Temnothorax antigoni

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Temnothorax antigoni
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Species group: recedens
Species: T. antigoni
Binomial name
Temnothorax antigoni
(Forel, 1911)

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Specimen Labels

In Turkey a nest of Temnothorax antigoni was found under a stone on a rocky side of a sandy path which runs through a pine forest. The locality is placed inside archeological site of the ancient Greek city Phaselis, close to the sea, only 6 m a.s.l. In the three Rhodes localities nests were found in rocks in mountain pine forest habitats at altitudes 522-598 m. Nests were located between schists of the volcanic rocks placed in the shade. In the five Lesbos localities nests were found in pine forest, oak forest and river valleys with platanus trees at altitudes 74-485 m. Nests were located under a moss overgrowing a large stones and between a schists of the volcanic rocks placed in the shade. A single workers were collected also on the surface of large stones or rocks. (Salata and Borowiec 2015)

Identification

A member of the Temnothorax recedens group.

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - Temnothorax antigoni is a species belonging to the former subgenus Temnothorax sensu stricto. The following related species occur in the eastern part of the Mediterranean: Temnothorax finzii known from Italy, Macedonia and Turkey, Temnothorax recedens widespread in the Mediterranean area, Temnothorax rogeri Emery noted from Croatia, Montenegro, and Greece, and Temnothorax solerii known from Greece (endemic to Karpathos island).

Workers of Temnothorax finzii distinctly differ by a very large eyes (EI > 24.8 in T. finzii vs EI < 20.3 in T. antigoni) and a longitudinal striation with rugosity covering entire lateral surface of the head while the head in T. antigoni is smooth and shiny. Another four species are very similar: T. rogeri differs in very long propodeal spine, at least twice as long as its width at base (in T. antigoni the spine is short, forms a denticle, not or only slightly longer than its width at base), T. solerii differs in entire body uniformly yellowish-brown to brown (in T. antigoni the body is uniformly pale yellow with darker transverse apical band on the first gastral tergite). At the first glance T. antigoni can be mistakenly determined as a pale variation of T. recedens. Workers of T. recedens are always bicoloured with head and gaster mostly dark and mesosoma usually with a darker spots on meso- and metapleura. Even pale workers of this species have always head and gaster gently darker than mesosoma with a pale basal spot on the first gastral tergite. In our collection we possess 17 gynes and 262 workers from 67 localities in Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus (see Suppl. material 1) and we have never found a specimens with colouration typical for T. antigoni (more than 230 examined specimens). In T. antigoni head and mesosoma are uniformly yellow, devoid of any darker discolourations and the gaster is mostly yellow with a darker transverse apical band on the first gastral tergite. This colouration is constant in all examined samples. The only observed variability was a degree of saturation of dark apical band on the first gastral tergite. Moreover, T. antigoni has average smaller eyes than T. recedens (EI: 18.8 ± 0.8 in T. antigoni vs 22.0 ± 1.6 in T. recedens).

Gynes are known only for Temnothorax recedens and T. rogeri. The gyne of T. rogeri distinctly differs in long propodeal spine, distinctly longer than width at base, head partly infuscate and gaster mostly brown with yellow spot at base of first tergite (in T. antigoni propodeal spine is triangular, as long as wide, body mostly uniformly yellow with darker transverse apical band on first gastral tergite and narrowly infuscate apical margin of subsequent tergites). The gyne of T. recedens differs in head and mesosoma usually bicoloured, with at least infuscate spot on meso- and metapleura, and mostly dark gaster (in T. antigoni the body is mostly uniformly yellow with darker transverse apical band on the first gastral tergite and narrowly infuscate apical margin of subsequent tergites).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Described from Turkey: “Coccarinali près Smyrne” [now Izmir, Izmir province]. New locality in Turkey (ancient Phaselis) is placed in Antalya province approximately 370 km southeast from the type locality, three localities on Rhodes (Greece, Dodecanese) are placed 231-139 km southwest from the second locality in Turkey, and localities on Lesbos are placed 100-120 km northwest from the type locality. Species new to Greek fauna. (Salata and Borowiec 2015)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Greece, Turkey (type locality).


