Technomyrmex pratensis

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Technomyrmex pratensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Genus: Technomyrmex
Species: T. pratensis
Binomial name
Technomyrmex pratensis
(Smith, F., 1860)

Technomyrmex pratensis casent0616420 p 1 high.jpg

Technomyrmex pratensis casent0616420 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


A forest species that has been collected from litter samples.


Bolton (2007) - A member of the Technomyrmex pratensis group. T. pratensis is immediately diagnosed by its reduced palp formula, deeply cleft clypeal margin, characteristic cephalic setae, short stocky body and short scape. Its nearest relative appears to be the Afrotropical Technomyrmex lasiops, which closely resembles pratensis (including PF 5,3) but has a different arrangement of setae on the head.

All the samples are treated as belonging to a single, size-variable, species, but because of variations in pilosity, particularly the presence in some samples of erect setae on the dorsal (outer) surfaces of the middle and hind tibiae, there may be more than one real species here. The possibility is currently doubted as the number of such setae varies from 0 - 3, does not appear consistent in single nest-samples, and may well be size-related as the larger the Individual the more setae appear to develop. Similarly, larger workers have pubescence that is denser and more elevated than in smaller individuals. Other indications of allometric variation among the relatively few samples available include the observations that with increasing size (i.e. as HW increases) CI tends to increase while SI and OI tend to decrease.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 21.96405556° to -7.502778°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia (type locality), Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore.
Oriental Region: India, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




Images from AntWeb

Technomyrmex pratensis casent0249801 h 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0249801 p 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0249801 d 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0249801 l 1 high.jpg
Worker. Specimen code casent0249801. Photographer Shannon Hartman, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by PSWC, Philip S. Ward Collection.
Technomyrmex pratensis casent0907585 h 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0907585 p 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0907585 d 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0907585 l 1 high.jpg
Syntype of Tapinoma setiferum javanumWorker. Specimen code casent0907585. Photographer Z. Lieberman, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MZL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Technomyrmex pratensis casent0904027 h 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0904027 p 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0904027 p 2 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0904027 l 1 high.jpg
Syntype of Tapinoma setiferumWorker. Specimen code casent0904027. Photographer Z. Lieberman, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by MSNG, Genoa, Italy.
Technomyrmex pratensis casent0901924 h 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0901924 p 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0901924 d 1 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0901924 d 2 high.jpgTechnomyrmex pratensis casent0901924 l 1 high.jpg
Syntype of Technomyrmex pratensisWorker. Specimen code casent0901924. Photographer Will Ericson, uploaded by California Academy of Sciences. Owned by OUM, Oxford, UK.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • pratensis. Tapinoma pratensis Smith, F. 1860b: 97 (w.) INDONESIA (Batjan I.). Combination in Iridomyrmex: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 460; in Technomyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: 161. Senior synonym of javanum, setiferum: Bolton, 2007a: 95.
  • setiferum. Tapinoma setiferum Emery, 1900d: 695, fig. 11 (w.) INDONESIA (Sumatra). Combination in Technomyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 99. Junior synonym of pratensis: Bolton, 2007a: 95.
  • javanum. Tapinoma setiferum var. javanum Forel, 1905c: 22 (w.q.m.) INDONESIA (Java). Combination in Technomyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: 161. Junior synonym of pratensis: Bolton, 2007a: 95.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Bolton (2007) - TL 2.6 - 3.5, HL 0.70 - 0.94, HW 0.63 - 0.92, SL 0.56 - 0.76, PW 0.45 - 0.56, WL 0.82 - 1.06 (25 measured). Indices: CI 90 - 102, SI 83 - 97, OI 20 - 25, EPI 78 - 85, DTI 105 - 120.

