Temnothorax exilis

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Temnothorax exilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Species group: exilis
Species: T. exilis
Binomial name
Temnothorax exilis
(Emery, 1869)

Temnothorax exilis casent0010685 profile 1.jpg

Temnothorax exilis casent0010685 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

On Crete, this species is found in open, dry habitats, especially those overgrown by phrygana (Salata, Borowiec & Trichas, 2018) while in Greece it is considered to be a xerothermophilous species associated with rocky, open and arid habitats (Salata & Borowiec, 2019). Nests are in soil, most often under medium size rocks or in rock cleavages, and always in sunny localities. Colonies are monogamous or polygynous (Salata, Borowiec & Trichas, 2018). In Portugal, Boieiro et al. (2002) (as Temnothorax specularis) report a single colony occurring beneath a stone in an area of sclerophyllous vegetation near Tesoureira (UTM 29SMD8709) and several workers being collected by means of pitfall traps in the same area. This is a rather common species in Spain, particularly in areas throughout the Mediterranean coast.

Identification

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Algeria, Balearic Islands, Croatia, France, Georgia, Gibraltar, Greece, Iberian Peninsula, Italy (type locality), Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

This species is a host for the ant Temnothorax corsicus (a workerless inquiline).

This species is a host for the ant Temnothorax kutteri (a slave maker) (Acosta Salmerón et al., 1983; Espadaler & Restrepo, 1983; Buschinger et al., 1988) (fairly common host).

This species is a host for the ant Temnothorax muellerianus (a slave maker) in Crete (Salata, Borowiec & Trichas, 2018).

Fungi

This species is a host for the fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum (a pathogen) (Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012).

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • exilis. Leptothorax exilis Emery, 1869b: 15, pl. 1, fig. 9 (w.) ITALY. Emery, 1916b: 183, 186 (q.m., respectively). Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 271. Subspecies of tuberum: Emery & Forel, 1879: 459; Emery, 1891b: 6; Ruzsky, 1902d: 21; Emery, 1915h: 2. Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 124; Forel, 1913d: 433; Emery, 1916b: 174; Santschi, 1923f: 331; Müller, 1923: 89; Finzi, 1924a: 13; Santschi, 1929e: 153; Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041. Senior synonym of ruficornis: Emery, 1916b: 174; of boccaris, creticus, darii, nitidulus and material of the unavailable name esmirensis referred here: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • creticus. Leptothorax exilis subsp. creticus Forel, 1910a: 23 (w.q.) GREECE (Crete). Menozzi, 1936d: 289 (m.). Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • darii. Leptothorax exilis var. darii Forel, 1911d: 334 (w.) TURKEY. Menozzi, 1936d: 287 (q.l.). Subspecies of exilis: Cori & Finzi, 1931: 238. Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • ruficornis. Leptothorax tuberum subsp. ruficornis Emery, 1914d: 157 (w.) FRANCE ? [First available use of Leptothorax tuberum subsp. exilis var. ruficornis Emery, 1898c: 135; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of exilis: Emery, 1916b: 174.
  • boccaris. Leptothorax exilis var. boccaris Santschi, 1923f: 331 (w.) TUNISIA. Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • nitidulus. Leptothorax exilis var. nitidulus Santschi, 1923f: 331 (w.q.) ALGERIA. [First available use of Leptothorax tuberum r. obscurior var. nitidulus Forel, 1894d: 39; unavailable name.] Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041.
  • specularis. Leptothorax exilis var. specularis Emery, 1916b: 174 (w.) ITALY.
    • [First available use of Leptothorax tuberum subsp. exilis var. specularis Emery, 1898c: 135; unavailable name.]
    • Santschi, 1923a: 135 (m.).
    • Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 271.
    • Junior synonym of exilis: Baroni Urbani, 1971d: 1041; Salata, Borowiec & Trichas, 2018: 778.
    • Status as species: Collingwood, 1978: 70.

Description

Karyotype

  • n = 11 (Croatia; France; Italy; Turkey) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax exilis).
  • n = 17 (Italy) (Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax specularis).

References