Strumigenys caniophanes group

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Strumigenys caniophanes group Bolton (2000)


Malesian-Oriental-East Palaeartic

Worker Diagnosis

Apical fork of mandible of 2 teeth, with 0-2 intercalary denticles between the fork teeth. Preapical teeth sometimes absent but usually a single tooth or denticle present near the apex. Mandible straight to shallowly curved; MI 36-51.

Anterior clypeal margin transverse to broadly evenly shallowly concave across its width.

Scape slender and subcylindrical, short to moderate; SI 59-87.

Apical antennomere unconstricted to moderately constricted basally.

Ventrolateral margin of head without a preocular impression or notch; with head in profile the dorsal and ventral outlines without impressions except for the postbuccal groove.

Propodeal teeth free; lateral margin of declivity merely angulate or with a fine carina that closely follows the shape of the declivity; without a broad lamella.

Spongiform appendages of waist segments all present; lateral lobe of petiole restricted to posterior portion of node in profile (except in Strumigenys lacunosa and Strumigenys lopotyle), usually no more than a slight expansion of the posterior collar.

Pilosity. Pronotal humeral hair present, simple to flagellate. Apicoscrobal hair present; anterior to this the upper scrobe margin often with one to several other long fine hairs that freely project laterally. First gastral tergite with fine filiform to flagellate hairs and similar hairs usually also present elsewhere on head and alitrunk. Main pilosity and ground-pilosity everywhere of soft fine simple hairs, without spatulate, remiform or otherwise stiffly bizarre pilosity. Hind tibia and/or basitarsus usually with long fine erect hairs (some exceptions) and hairs numerous on gaster. Hairs on leading edge of scape small, fine and simple, usually decumbent to appressed.

Sculpture. Coarse; not merely the usual fine reticulate-punctate sculpture on head and alitrunk dorsally. Either the surfaces coarsely, sharply and densely reticulate-punctate, or other components also present such as reticulation, rugulae, sulci or granulate sculpture. Disc of postpetiole sculptured, usually strongly so. Gaster unsculptured except for basigastral costulae, which may be short.


In general the 20 species of this group appear as finely, softly pilose ants with sculpture that is denser and coarser than usual. Colour is usually quite dark, frequently dull red although paler and darker species are known. Three species-complexes can be delineated within the group, the first mentioned is probably genuine but the others are crude and for convenience.

caniophanes complex

Petiole in profile elongate and subclaviform to claviform, the node long and low; node either without a differentiated anterior face or if one present it is very oblique and very much shorter than the long curved dorsal surface. In general anterior face of node and dorsum form a single even convexity and the peduncle may also grade evenly into the node without a marked change of slope. Mandible without a lamella on inner margin.

The species included here break down into two unevely-sized aggregates, as follows.

Mandible without preapical teeth (caniophanes, heteropha).

Mandible with a preapical tooth present (daithma, dipsas, lacunosa, lebratyx, macerina, mododonta, natynion, paraposta, pliocera, tomodonta).

cygarix complex

Petiole in profile with a differentiated steep anterior face to node, not subclaviform or claviform; height of anterior face of node subequal to or greater than length of dorsum. Mandible without a lamella on inner margin.

This complex is very much for convenience. It holds taxa not obviously falling into either of the others and can be roughly subdivided as follows.

Species without preapical tooth on mandible: cygarix, dromica.

Species with a preapical tooth or denticle on mandible and with the head broad (CI 77-88): lopotyle, nothomopyx.

Species with a preapical tooth on mandible and the head narrow (CI 70-73): benulia, tadynastes.

rhadina complex

Petiole in profile not elongate-claviform, shaped basically as described for cygarix-complex. Mandible with a conspicuous cuticular lamella that extends along the inner margin and terminates abruptly just proximal of the preapical tooth.