Temnothorax species groups

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The following is based on Csösz, S., Heinze, J. and Mikó, I. 2015. Taxonomic synopsis of the Ponto-Mediterranean ants of Temnothorax nylanderi species-group. PLoS ONE. 10(11):62pp. e0140000 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140000).

Temnothorax angulinodis species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax angulinodis species-complex can be distinguished from those of other complexes treated in this revision by the combination of the following salient features: brown to black color; longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.171, 1.222]), sculpture of head dorsum shiny: with inconspicuously areolate ground sculpture combined with parallel costulate main sculpture; petiolar node in lateral view with a straight or weakly concave frontal profile meeting dorso-caudal plate in an acute angle (72–82°) with a sharp ridge, in dorsal view appearing as conspicuous semicircular anterior-lateral rim; long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.332, 0.369]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 32–38°.

This peculiar species-complex consists of a single species and is only known from the Peloponnese peninsula.

Temnothorax angustifrons species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax angustifrons species-complex can be distinguished from those of other complexes by the combination of the following salient features: light yellow to light brown color; moderately longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.135, 1.254]), sculpture of head dorsum shiny, with inconspicuously areolate ground sculpture combined with feeble costulate main sculpture; short to moderately long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.159, 0.267]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 47–52°; petiolar node in lateral view with a weakly concave frontal profile meeting dorso-caudal plate in an obtuse angle (95–105°) with a moderately sharp ridge, in dorsal view appearing as a visible (occasionally inconspicuous) anterior-lateral rim.

Members of this species-complex are known to occur in Turkey and Crete. The occurrence of two samples found in Greece may be ascribed to, dispersal by human activities.

Temnothorax flavicornis species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax flavicornis species-complex can be distinguished from those of other complexes treated in this revision by the combination of the following salient features: antennae 11-segmented, yellow to light brown color, head rectangular, significantly longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.226, 1.299]), sculpture of head dorsum dull: with smooth, or inconspicuously areolate ground sculpture combined with longitudinally rugulose or reticulate main sculpture; long to very long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.303, 0.420]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 40–45°; petiolar node in lateral view with a concave frontal profile meeting conspicuously developed truncate dorsum in an obtuse angle (105–115°) with a narrowly rounded transition, without a conspicuous sharp fronto-dorsal ridge on the petiolar node.

This peculiar species-complex consists of a single species.

Temnothorax lichtensteini species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax lichtensteini species-complex can be distinguished from those of other complexes treated in this revision by the combination of the following salient features: dirty yellow to brown color; longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.181, 1.267]), sculpture of head dorsum dull: with areolate ground sculpture combined with longitudinally rugulose or ruguloso-reticulate (occasionally less conspicuous) main sculpture; long to very long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.324, 0.429]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 20–25°; petiolar node in lateral view with a concave frontal profile meeting truncate dorsum in a right angle to an obtuse angle (110–120°) with a narrowly rounded transition, without a conspicuous sharp fronto-dorsal ridge on the petiolar node.

Colonies of this species-complex occur in Southern Europe from Spain to Bulgaria and in Turkey.

Temnothorax nylanderi species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax nylanderi species-complex can be distinguished from workers of other complexes treated in this revision by the combination of the following salient features: yellow to light brown color (Peloponnese populations occasionally dark brown to black); slightly longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.100, 1.196]), sculpture of head dorsum dull: with areolate ground sculpture combined with parallel costulate main sculpture; moderately long to long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.253, 0.356]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 32–42°; petiolar node in lateral view with a concave frontal profile meeting truncate dorsum in a right angle to an obtuse angle (88–115°) with a narrowly rounded transition, without a conspicuous sharp fronto-dorsal ridge on the petiolar node.

This species-complex is widely distributed in Europe and Turkey.

Temnothorax parvulus species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax parvulus species-complex can be distinguished from those of other complexes treated in this revision by the combination of the following salient features: dirty yellowish to brownish color; slightly longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.147, 1.242]), sculpture of head dorsum dull: with uniformly areolate ground sculpture combined with inconspicuous (or the lack of) main sculpture; short to long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.205, 0.331]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 38–42°; petiolar node in lateral view with a concave frontal profile meeting truncate dorsum in a right angle to an obtuse angle (100–110°) with a narrowly rounded transition, without a conspicuous sharp fronto-dorsal ridge on the petiolar node.

Members of this species-complex are known to occur in Europe, the Caucasus, and Turkey.

Temnothorax sordidulus species-complex

Workers of the Temnothorax sordidulus species-complex can be distinguished from those of other complexes treated in this revision by the combination of the following salient features: brown to black color; slightly longer than broad head (CL/CWb [1.143, 1.278)], sculpture of head dorsum dull: with areolate ground sculpture combined with conspicuous parallel costulate or irregular reticulate main sculpture; moderately long to long propodeal spines (SPST/CS [0.220, 0.335]), deviating from longitudinal axis of mesosoma by 40–50°; petiolar node in lateral view with a concave frontal profile meeting occasionally indistinct truncate dorsum in an obtuse angle (110–120°) with a narrowly rounded transition, without a conspicuous sharp fronto-dorsal ridge on the petiolar node.

Members of this species-complex are known to occur in Turkey and Crete. The sporadic occurrence of two samples in Greece may be ascribed to anthropochory.