Temnothorax torrei

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Temnothorax torrei
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Temnothorax
Species group: salvini
Species subgroup: pulchellus
Species: T. torrei
Binomial name
Temnothorax torrei
(Aguayo, 1931)

Temnothorax torrei casent0104057 profile 1.jpg

Temnothorax torrei casent0104057 dorsal 1.jpg

This species was described from a single worker given to Aguayo. The ant was found in some empty shells collected terrestrially in Cuba.

Identification

Prebus (2021) – A member of the pulchellus species group of the Temnothorax salvini clade.

This ant is most closely related to T. terricola. These two species have only been collected in allopatry and differ primarily color and/or extent of areolate vs. smooth sculpturation. One morphological variant of T. torrei was collected from Staniel Key, The Bahamas, with very weak head sculpture.

Temnothorax torrei can be separated from all other species in the salvini clade by the following character combination: metanotal groove not impressed; propodeum not depressed below the level of the promesonotum; propodeum bearing standing setae dorsally; propodeal spines about as long as the propodeal declivity, and directed posterodorsally; hind femora weakly incrassate; petiolar node with only two erect setae dorsally; postpetiole very broad: 2.3 or greater times the width of the petiole; dorsum of head sculptured, although there may be a longitudinal strip of smooth and shining sculpture medially; setae on head, mesosoma, waist segments and gaster erect, short, sparse and blunt (never long and tapering); head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster uniformly testaceous yellow; mandibles and extremities pale yellow.

Similar species: Temnothorax ciferrii, Temnothorax harlequina, Temnothorax hippolyta, and Temnothorax terricola. Temnothorax torrei can be distinguished from T. ciferrii and T. harlequina by the setae count of two on the dorsum of the petiolar node, versus four. Temnothorax torrei is closely related to T. terricola and T. hippolyta, but the sculptured dorsum of the head can be used to separate them: T. terricola and T. hippolyta have smooth and shining heads.

Distribution

Prebus (2021) - Low elevations: Southern Florida, Florida Keys, The Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and Cuba.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 27.08° to 18.77°.

   
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba (type locality), Greater Antilles.

Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

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Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.

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Habitat

The holotype was found among some terrestrial snail shells collected in Bermuda. In Florida, collected from hardwood hammock/tropical hammock and pine forest. In Puerto Rico workers were found in dry forest in leaf litter.

Abundance

Rarely collected.

Biology

Deyrup, Davis & Cover (2000) - This species occurs in Cuba, the Bahamas, and tropical Florida. It is a litter inhabiting ant that one would not expect to be an effective long distance disperser, but is likely readily relocated in containers of soil. The first Florida report is recent (Deyrup et al. 1988), but it is a species that is unlikely to be found except by litter extraction.

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • torrei. Macromischa (Antillaemyrmex) torrei Aguayo, 1931: 178 (w.) CUBA. Combination in Leptothorax: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 520; in Temnothorax: Bolton, 2003: 272.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Prebus (2021) - Most closely related to Temnothorax terricola, these two species have only been collected in allopatry. They differ primarily in color and/or extent of areolate vs. smooth sculpturation. Future collections from the Bahamas and Cuba may reveal that these two species represent morphologically divergent populations, which are united by intermediate forms. For example, a morphological variant of T. torrei was collected from Staniel Key, The Bahamas, with very weak head sculpture (Figs. 147G-147I). Temnothorax hippolyta is also a member of this complex but is distinguished within it by the more well-defined promesonotal suture, predominantly smooth and shining sculpture, and dark brown coloration. The illustration of T. torrei in Baroni Urbani (1978) embellishes certain aspects of the holotype specimen, which bears many fewer setae than depicted.

Description

Worker

Length 2 mm. Head longer than broad, rectangular, with evenly convex sides, straight posterior border and rounded occipital corners. Eyes convex, situated before the middle of the sides of the head. Clypeus convex, with rounded anterior border. Frontal carinae parallel. Frontal area indistinct. Mandibles with denticulate, concave apical border. Antennal scapes scarcely reaching the posterior corners of the head; funicular club large, 3-jointed, longer than the remaining funiculus; joint 2-7 broader than long.

Thorax short, as long as the head with mandibles, broader in front than behind, with regular slightly convex profile, without dorsal thoracic sutures. Epinotal spines about as long as the epinotal declivity, and longer than their distance at the base, directed backward and upward, and very slightly curved downward.

