Temnothorax exilis

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Temnothorax exilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Species: T. exilis
Binomial name
Temnothorax exilis
(Emery, 1869)

Temnothorax exilis casent0010685 profile 1.jpg

Temnothorax exilis casent0010685 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

On Crete, this species is found in open, dry habitats, especially those overgrown by phrygana. Nests are in soil, most often under medium size rocks or in rock cleavages, and always in sunny localities. Colonies are monogamous or polygynous (Salata, Borowiec & Trichas, 2018). In Portugal, Boieiro et al. (2002) (as Temnothorax specularis) report a single colony occurring beneath a stone in an area of sclerophyllous vegetation near Tesoureira (UTM 29SMD8709) and several workers being collected by means of pitfall traps in the same area. This is a rather common species in Spain, particularly in areas throughout the Mediterranean coast.

Identification

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Algeria, Balearic Islands, Croatia, France, Georgia, Gibraltar, Greece, Iberian Peninsula, Italy (type locality), Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

This species is a host for the ant Temnothorax corsicus (a workerless inquiline).

Fungi

This species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • exilis. Leptothorax exilis Emery, 1869b: 15, pl. 1, fig. 9 (w.) ITALY. Emery, 1916b: 183, 186 (q.m., respectively). Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 271. Subspecies of tuberum: Emery & Forel, 1879: 459; Emery, 1891b: 6; Ruzsky, 1902d: 21; Emery, 1915h: 2. Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 124; Forel, 1913d: 433; Emery, 1916b: 174; Santschi, 1923f: 331; Müller, 1923: 89; Finzi, 1924a: 13; Santschi, 1929e: 153; Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041. Senior synonym of ruficornis: Emery, 1916b: 174; of boccaris, creticus, darii, nitidulus and material of the unavailable name esmirensis referred here: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • creticus. Leptothorax exilis subsp. creticus Forel, 1910a: 23 (w.q.) GREECE (Crete). Menozzi, 1936d: 289 (m.). Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • darii. Leptothorax exilis var. darii Forel, 1911d: 334 (w.) TURKEY. Menozzi, 1936d: 287 (q.l.). Subspecies of exilis: Cori & Finzi, 1931: 238. Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • ruficornis. Leptothorax tuberum subsp. ruficornis Emery, 1914d: 157 (w.) FRANCE ? [First available use of Leptothorax tuberum subsp. exilis var. ruficornis Emery, 1898c: 135; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of exilis: Emery, 1916b: 174.
  • boccaris. Leptothorax exilis var. boccaris Santschi, 1923f: 331 (w.) TUNISIA. Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • nitidulus. Leptothorax exilis var. nitidulus Santschi, 1923f: 331 (w.q.) ALGERIA. [First available use of Leptothorax tuberum r. obscurior var. nitidulus Forel, 1894d: 39; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • specularis. Leptothorax exilis var. specularis Emery, 1916b: 174 (w.) ITALY.
    • [First available use of Leptothorax tuberum subsp. exilis var. specularis Emery, 1898c: 135; unavailable name.]
    • Santschi, 1923a: 135 (m.).
    • Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 271.
    • Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041; Salata, Borowiec & Trichas, 2018: 778.
    • Status as species: Collingwood, 1978: 70.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 11 (Croatia; France; Italy; Turkey) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax exilis).
  • n = 17 (Italy) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax specularis).

References

  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971d. Studien zur Ameisenfauna Italiens XI. Die Ameisen des Toskanischen Archipels. Betrachtungen zur Herkunft der Inselfaunen. Rev. Suisse Zool. 7 78: 1037-1067 (page 1041, Status as species)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1971d. Studien zur Ameisenfauna Italiens XI. Die Ameisen des Toskanischen Archipels. Betrachtungen zur Herkunft der Inselfaunen. Rev. Suisse Zool. 7 78: 1037-1067 (page 1041, Senior synonym of boccaris, creticus, darii and nitidulus, and material of the unavailable name esmirensis referred here.)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 271, Combination in Temnothorax)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 124, Status as species)
  • Emery, C. 1869b. Enumerazione dei formicidi che rinvengonsi nei contorni di Napoli con descrizioni di specie nuove o meno conosciute. Ann. Accad. Aspir. Nat. Secunda Era 2: 1-26 (page 15, pl. 1, fig. 9 worker described)
  • Emery, C. 1891c. Exploration scientifique de la Tunisie. Zoologie. - Hyménoptères. Révision critique des fourmis de la Tunisie. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, iii + 21 pp. (page 6, Variety/subspecies of tuberum)
  • Emery, C. 1915f. Escursioni zoologiche del Dr. Enrico Festa nell'Isola di Rodi. XII. Formiche. Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 30(7 701: 1-7 (page 2, Variety/subspecies of tuberum)
  • Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 183, 186, queen, male described respectively)
  • Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 174, Status as species)
  • Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 174, Senior synonym of ruficornis)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 459, Variety/subspecies of tuberum)
  • Espadaler, X., Santamaria, S. 2012. Ecto- and Endoparasitic Fungi on Ants from the Holarctic Region. Psyche Article ID 168478, 10 pages (doi:10.1155/2012/168478).
  • Finzi, B. 1924a. Formiche dell'isola d'Elba e Monte Argentario. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 56: 12-15 (page 13, Status as species)
  • Forel, A. 1913d. Fourmis de la faune méditerranéenne récoltées par MM. U. et J. Sahlberg. Rev. Suisse Zool. 21: 427-438 (page 433, Status as species)
  • Müller, G. 1923b. Le formiche della Venezia Guilia e della Dalmazia. Boll. Soc. Adriat. Sci. Nat. Trieste 28: 11-180 (page 89, Status as species)
  • Ruzsky, M. 1902d. Material on the ant fauna of the Caucasus and the Crimea. Protok. Obshch. Estestvoispyt. Imp. Kazan. Univ. 206(su suppl: 1-33 (page 21, Variety/subspecies of tuberum)
  • Salata, S., Borowiec, L., Trichas, A. 2018. Taxonomic revision of the Cretan fauna of the genus Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with notes on the endemism of ant fauna of Crete. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 68(4): 769-808 (DOI 10.3161/00034541ANZ2018.68.4.004).
  • Santschi, F. 1923f. Messor et autres fourmis paléarctiques. Rev. Suisse Zool. 30: 317-336 (page 331, Status as species)
  • Santschi, F. 1929e. Fourmis du Maroc, d'Algérie et de Tunisie. Bull. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 69: 138-165 (page 153, Status as species)