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • antigoni. Leptothorax (Temnothorax) antigoni Forel, 1911d: 333 (w.) TURKEY. Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 271.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=20). Measurements and indices: HL: 0.659 ± 0.04 (0.581-0.721); HW: 0.521 ± 0.032 (0.458-0.581); EL: 0.125 ± 0.09 (0.112-0.142); EW: 0.094 ± 0.005 (0.089-0.106); SL: 0.641 ± 0.039 (0.578-0.704); ML: 0.814 ± 0.062 (0.715-0.927); PSL: 0.139 ± 0.026 (0.078-0.179); SDL: 0.113 ± 0.024 (0.044- 0.145); PL: 0.306 ± 0.028 (0.257-0.358); PPL: 0.188 ± 0.017 (0.156-0.218); PH: 0.186± 0.014 (0.162-0.212); PPH: 0.191± 0.016 (0.165-0.223); SPBA: 0.143 ± 0.02 (0.112-0.179); SPT: 0.149 ± 0.022 (0.112-0.19); PW: 0.146 ± 0.015 (0.123-0.168); PPW: 0.221 ± 0.025 (0.179-0.268); HI: 79.0 ± 1.6 (76.4-81.6); EI: 18.8 ± 0.8 (17.3- 20.3); SPI: 27.2 ± 3.4 (19.9-32.7); SI: 97.2 ± 1.6 (93.8-99.7).

Whole body pale yellow, including antennae and legs, only first gastral tergite with pale, brown, regular transverse band apically.

Head 1.2–1.3 times as long as wide, posterior margin of the head straight and laterally rounded in full-face view, gena almost parallel-sided. Eyes small, 1.3 times as long as wide, gena 1.5 times as long as eye length, distance between line connecting hind margins of eyes to posterior margin of head 1.8 times as long as eye length. Anterior margin of clypeus regularly rounded, clypeal lines distinct, slightly divergent, reaching to line connecting anterior margin of eyes. Almost entire surface of head smooth and shiny, only gena with indistinct microreticulation. Clypeus, frons and top of head with numerous, long, erect hairs, the longest hair to 1.2 times longer than eye width, ventral surface of head with numerous long hairs, on the top of head hairs only slightly shorter. Antennal scape approximately as long as head, thin, in widest part only 1.8 times as wide as antennal base. Surface of scape smooth and shiny, covered with long, moderately dense, erect hairs. Funiculus 1.2 times as long as scape with three-segmented thin club, first segment twice longer than wide, second segment 1.3 times as long as wide, segments 3-5 approximately as long as wide, club very long, 0.75 times as long as segments 1-9 combined. Mesosoma elongate, 2.8 times as long as wide, with deep metanotal groove. Pronotum rounded on sides, regularly convex in profile, smooth and shiny, with 8-20 long, erect hairs. Promesonotal suture very fine but visible, mesonotum forms with pronotum regular arch, surface smooth and shiny with 4-8 long hairs. Mesopleura with regular granulate sculpture, metapleural suture distinct. Propodeum slightly convex in profile, surface with granulate sculpture but shiny, propodeal spines very short, triangular, metapleura with granulate sculpture. Petiole elongate, 1.6 times as long as high, dorsal surface shallowly concave, petiolar lobe regularly rounded, ventral margin of petiole straight, carinate, with small, sharp denticle at the base. Petiolar lobe almost parallel-sided in dorsal view, then slightly converging to base. Petiolar lobe smooth and shiny with 4 long erect hairs, sides of petiole with granulate sculpture. Postpetiole globular in profile, from dorsal view slightly transverse with subangulate sides, top of postpetiole smooth and shiny with 4-6 long, erect hair, sides with granulate sculpture. Gaster as long as mesosoma, surface smooth and shiny covered with numerous long, erect hairs. Legs elongate, smooth and shiny, with sparse, semierect hairs, femora along underside with row of 3-4 long erect hairs. Hind tarsus 1.6 times as long as hind tibia.