Peduncle short, with a small tooth on its anteroventral surface. Node longer than broad; its anterior declivity in profile slightly concave, its summit flattened, and its posterior declivity almost straight. Postpetiole large, twice as broad as long, almost as broad as the gaster, and three times as broad as the petiole behind, in profile convex above. Gaster small, about as long as the thorax.

Legs small, femora feebly incrassated.

Surface of body shining, head and thorax densely and finely punctate. Gaster smooth. Appendages very finely punctate and shining.

Pilosity scarce. Hairs white, short, erected and scattered on the body; minute on scapes and legs.

Color uniformly testaceous.

Prebus (2021) - (n = 4): SL = 0.310-0.375 (0.345); FRS = 0.120-0.145 (0.138); CW = 0.389-0.440 (0.425); CWb = 0.362-0.410 (0.393); PoOC = 0.202-0.239 (0.225); CL = 0.465-0.515 (0.501); EL = 0.092-0.109 (0.102); EW = 0.071-0.085 (0.078); MD = 0.104-0.119 (0.111); WL = 0.467-0.541 (0.516); SPST = 0.138-0.209 (0.177); MPST = 0.161-0.189 (0.179); PEL = 0.200-0.250 (0.226); NOL = 0.123-0.168 (0.146); NOH = 0.077-0.110 (0.092); PEH = 0.140-0.176 (0.159); PPL = 0.124-0.166 (0.144); PPH = 0.135-0.214 (0.169); PW = 0.255-0.300 (0.283); SBPA = 0.112-0.151 (0.130); SPTI = 0.166-0.209 (0.184); PEW = 0.104-0.129 (0.118); PNW = 0.098-0.129 (0.118); PPW = 0.234-0.327 (0.287); HFL = 0.290-0.354 (0.327); HFWmax = 0.084-0.104 (0.097); HFWmin = 0.036-0.041 (0.039); CS = 0.595-0.666 (0.643); ES = 0.128-0.148 (0.141); SI = 86-93 (88); OI = 21-22 (22); CI = 125-131 (128); WLI = 129-135 (131); SBI = 30-37 (33); PSI = 30-39 (34); PWI = 225-279 (243); PLI = 139-185 (159); NI = 153-164 (159); PNWI = 94-110 (100); NLI = 61-68 (65); FI = 210-278 (249).

In full-face view, head subquadrate, longer than broad (CI 125-131). Mandibles weakly striate, shining, and armed with five teeth: the apical-most well developed, followed by a smaller preapical tooth, which is followed by three equally developed smaller teeth. Anterior clypeal margin entire and evenly rounded. Median lobe of clypeus compressed between the closely approximated frontal lobes. Antennal scapes short: when fully retracted, failing to reach the posterior margin of the head capsule by about the maximum width of the scape (SI 86-93). Antennae 12-segmented; antennal club of three segments, with the apical-most segment one and a half times longer than the preceding two in combination. Frontal carinae short, extending past the antennal toruli by one and a half times the maximum width of the antennal scape. Compound eye weakly protruding past the lateral margin of the head capsule. Lateral margins of head very weakly convex, nearly flat, giving the head a boxy appearance. Posterior head margin weakly concave, rounding evenly into the lateral margins.

In profile view, compound eye ovular and moderately large (OI 21-22), with 9 ommatidia in longest row. Pronotal declivity distinct, with neck and anterior face of the pronotum forming a rounded ~110°; anterior and dorsal faces of the pronotum forming a rounded ~130° angle. Mesosoma evenly, but weakly, convex dorsally from where it joins the pronotal declivity to the propodeal spines. Promesonotal suture extending from the posterior margin of the procoxal insertion only to the mesothoracic spiracle, which is well developed. Metanotal groove nearly entirely absent: only visible as a faint disruption in the surface sculpture between meso- and metacoxal insertions to the minute metathoracic spiracle, which is nearly indistinguishable against the ground sculpture. Propodeal spiracle weakly developed, directed posterolaterally, and separated from the propodeal declivity by about three and a half spiracle diameters. Propodeal spines well developed, moderately long (PSI 30-39), about as long as the propodeal declivity, tapering evenly from the base, straight, and acute. Propodeal declivity straight and flat, forming a rounded ~90° angle with the base of the propodeal spines. Propodeal lobes rounded and very weakly developed. Metapleural gland bulla small, extending from the metacoxal insertion halfway to the propodeal spiracle. Petiole moderately long (PLI 139-185), without tubercles anterodorsally. Subpetiolar process in the form of a weakly developed, acute, triangular tooth; ventral margin of petiole strongly concave posterior to it. Petiolar peduncle short, comprising about a third of the total length of the petiole. Petiolar node robust: grading evenly into the petiolar peduncle anteriorly, anterior face concave; anterior face forming a rounded, ~90° angle with the dorsal face, which is evenly, strongly convex; dorsal face rounding evenly into the posterior face, which forms a ~110° angle with the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole evenly rounded anterodorsally, before flattening posterodorsally; weakly lobed ventrally.

