(Terayama, Lin & Wu, W.-J., 1996)
The species nests at the margins of broadleaf forests and adjacent open land where it nests in the soil or under stones and sampled in Berlese funnel forest-litter samples. A colony collection (Takatsuki, Osaka Prefecture, Japan) was found under a concrete stone among thinly spaced trees on the precints of a temple. It included more than 150 workers (Ogata & Onoyama, 1998). It is most common in the southern part of Honshu south to Kyushu (Japanese Ant Image Database).
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Bolton (2000) - A member of the Strumigenys leptothrix-group. This species is very closely related to Strumigenys alecto but has the differences tabulated below. The two may eventually prove to be extreme variants of a single species (Ogata & Onoyama, 1998). Strumigenys formosimonticola may also be involved in the variation as Touyama (1998) has documented some interesting pilosity variants that he includes under benten. Until more material is available I regard the following features as being diagnostic of two separate but sibling species, because the distribution and density of specialised pilosity is usually fairly stable in Pyramica species.
S. alecto: With head in profile the dorsum with short erect simple hairs at, in front of and behind the highest point of the vertex. With the head in occipital view 20 or more short erect hairs visible on dorsum. Dorsal (outer) surfaces of middle and hind tibiae with numerous short straight projecting simple suberect hairs. Pronotal dorsum with short erect hairs present anteriorly other than those at the humeri. Pronotal dorsum finely reticulate-punctate.
S. benten: With head in profile the dorsum with short erect hairs only behind highest point of the vertex. With the head in occipital view no more than 8-10 short erect hairs visible on dorsum. Dorsal (outer) surfaces of middle and hind tibiae with apically directed appressed hairs only. Pronotal dorsum without erect hairs except at the humeri. Pronotal dorsum not reticulate-punctate.
The species is similar to Strumigenys leptothrix, but distinguished by its pilosity: the hairs on the head of S. benten are shorter, more sparse and somewhat clavate, and those on the anterior portion, in particular, are depressed. It should be noted that the pilosity of S. benten is variable. Samples from the Kanto District tend to have shorter, more sparse hairs on the head than those from Kyushu, where the hairs are longer and more dense. The first gastral segment sometimes lacks hairs. (Japanese Ant Image Database)
Touyama (1998) reported that hairs on the vertex may be often lacking in S. benten. Bolton (2000) described the hairless form as a separate new species named Strumigenys alecto. We believe the separate specific status of "alect" from S. benten to be questionable, requiring further study. For this reason we do not recognize S. alecto at this time.
Keys including this Species
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Life History Traits
- Mean colony size: 150 (Ogata & Onoyama, 1998)
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- benten. Smithistruma benten Terayama, Lin & Wu, 1996: 329, figs. 1-5, 20 (w.q.) TAIWAN. Combination in Pyramica: Bolton, 1999: 1673; in Strumigenys: Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2007: 116. See also: Bolton, 2000: 431.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bolton (2000) - TL 2.1- 2.6, HL 0.60-0.65, HW 0.44-0.50, CI 71-82, ML 0.13-0.17, MI 13-15 [measurement in Terayama, Lin & Wu (1996: 330) of MI 21-28, is too high; from specimens examined and their fig. 1, MI should be as above], SL 0.26-0.32, SI 59, PW 0.26-0.33, AL 0.65-0.72. Terayama, Lin, & Wu, (1996: 330) give a total dental count of 12 for benten but a specimen with mandibles ajar that I have examined had 14.]
Bolton (2000) - Holotype worker and paratype workers and queens, TAIWAN: Nantou Hsien, Lienhuachih, 12.xi.1992 (C.-C. Lin). Paratype workers and queens, TAIWAN: Nantou Hsien, Taping-Meitzulin, ca 510 m., 30.vii.1988 (M. Terayama). JAPAN: Okinawa Pref., Ryukyu Is, Iriomote-jima I., 30.iii.1991 (M. Terayama); Mie Pref., Yokkaichi-shi, 21.iv.1987 (A. Amagasu); Mie Pref., Komono-machi, xii.1989 (M. Terayama); Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 30.vi.1986 (M. Terayama); Tokyo, Nakano-ku, 19.viii.1980 (S. Kubota) (National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Science Museum (Natural History), National Taiwan University, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute) [NSMT paratypes examined].
