jun Jul Aug Seifert, 2018; antkeeping.info

Life History Traits

  • Mean colony size: ? (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Compound colony type: dulosis (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Nest site: hypogaeic; arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Diet class: predator (Greer et al., 2021)
  • Foraging stratum: subterranean/leaf litter; arboreal (Greer et al., 2021)

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

• Antennal segment count: 12 • Antennal club: 3 • Palp formula: 4,3 • Spur formula: 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes: 0-1 ommatidia • Scrobes: absent • Pronotal Spines: absent • Mesonotal Spines: absent • Propodeal Spines: dentiform • Petiolar Spines: absent • Caste: none or weak • Sting: present • Metaplural Gland: present • Cocoon: absent

Karyotype

All Karyotype Records for Genus

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Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Strongylognathus huberi 14 28 Switzerland Hauschteck, 1962

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • STRONGYLOGNATHUS [Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini]
    • Strongylognathus Mayr, 1853d: 389. Type-species: Eciton testaceum, by monotypy. Replacement name for Myrmus Schenck, 1853: 188. [Junior homonym of Myrmus Hahn, 1832: 81 (Hemiptera).]
  • MYRMUS [junior homonym, see Strongylognathus]
    • Myrmus Schenck, 1853: 188. Type-species: Myrmus emarginatus (junior synonym of Eciton testaceum), by monotypy. [Junior homonym of Myrmus Hahn, 1832: 81 (Hemiptera).]
    • Strongylognathus Mayr, 1853d: 389, replacement name for Myrmus Schenck.

Radchenko and Duibovikoff (2011) - The taxonomy of Strongylognathus is comparatively well studied, while there are still several unresolved particular problems on this subject (Pisarski 1966, Baroni Urbani 1969, Radchenko 1985, 1991, Sanetra et al. 1999; see also Bolton 1995, Bolton et al. 2006).

References

(page 134, Stronglyognathus in Poneridae, Myrmicidae)