Strumigenys smithii

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Strumigenys smithii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Strumigenys
Species: S. smithii
Binomial name
Strumigenys smithii
Forel, 1886

Strumigenys smithii inbiocri002281918 profile 1.jpg

Strumigenys smithii inbiocri002281918 dorsal 1.jpg


Occurs in wet forest habitats. In Costa Rica, it perhaps nests and forages in the low arboreal zone. The few collections are from that zone, and I have never observed it in Winkler samples. (Longino, Ants of Costa Rica)


Bolton (2000) - A member of the mandibularis complex in the Strumigenys mandibularis-group. Close to Strumigenys biolleyi, but that species has all hairs on the leading edge of the scape curved or inclined toward the apex of the scape, and the propodeal declivity only has a triangular lobe or tooth at the base, there being no upper tooth or spine where dorsum meets declivity.

Longino (Ants of Costa Rica) - Apical fork of mandible with a single intercalary tooth; mandible with two conspicuous preapical teeth; gastral dorsum smooth and shining; mandibles shorter than head; propodeal lamellae with dorsal and ventral teeth or angles (dorsal angle absent in biolleyi).

In Costa Rica, smithii has a conspicuous ring of basal costulae on the gaster, these being approximately 0.10mm long on the midline. Strumigenys biolleyi has these costulae essentially absent or very short, less than 0.05mm on the midline. This difference is true for specimens from 28 different collections of biolleyi and 4 different collections of smithii that I have examined.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 18.0601° to -64.36°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Belize, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Panama, St. Vincent, Venezuela.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.


Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.



Brown (1962) - Nests in rotten logs, rotten twigs or, on St. Vincent, rarely in sod. Primarily a forest species.

DaRocha et al. (2015) studied the diversity of ants found in bromeliads of a single large tree of Erythrina, a common cocoa shade tree, at an agricultural research center in Ilhéus, Brazil. Forty-seven species of ants were found in 36 of 52 the bromeliads examined. Bromeliads with suspended soil and those that were larger had higher ant diversity. Strumigenys smithii was found in a single bromeliad and was associated with the suspended soil and litter of the plant.



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • smithii. Strumigenys smithii Forel, 1886a: 215 (w.) BRAZIL. Forel, 1893g: 375 (q.m.). Senior synonym of inaequalis: Brown, 1953f: 104. See also: Bolton, 2000: 539.
  • inaequalis. Strumigenys smithi var. inaequalis Emery, 1890b: 67, pl. 7, fig. 3 (w.) BRAZIL. Junior synonym of smithii: Brown, 1953f: 104.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Bolton (2000) - TL 2.7-3.3, HL 0.65-0.77, HW 0.54-0.64, CI 81-85, ML 0.36-0.42, MI 52-60, SL 0.44-0.53, SI 79-86, PW 0.34-0.44, AL 0.68-0.84 (15 measured).

Characters of mandibularis-complex. Proximal preapical tooth located just distal of midlength on inner border of mandible. Outer margins of mandibles only shallowly curved at full closure. Leading edge of scape with 1-2 hairs in the basal third that are distinctly curved toward the base of the scape. Propodeal declivity with upper and lower teeth linked by a lamella, the teeth variable in shape and size but lower tooth somewhat longer than the upper. Disc of postpetiole broader than long, with very variably developed costulate sculpture. At minimum costulae extremely short and weak, restricted to anterior margin of disc; at maximum costulae strong and traversing entire length of disc; many intermediate stages known. First gastral tergite with fine hairs on basal quarter to third; at minimum a single transverse row close to base but usually with others also present. Basigastral costulae distinct, longer than thickness of postpetiolar posterior spongiform collar.

Type Material

Bolton (2000) - Syntype workers, BRAZIL: Itajahy (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna) [examined].


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Basset Y., L. Cizek, P. Cuenoud, R. K. Didham, F. Guilhaumon, O. Missa, V. Novotny, F. Odegaards, T. Roslin, J. Schmidl et al. 2012. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest. Science 338(6113): 1481-1484.
  • Bolton, B. 2000. The Ant Tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 65
  • Brown W. L. Jr. 1962. The neotropical species of the ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith: synopsis and keys to the species. Psyche (Cambridge) 69: 238-267.
  • Brown W. L., Jr. 1953. The neotropical species of the ant genus Strumigenys Fr. Smith: group of smithii Forel. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 61: 101-110.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology
  • Fernandes I., and J. de Souza. 2018. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24375.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1897. Quelques Formicides de l'Antille de Grenada récoltés par M. H. H. Smith. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 1897: 297-300.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Galkowski C. 2016. New data on the ants from the Guadeloupe (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 151, 44(1): 25-36.
  • Jaffe, Klaus and Lattke, John. 1994. Ant Fauna of the French and Venezuelan Islands in the Caribbean in Exotic Ants, editor D.F. Williams. 182-190.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Lattke, J.E. & Goitía, W. 1997. El género Strumigenys en Venezuela. Caldasia 19: 367-396.
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Menozzi C. 1927. Formiche raccolte dal Sig. H. Schmidt nei dintorni di San José di Costa Rica. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin-Dahlem. 16: 266-277.
  • Rosa da Silva R. 1999. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) do oeste de Santa Catarina: historico das coletas e lista atualizada das especies do Estado de Santa Catarina. Biotemas 12(2): 75-100.
  • Silva T. S. R., and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. Using controlled vocabularies in anatomical terminology: A case study with Strumigenys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Arthropod Structure and Development 52: 1-26.
  • Sosa-Calvo J., T. R. Schultz, and J. S. LaPolla. 2010. A review of the dacetine ants of Guyana (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 19: 12-43.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1905. The ants of the Bahamas, with a list of the known West Indian species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 21: 79-135.
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1911. Ants Collected in Grenada, W.I. by Mr. C. T. Brues. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparitive Zoology at Harvard College. 54(5):166-172.