Temnothorax spinosior

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Temnothorax spinosior
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Species: T. spinosior
Binomial name
Temnothorax spinosior
(Forel, 1901)

Temnothorax spinosior casent0906180 p 1 high.jpg

Temnothorax spinosior casent0906180 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Terayama and Onoyama (1999) - T. spinosior is found in dry open areas, such as grasslands and bare places. It nests in the soil. A queen body size dimorphism is known (Hamaguchi & Kinomura, 1996). Most larger queens are found in monogynous colonies while most smaller queens are found in polygynous colonies. Workers are found on the ground, seldom on trees. Nuptial flights occur in July (Sonobe, 1980). The chromosome number is 2n = 24 (Imai & Yosida, 1965).


T. spinosior most resembles Temnothorax eburneipes with notes about the distinctions between these two species noted under the latter.

Terayama and Onoyama (1999) - Total length of workers around 2 mm. Body color black to blackish brown. Scapes almost reaching posterior margin of head in full-face view. Dorsal outline of mesosoma weakly and evenly convex in profile. Metanotal groove incised dorsally. Propodeal. spines long, acute and narrow somewhat downcurved. Petiolar node in profile triangular (in some specimens dorsum narrowly convex and not angulate), with weakly convex posterior margin (almost straight in some specimens).

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: China, Japan (type locality), Republic of Korea.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • spinosior. Leptothorax congruus var. spinosior Forel, 1901e: 371 (w.) JAPAN. Wheeler, W.M. 1906c: 317 (q.); Imai, 1966: 119 (k.). Combination in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 271. Raised to species: Terayama & Satoh, 1990b: 532. See also: Terayama & Onoyama, 1999: 93.

Type Material

Terayama and Onoyama (1999) - Worker. Type locality: Sapporo (Matsumura leg.). [Two syntype workers in Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève examined.] Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



  • n = 12, 2n = 24 (Japan) (Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Imai, 1974; Imai & Yosida, 1964; Fischer, 1987) (as Leptothorax spinosior).

Determination Clarifications

All the previous records of T. spinosior from Yaku Island (Terayama & Yamane, 1984) were Temnothorax anira, and no reliable record of this species is known from the island.