Palp formula 5,3. Dorsum of head behind clypeus with 5 pairs of long setae arranged in two parallel rows: in profile the first seta above the torulus; second and third setae along the frontal carina, the third at about the level of the posterior margin of the eye; fourth seta dorsal, between posterior margin of eye and posterior margin of head; fifth seta at the posterior margin and much longer than the maximum diameter of the eye. Scape without erect setae but pubescence on scape and side of head usually denser and more elevated in larger individuals, sparser and more reclinate in smaller workers. Anterior clypeal margin with a deep and very conspicuous U-shaped median incision that is usually slightly longer than broad; inner margin of incision meets the anterior clypeal margin in an acute angle at each side. Posterior margin of head in full-face view with a distinct median impression. Eyes located in front of the midlength of the head and in full-face view set well in from the side, distinctly failing to break the outline of the side but closer to the sides in smaller than in larger workers. Mesosoma short and stout (DTI, above), in profile the mesonotum convex; the propodeal dorsum rounds into the declivity. Number of setal pairs on mesosoma: pronotum 1 - 4 (number tends to increase with size, but not always so); mesonotum 2 - 4 (in larger workers 1 - 3 pairs of much shorter secondary setae may also be present among the main setae); propodeal dorsum 0; lateral margin of propodeal declivity 1 - 3, always a strong pair at the level of the spiracle. Gastral tergites 1 - 4 each with numerous long strong setae, the longest on the first tergite much longer than the maximum diameter of the eye. Smaller workers and populations from the north of the species' range without erect setae on the dorsal (outer) surfaces of the middle and hind tibiae, but larger workers, particularly from the south of its range, with 1 - 3 erect tibial setae present; tibial pubescence elevated. Head, mesosoma and petiole brownish yellow to brown, the gaster the same colour to distinctly darker. Legs uniformly coloured, the same as the mesosoma to slightly lighter; tarsi the same colour as the tibiae.

Type Material

Bolton (2007) - Syntype workers, Indonesia: Bayan I, “Bac.20” (A. R. Wallace) (Oxford University Museum of Natural History) [examined].

The following notes on F. Smith type specimens have been provided by Barry Bolton (details):

Tapinoma pratensis

Four worker syntypes in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Labelled “Bac 20.”


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bolton B. 2007. Taxonomy of the dolichoderine ant genus Technomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) based on the worker caste. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 35(1): 1-150.
  • Bolton, B. "Taxonomy of the dolichoderine ant genus Technomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) based on the worker caste." Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 35, no. 1 (2007): 1-149.
  • CSIRO Collection
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Emery C. 1913. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137: 1-50.
  • Emery C. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 40: 661-722.
  • Emery, C. "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 20, no. 40 (1900): 661-722.
  • Fontanilla A. M., A. Nakamura, Z. Xu, M. Cao, R. L. Kitching, Y. Tang, and C. J. Burwell. 2019. Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in southwest China. Insects 10, 128; doi:10.3390/insects10050128
  • Forel A. 1905. Ameisen aus Java. Gesammelt von Prof. Karl Kraepelin 1904. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 22: 1-26.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Karavaiev V. 1926. Ameisen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet. Treubia 8: 413-445.
  • Karavaiev V. 1930. Ameisen von den Molukken und Neuguinea. (Ergebnisse der Sunda-Expedition der Notgemeinschaft der deutschen Wissenschaft 1929/30.). Zool. Anz. 92: 206-214.
  • Kishimoto-Yamata K., F. Hyodo, M. Matsuoka, Y. Hashimoto, M. Kon, T. Ochi, S. Yamane, R. Ishii, and T. Itioka. 2012. Effects of remnant primary forests on ant and dung beetle species diversity in a secondary forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Insect Conservation DOI 10.1007/s10841-012-9544-6
  • Liu C, B. Guénard, F Hita Garcia, S. Yamane, B. Blanchard, and E. Economo. New records of ant species from Yunnan, China. Submitted to Zookeys
  • Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
  • Shattuck S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 112: i-xix, 1-241.
  • Smith, Fr. "Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the Islands of Bachian, Kaisaa, Amboyna, Gilolo, and at Dory in New Guinea." Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 5 (1860): 93-143.
  • Viehmeyer H. 1912. Ameisen aus Deutsch Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen. Nebst einem Verzeichnisse der papuanischen Arten. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königlichen Zoologischen und Anthropologische-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 14: 1-26.