- Baroni Urbani, C. & De Andrade, M.L. 2007. The ant tribe Dacetini: limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” 99: 1-191.
- Bolton, B. 1999. Ant genera of the tribe Dacetonini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History. 33:1639-1689. (page 1673, combination in Pyramica)
- Bolton, B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. 65:1-1028. (page 431, redescription of worker)
- Ogata, K. and Onoyama, K. 1998. A revision of the ant genus Smithistruma Brown of Japan, with descriptions of four new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science. 1(2):277-287.
- Park, S.-H., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K., Kasuya, E. 2014. Changes of species diversity of ants over time: A case study in two urban parks.
- Park, S.-H., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K., Kuboki, Y. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies 337, 545–552 (doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003).
- Terayama, M.; Lin, C.-C.; Wu, W.-J. 1996. The Taiwanese species of the ant genus Smithistruma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Jpn. J. Entomol. 64: 327-339 (page 329, figs. 1-5, 20 worker, queen described)
- Touyama, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakagoshi, N. 1998. Myrmecofaunal change with bamboo invasion into broadleaf forests. J. For. Res. 3: 155-159 (page 1, variation)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Bolton, B. 2000. The Ant Tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 65
- Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
- Harada Y. 2000. Ant fauna of the forest floor of the Koshikijima Islands, Kagoshima-ken, southern Japan. Ari 24: 4-11.
- Harada Y. S. Koto, N. Kawaguchi, K. Sato, T. Setoguchi, R. Muranaga, H. Yamashita, A. Yo, and S. Yamane. 2012. Ants of Jusso, Isa City, Kagoshima Prefecture, southwestern Japan. Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Japan 67: 143-152.
- Harada Y., K. Nishikubo, K. Matsumoto, M. Matsuda, Y. Inazawa, Y. Ozono, S. Koto, N. Kawaguchi, and S. Yamane. 2011. Ant fauna of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) forests in southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 66: 115-127.
- Harada Y., T. Sameshima, K. Tashiro, and K. Ebihara. 2006. Ant fauna of the Imuta Lake area, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan. Nanki organisms 48(1): 43-49.
- Hosoichi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
- Ikeshita Y., A. Gotoh, K. Yamamoto, N. Taniguchi, and F. Ito. 2007. Ants collected in Mt. Linoyama, Marugame, Kagawa Prefecture (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Kagawa Seibutsu 34: 59-62.
- Kitahiro S., K. Yamamoto, Y. Touyama, and F. Ito. 2014. Habitat preferences of Strumigenys ants in western Japan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Asian Myrmecology 6: 91-94.
- Miyama Y., and F. Ito. 2000. A supplementary note on ant fauna in Kagawa Prefecture (2). Ari 24: 12.
- Ogata K. and Onoyama K. 1998. A Revision of the Ant Genus Smithistruma Brown of Japan, with Descriptions of Four New Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 1: 277-287
- Park S. H., S. Hosoishi, K. Ogata, and E. Kasuya. 2014. Changes of Species Diversity of Ants Over Time: a Case Study in Two Urban Parks. J. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ., 59 (1), 7176.
- Park S. H., S. Hosoishi, K. Ogata, and Y. Kuboki. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003
- Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
- Terayama M., C. C. Lin, and W. J. Wu. 1996. The Taiwanese species of the ant genus Smithistruma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology 64: 327-339.
- Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
- Terayama M., and S. Kubota. 2002. Ants of Tokyo, Japan. ARI 26: 1-32.
- Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
- Xu Z. H., and X. G. Zhou. 2004. Systematic study on the ant genus Pyramica Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29: 440-450.
- Xu Z. and X.-G. Zhou. 2004. Systematic study on the ant genus Pyramica Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29(3): 440-450
- Yamane S. 2016. How many species of Ants in Amami Islands? (in Japanese). Part 2, chapter 1 in How many species of Ants in Amami Islands? Pp. 92-132.
- Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
- Yamane S., Y. Harada, and K. Eguchi. 2013. Classification and ecology of ants. Natural history of ants in Southern Kyushu. 200 pages
- Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.