Radchenko (2004) - Among rich investigated material from North Korea (more than 100 specimens) I did not find T. spinosior, but Temnothorax eburneipes only; records of T. spinosior from South Korea and China need confirmation.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Anonymous. A list of ants collected at Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture by the members of the Myrmecological Society of Japan in 1992. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 31
  • Azuma M. 1950. On the myrmecological-fauna of Tomogashima, Kii Prov., with the description of new genus and new species. Hyogo Biology 1:34-37.
  • Azuma M. 1951. On the Myrmecological fauna of Osaka Prefecture, Japan with description of new species (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Hyogo Biology 1(5): 1-5.
  • Choi B.-M. 1987. Taxonomic study on ants (Formicidae) in Korea (1). On the genus Monomorium. Journal of the Institute of Science Education (Cheongju National Teachers' College) 11:17-30.
  • Choi B.M. 1985. Study on distribution of ants (Formicidae) from Korea (1). Formic fauna in Mt. Songni. Cheongju Sabom Taehak Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National Teachers' College) 22:401-437.
  • Choi B.M. 1986. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea. Journal of Chongju National Teacher College 23: 317-386.
  • Choi B.M. 1988. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (5) Ant fauna in Is. Kanghwado. Chongju Sabom Taehak Nonmunjip (Journal of Chongju National Teacher' College) 25: 217-231.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16) - Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean J. Soil. Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. 1996. Distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (16): Ant fauna from Chollabukdo. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology 1(1): 5-23.
  • Choi B.M. and C.H. Kim, 1987, Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (4). Ant fauna in Is. Hongdo and Is. Taehukusando. Journal of Chongju National Teacher College 24: 357-370.
  • Choi B.M., Bang, J.R. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (9). Ant fauna in Mt. Togyusan. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 31:101-112.
  • Choi B.M., K. Ogata, and M. Terayama. 1993. Comparative studies of ant faunas of Korea and Japan. 1. Faunal comparison among islands of Southern Korean and northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 48(1): 37-49.
  • Choi B.M., Kim, C.H., Bang, J.R. 1993. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (13). A checklist of ants from each province (Do), with taxonomic notes. Cheongju Sabom Taehakkyo Nonmunjip (Journal of Cheongju National University of Education) 30: 331-380.
  • Choi B.M., Park K.S. 1991. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (6). The vegetation, the species composition and the colony density of ants in Mt. Namsam, Seoul. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 30:65-79.
  • Choi B.M., and H.S. Lee. 1999. Studies on the distribution ants in Korea (21) - Ant fauna in Kwanaksan. Korean J. Soil Zoology 4(1): 1-4.
  • Choi B.M., and J. R. Bang. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (12): the analysis of ant communities in 23 islands. Journal of Cheongju National University of Education 30:317-330.
  • Choi B.M., and Park, K.S. 1991. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (7). Ant fauna in Mt. Kyeryongsan. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 30: 80-85.
  • Eto S., and K. Ogata. 1983. Ants of Hirado Island, Kyushu. Bulletin of the Nagasaki Prefecture Biological Group 25: 7-11.
  • Forel A. 1901. Variétés myrmécologiques. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 45: 334-382.
  • Guo X., Q. Lin, J. Cui, D. Gao, S. Xu, and Z. Sheng. 2014. Biodiversity and spatial distribution patterns of ant species in tea gardens of Chongqing. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1011.2014.31052
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Ha S.J, S.J. Park, and B.J. Kim. 2002. Comparative ant faunas between Seonyudo and seven other islands of West Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(2): 75-79.
  • Harada Y., K. Asai, M. Araba, T. Higasayama, and N. Saito. 2019. Ant fauna at ports on the Goto Islands – monitoring of alien ant species –. Nature of Kagoshima 46: 27–32.
  • Harada Y., K. Tashiro, K. Ebihara, H. Yadori, M. Yoneda, R. Takinami, K. Nagahama, and K. Hayashi. 2008. Ant fauna of the lavas of Sakurajima Volcano, Southern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 63: 205-215.
  • Harada Y., M. Enomoto, N. Nishimata, and K. Nishimuta. 2014. Ants of the Tokara Islands, northern Ryukyus, Japan. Nature of Kagoshima 40: 111–121.
  • Harada Y., S. Haruguchi, T. Iwasaki, K. Onishi, Y. Tashiro, and Sk Yamane. 2010. Ants from Japanese cherry trees, Prunus x yedoensis, in public parks in Kagoshima, southwestern Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 65: 169-179.
  • Hayashida K. 1957. Ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and vicinity. (Preliminary report.). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series VI. Zoology 13:173-177.
  • Hayashida K. 1961. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Sapporo and its vicinity (1 et 2). Insectes Sociaux 7: 125-162.
  • Hayashida K. 1964. Studies on the ecological distribution of ants in Kutchan and its adjacent area. Journal of the Sapporo Otani Junior College 2: 107-129.
  • Hosoichi S., M. M. Rahman, T. Murakami, S. H. Park, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2019. Winter activity of ants in an urban area of western Japan. Sociobiology 66(3): 414-419.
  • Hosoichi S., W. Tasen, S. H. Park. A. Le Ngoc, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2015. Annual fire resilience of ground-dwelling ant communities in Hiraodai Karst Plateau grassland in Japan. Entomological Science 18: 254–261.
  • Hosoishi S. 2006. Ant fauna of Noko Island. pp99-107. In: The floristic and faunistic surveys of the Noko Island.
  • Hosoishi S., M. Yoshimura, Y. Kuboki, and K. Ogata. 2007. Ants from Yakushima Island , Kagoshima Prefecture. Ari 30: 47-54.
  • Ichikawa A. 1999. Records of ants observed from several localities of Osaka Prefecture, Japan, -1. Ari 23: 1-3.
  • Ichinose K. 1990. The Ant Fauna of the Tomakomai Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Notes on the Nuptial Season. Research Bulletins of College Experiment Forests 47(1) 137-144.
  • Ikeshita Y., A. Gotoh, K. Yamamoto, N. Taniguchi, and F. Ito. 2007. Ants collected in Mt. Linoyama, Marugame, Kagawa Prefecture (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Kagawa Seibutsu 34: 59-62.