In dorsal view, humeri weakly developed: rounded and only slightly wider than the rest of the mesosoma; mesothoracic spiracles weakly protruding past the lateral margins of the mesosoma, visible as slight angles where the pronotum meets the mesonotum. Metanotal groove absent: mesonotum and propodeum completely fused and converging evenly to the bases of the propodeal spines. Propodeal spines broadly approximated basally and diverging apically, their apices separated from each other about their length; negative space between them "U" shaped. Petiolar peduncle with spiracles barely protruding past the lateral margins, peduncle not constricted anterior to them. Petiolar node ovular, subtly narrowed anteriorly, slightly wider than the peduncle, and evenly grading into the caudal cylinder, which is slightly wider than the node. Postpetiole very broad (PWI 225-279) and campaniform, articulating with nearly the entire anterior margin of the gaster, leaving small angulate margins on each side exposed. Anterior margin of the postpetiole flat, with corners evenly rounding into the lateral margins, which evenly diverge to the angulate posterior corners; posterior margin broadly concave. Metafemur weakly to moderately incrassate (FI 210-278).

Sculpture: median clypeal carina present, flanked two additional equally developed carinae over weakly areolate ground sculpture. Antennal scapes shining through weak, indistinct sculpture. Cephalic dorsum uniformly areolate. Mesosoma uniformly areolate, except for propodeal declivity which is smooth and shining. Femora moderately shining through weak areolate sculpture. Petiole smooth and shining ventrally, with shallow areolate sculpture surrounding the base of the petiolar node, which is shining dorsally through weak, indistinct sculpture. Dorsal surface of postpetiole smooth and shining, with shallow areolate sculpture on the posterior third areolate. Gaster smooth and shining, without spectral iridescence on the first tergite. Surface of the first gastral sternite smooth and shining.

Setae: antennal scapes and funiculi with short, adpressed pilosity. Dorsum of head, mesosoma, waist segments and gaster with short, erect, blunt-tipped setae; the longest setae are roughly the length of the compound eye. The head dorsum bears ~26, mesosoma dorsum ~14, petiole 2, postpetiole ~6, and first gastral tergite ~20 setae. Sparse, adpressed pubescence present on the entire body, but difficult to detect against the lightly colored integument.

Color: head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster uniformly testaceous yellow. Mandibles and extremities pale yellow.

Queen

Prebus (2021) - (n = 2): SL = 0.393-0.401 (0.397); FRS = 0.171-0.186 (0.179); CW = 0.556-0.565 (0.561); CWb = 0.526-0.533 (0.530); PoOC = 0.222-0.231 (0.227); CL = 0.572-0.58 (0.576); EL = 0.178-0.179 (0.179); EW = 0.136-0.145 (0.141); MD = 0.104-0.105 (0.105); WL = 0.878-0.888 (0.883); SPST = 0.206-0.214 (0.210); MPST = 0.218-0.226 (0.222); PEL = 0.307-0.311 (0.309); NOL = 0.167-0.177 (0.172); NOH = 0.108-0.108 (0.108); PEH = 0.211-0.221 (0.216); PPL = 0.146-0.153 (0.15); PPH = 0.234-0.244 (0.239); PW = 0.514-0.531 (0.523); SBPA = 0.280-0.282 (0.281); SPTI = 0.252-0.256 (0.254); PEW = 0.152-0.169 (0.161); PNW = 0.185-0.192 (0.189); PPW = 0.379-0.382 (0.381); HFL = 0.426-0.437 (0.432); HFWmax = 0.106-0.114 (0.110); HFWmin = 0.043-0.047 (0.045); CS = 0.812-0.823 (0.818); ES = 0.247-0.251 (0.249); SI = 75; OI = 30; CI = 109; WLI = 165-169 (167); SBI = 53-54 (53); PSI = 23-24 (24); PWI = 224-251 (238); PLI = 203-210 (207); NI = 155-164 (159); PNWI = 114-122 (118); NLI = 54-57 (56); FI = 243-247 (245).