Queen

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - (n=5). Measurements and indices: HL: 0.741 ± 0.012 (0.726- 0.754); HW: 0.642 ± 0.015 (0.615-0.659); EL: 0.201 ± 0.08 (0.190-0.212); EW: 0.155 ± 0.06 (0.145-0.162); SL: 0.664 ± 0.023 (0.637-0.693); ML: 1.258 ± 0.025 (1.219- 1.284); MH: 0.680 ± 0.044 (0.598-0.723); PSL: 0.199 ± 0.012 (0.184-0.218); SDL: 0.141 ± 0.013 (0.123-0.156); PL: 0.401 ± 0.025 (0.369-0.441); PPL: 0.237 ± 0.018 (0.212-0.257); PH: 0.277 ± 0.015 (0.257-0.302); PPH: 0.283 ± 0.007 (0.274-0.291); SPBA: 0.311 ± 0.006 (0.301-0.318); SPT: 0.281 ± 0.019 (0.251-0.302); PW: 0.200 ± 0.011 (0.190-0.223); PPW: 0.300 ± 0.017 (0.268-0.313); HI: 86.7 ± 1.5 (84.7-89.3); EI: 27.2 ± 1 (26.2-28.5); SPI: 31 ± 1.8 (28.4-34); SI: 89.6 ± 1.7 (87.7-91.9).

Whole body pale yellow, including antennae and legs, only first gastral tergite with pale brown, regular transverse band apically and subsequent tergites with brownish posterior margin.

Head 1.1 times as long as wide, posterior margin of head rounded in full-face view, gena almost parallel-sided. Eyes large, 1.4 times as long as wide, gena 0.7 times as long as eye length, distance between line connecting hind margins of eyes to posterior margin of head 1.3 times as long as eye length. Anterior margin of clypeus regularly rounded, clypeal lines distinct, slightly divergent, reaching slightly behind line connecting anterior margin of eyes. Upper half of head smooth and shiny, frons on sides microreticulate but shiny, gena with rugose sculpture and along inner margin of eye run 2-3 thin carinae. Clypeus, frons and top of head with numerous, moderately long, erect hairs, the longest hairs slightly shorter than eye width, ventral surface of head with numerous moderately long hairs. Antennal scape 1.1 times as long as head, thin, in widest part only 1.6 times as wide as antennal base. Surface of scape smooth and shiny, covered with moderately long, moderately dense, more or less erect hairs. Funiculus 1.2 times as long as scape with three-segmented thin club, first segment twice as long as wide, second segment as long as wide, segments 3-5 elongate 1.3–1.4 times as long as wide, club long, approximately as long as segments 1-9 combined. Mesosoma 1.8 times as long as wide. Pronotum narrow, not visible from above, smooth and shiny. Scutum of mesonotum convex, smooth and shiny, covered with numerous moderately long, erect setae. Scutellum convex, smooth and shiny with view erect setae. Anepisternite with indistinct microreticularion, shiny, mesopleuron smooth and shiny. Propodeum short, surface with few transverse carinae, propodeal spines short, 1.1 times as long, acute, near apex with one long seta, metapleura with distinct carinae. Petiole elongate, 1.5 times as long as high, dorsal side almost flat, petiolar lobe subangulate in profile, with short carina on sides, distinctly microreticulate, ventral margin of petiole straight, carinate, with small, sharp denticle at base. Petiolar lobe feebly rounded on sides in dorsal view, then distinctly converging to base. Petiolar lobe behind top microreticulate with two long setae. Postpetiole globular in profile, from dorsal view distinctly transverse, 1.3 times as wide as long, with carinate sides, top of postpetiole microreticulate with several thin, longitudinal carinae and 7-9 long, erect setae, sides microreticulate with few short carinae. Gastral tergites smooth and shiny covered with numerous long, erect hairs. Legs elongate, smooth and shiny, with moderately dense, semierect to erect hairs, femora along underside with row of 4-5 long erect hairs. Hind tarsus 1.7 times as long as hind tibia.

Type Material

Salata and Borowiec (2015) - T. antigoni worker type Forel Coccarinali p. Smyrne (Forel) Typus Sp. T. antigoni Forel Coll. Forel. ANTWEB CASENT 0909060

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2018. Notes on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Samos Island, Greece. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-13.
  • Forel A. 1911. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 47: 331-400.
  • Salata S., and L Borowiec. 2017. Species of Tetramorium semilaeve complex from Balkans and western Turkey, with description of two new species of (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 62:279–313.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.