  • Ito F., and M. Minato. 1996. Ants collected in Kouchi-shi and Tosayokonami, Kouchi Prefecture. Ari 20:5-8.
  • Kim B., Ryu D., Park S., and J. Kim. 1994. Systematic study on ants from coasts of Korean Peninsula (Hym: Formicidae). Korean journal of entomology 24: 293-309.
  • Kim B.J. 1996. Synonymic list and distribution of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin Supplement 169-196.
  • Kim C.H., B.M. Choi, and J.R. Bang. 1992. Studies on the distribution of ants (Formicidae) in Korea (8)-Ant fauna in 10 islands, Chollanam-do. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 31(4): 345-359.
  • Kim K.I., C.H. Kim, and B. Choi. 1989. The ant fauna of the southern shore in Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea. Journal of Gyeongsang Nat. Univ. 28(2): 213-226.
  • Kim et al. 1993. Systematic study of ants from Chejudo Province. Koran Journal of Entomology 23(3): 117-141.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Lyu D. P. 2013. Distribution of Ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) by Vegetation in Mt. Gariwangsan from Korea. Korean J. Environ. Ecol. 27(2): 204-208.
  • Lyu D.-P.; Cho W.-S. 2003. Review of Korean Formicoxenini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Korea. Insecta Koreana 20: 265-280.
  • Maeto K. and S. Sato. 2004. Impacts of forestry on ant species richness and composition in warm-temperate forests of Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 187: 213–223.
  • Manabe K. 1994. Ants of the shrine forest in Fukuoka Prefecture (First report; Ants of lowland). Ari 17: 6.
  • Manabe K. 1994. Ants of the shrine forest in Fukuoka Prefecture (first report; ants of lowland). Ari 18: 6.
  • Mano T., and N. Kanie. 2004. Investigations of insects at Hirosawagawa river in the northern area of Toyota City (Aichi Prefecture). Yahagi research (?????) 8: 123-147.
  • Mizota K. 2002. A check list of insects in Kinkazan Island, Miyagi Pref., Northeastern Japan: A bibliographical Survey. Bulletin of Miyagi University of Education Environmental Education 5: 69-78.
  • Mizutani A. 1979. A myrmecofaunal survey at Hiyama Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Research Bulletin of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University 36:509-516.
  • Morisita M. 1945. Ants of the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan. [In Japanese.] Mushi 16:21-28. 
  • Ochi K. 1983. Distribution pattern of ants in pine stands, with special reference to Monomorium nipponense Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Gensei 44:1-6.
  • Ogata. K., Touyama, Y. and Choi, B. M. 1994. Ant fauna of Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 18-25
  • Paik W.H. 1984. A checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Korea. Korean J. Plant Prot. 23(3): 193-195.
  • Park S. H., S. Hosoishi, K. Ogata, and Y. Kuboki. 2014. Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps. Comptes Rendus Biologies http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.003
  • Park S. H., S. Hosoishi, and K. Ogata. 2014. Long-term impacts of Argentine ant invasion of urban parks in Hiroshima, Japan. J. Ecol. Environ. 37(3): 1-7.
  • Park S.J., and B.J. Kim. 2002. Faunal comparison of ants among Cheongsando and other islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 32(1): 7-12.
  • Park, Seong, Joon and Byung, and Kim, Jin. 2002. Faunal Comparison of Ants among Cheongsando and Other Islands of South Sea in Korea. Korean Jornal of Entomology. 32(1):7-12.
  • Radchenko A. 2004. A review of the ant genera Leptothorax Mayr and Temnothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the eastern Palaearctic. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 50:109-137.
  • Sato T., N. Tsurusaki, K. Hamaguchi, and K. Kinomura. 2010. Ant fauna of Tottori prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of the Tottori Prefectural Museum 47: 27-44.
  • Sunamura E., K. Nishisue, M. Terayama, and S. Tatsuki. 2007. Invasion of Four Argentine Ant Supercolonies into Kobe Port, Japan: Their Distributions and Effects on Indigenous Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 50: 659-674.
  • Terayama M. 1992. Structure of ant communities in East Asia. A. Regional differences and species richness. Bulletin of the Bio-geographical Society of Japan 47: 1-31.
  • Terayama M., K. Ogata, and B.M. Choi. 1994. Distribution records of ants in 47 prefectures of Japan. Ari (report of the Myrmecologists Society of Japan) 18: 5-17.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Terayama M., and S. Kubota. 2002. Ants of Tokyo, Japan. ARI 26: 1-32.
  • Terayama M.; Onoyama, K. 1999. The ant genus Leptothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1:71-97.
  • Teruyama. M. 1988. Ant fauna of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 16: 4-13
  • Teruyama. M. 1994. Ant fauna of Saitama Prefecture, Japan (Supplement). ARI Reports of the Myrmecologists Society (Japan) 18: 30
  • Wang W. 2006. A taxonomic study of Formicidae ants from Hujiaping forest farm in Laifeng County. Journal of Hubei Institute for Nationalities (Natural Science Edition). 24(3): 298-300.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1906. The ants of Japan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 301-328.
  • Yamane S., Y. Harada, and K. Eguchi. 2013. Classification and ecology of ants. Natural history of ants in Southern Kyushu. 200 pages
  • Yamane, S.; Iwai, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yamanouchi, Y. 1994. Ant fauna of the Tokara Islands, northern Ryukyus, Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). WWF (Worldwide Fund for Nature) Japan Science Report 2(2):311-327.
  • Yamauchi K. 1968. Additional Notes on the Ecological Distribution of Ants in Sapporo and the Vicinity . Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokaido University, series VI, Zoology 16(3): 382-395.
  • Yoshimura M. 1998. Ants from Islands in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (No. 1, Risiri Island). Rishiri Studies 17:33-38.
  • Zhang W., and S. Zhou. 2016. An investigation on Formicidae species of Nanling National Park. Journal of Huizhou University 36(3): 27-30.
  • Zhou S., J.; Huang, D. Yu, and Z. Liu. 2010. Eight new species and three newly recorded species of the ant genus Temnothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Chinese mainland, with a key. Sociobiology 56:(1): 7-26
  • Zhou S.-Y. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, China, Guilin, China. 255 pp.