In full-face view, head trapezoidal, longer than broad (CI 109). Mandibles weakly striate, shining, and armed with five teeth: the apical-most well developed, followed by a less developed preapical tooth and three equally developed smaller teeth. Anterior clypeal margin evenly rounded. Antennal scapes short: when fully retracted, failing to reach the posterior margin of the head capsule by about the maximum width of the antennal scape (SI 75). Antennae 12-segmented; antennal club of three segments, with the apical-most segment one and a half times longer than the preceding two in combination. Frontal carinae moderately long, extending past the antennal toruli by about three times the maximum width of the antennal scape. Compound eye moderately protruding past the lateral margin of the head capsule. Lateral margins of head weakly convex; temples enlarged, converging evenly to the mandibular insertions. Posterior head margin weakly convex, rounding evenly into the lateral margins.

In profile view, compound eye teardrop-ovular and large (OI 30), with 16 ommatidia in longest row. Mesoscutum rounded evenly anteriorly, covering the dorsal surface of the pronotum, and flat dorsally. Mesoscutellum on the same level as the mesoscutum, not overhanging the metanotum. Propodeal spiracle well developed, directed posterolaterally, and separated from the propodeal declivity by about two spiracle diameters. Propodeal spines stout and short (PSI 23-24), about a third as long as the propodeal declivity, widely flared at the base, straight, and directed posteriorly. Propodeal declivity straight and flat, forming a rounded ~90° angle with the base of the propodeal spines. Propodeal lobes rounded and very weakly developed. Metapleural gland bulla small, extending from the metacoxal insertion halfway to the propodeal spiracle. Petiole long (PLI 203-210), without tubercles anterodorsally. Subpetiolar process a very weakly developed, tiny, triangular tooth, which grades evenly into the ventral margin of the petiole posteriorly. Petiolar peduncle short: comprising about a third of the total length of the petiole. Petiolar node erect: transition between peduncle and node evenly rounded, resulting in a concave anterior node face; anterior face forming a sharp ~90° angle with the dorsal face, which is short and evenly rounds into the posterior face, which forms a ~110° angle with the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole subquadrate: transition between anterior face and flat dorsal face marked by a broadly rounded ~90° angle; ventral surface weakly lobed.

In dorsal view, mesoscutum covering pronotum anteriorly, but humeri visible laterally as rounded sclerites. Propodeal spines very weakly diverging apically, their apices separated from each other by about twice their length. Petiolar peduncle with spiracles not protruding past the lateral margins. Petiolar node weakly trapezoidal: widest anteriorly, with lateral sides converging only slightly to the posterior face, and weakly emarginated anterodorsally. Petiolar node slightly narrower than the peduncle, and evenly grading into the caudal cylinder, which slightly broader than the node. Postpetiole very broad (PWI 224-251), anteroposteriorly compressed, and subquadrate, articulating with most of the anterior margin of the gaster, leaving small, angulate margins on each side exposed. Anterior margin of the postpetiole flat, evenly rounded as it transitions to the lateral margins, which are parallel as they continue to the angulate posterior corners; posterior margin emarginated medially. Femora weakly incrassate (FI 243-247).

Sculpture: median clypeal carina present, extending from the anterior margin to the level of the antennal insertions, and flanked by weaker, indistinct carinae; lateral margins of median clypeal lobe with two carinae that are as strong as the medial carina. Lateral clypeal lobes with additional weaker carinae; ground sculpture weakly areolate. Antennal scapes weakly shining through areolate sculpture. Cephalic dorsum with weak costulae over areolate sculpture; ventral surface of head with slightly weaker, indistinct sculpture. Pronotal neck areolate. Lateral surfaces of pronotum weakly shining through superficial areolate ground sculpture. Anepisternum and katepisternum mostly smooth and shining, with margins weakly, indistinctly sculptured. Propodeum areolate laterally, with weak costulae over the metapleural gland bulla; propodeal declivity weakly areolate. Mesoscutum with costulae over weak areolate ground sculpture surrounding a smooth and shining central strip which extends over half of the sclerite from the anterior margin; mesoscutum also with smooth and shining patches laterally. Mesoscutellum smooth and shining medially, surrounded by weak costulae and areolae. Femora smooth and shining, with traces of weak areolate sculpture distally. Petiole with weak areolate sculpture ventrally and on the dorsal face of the peduncle, areolate on all other surfaces. Postpetiole areolate. Gaster smooth and shining, without spectral iridescence. Surface of the first gastral sternite smooth and shining.

Setae: antennal scapes and funiculi with short, adpressed pilosity. Dorsum of head, mesosoma, waist segments and gaster with short, erect, blunt-tipped setae; the longest setae are roughly a third of the width of the compound eye. Sparse, adpressed pubescence present on the entire body, but difficult to detect against the lightly colored integument.

Color: head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster uniformly testaceous yellow. Mandibles and extremities pale yellow. Integument within the ocellar triangle and the wing bases infuscated.

Type Material

Remedios, Santa Clara Province, Cuba. Museum of Comparative Zoology

Prebus (2021) - Holotype worker: CUBA: Villa Clara: Caibarién, February 1931, P.Q. Bermudez #135, M.C.Z. Type No. 16562 (MCZENT00016562) [MCZC]. The original description states this specimen was found among terrestrial snail shells collected by Bermudez in Buenavista, Remedios, Santa Clara Province, Cuba. The collection data label on the holotype specimen from the MCZ does not match this verbal description but Caibarién, the locality indicated, is located roughly 18 km north of Buenavista, on the coast. Perhaps the label data indicates the closest city to the collection locality.

Etymology

Patronym. Named for the collector, Dr. Carlos de la Torre, who supplied the type worker (to C. G. Aguayo).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Aguayo C. G. 1931. New ants of the genus Macromischa. Psyche (Cambridge) 38: 175-183.
  • Alayo D. P. 1974. Introduccion al estudio de los Himenopteros de Cuba. Superfamilia Formicoidea. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba. Instituto de Zoologia. Serie Biologica no.53: 58 pp. La Habana.
  • Baroni Urbani C. 1978. Materiali per una revisione dei Leptothorax neotropicali appartenenti al sottogenere Macromischa Roger, n. comb. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomol. Basil. 3: 395-618.
  • Brandao, C.R.F. 1991. Adendos ao catalogo abreviado das formigas da regiao neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 35: 319-412.
  • Clouse R. 1999. Leaf-Litter Inhabitants of a Brazilian Pepper Stand in Everglades National Park. The Florida Entomologist. 82: 388-403
  • Deyrup M., C. Johnson, G. C. Wheeler, J. Wheeler. 1989. A preliminary list of the ants of Florida. Florida Entomologist 72: 91-101
  • Deyrup M., L. Davis, and S. Buckner. 1998. Composition of the ant fauna of three Bahamian islands. Proceedings of the seventh symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. 23-32. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, Bahamas
  • Deyrup, M. 2003. An updated list of Florida ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 86(1):43-48.
  • Ferster B., Z. Prusak, 1994. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Everglades National Park. Florida Entomologist 77: 508-512
  • Fontanla Rizo J.L. 1997. Lista preliminar de las hormigas de Cuba. Cocuyo 6: 18-21.
  • Fontenla J. L., and J. Alfonso-Simonetti. 2018. Classification of Cuban ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) into functional groups. Poeyana Revista Cubana de Zoologia 506: 21-30.
  • Fontenla Rizo J. L. 1997. Lista preliminar de las hormigas de Cuba (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Cocuyo 6: 18-21.
  • Garcia M. A. The vulnerability of leaflitter ants to forest disturbances in the islands of Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles. Novitates Caribaea 13: 74-91.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1963. Zoogeografia de las hormigas en sudamerica. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 19: 25-186
  • Mirmecofauna de la reserva ecologica de San Felipe Bacalar
  • Moreau C. S., M. A. Deyrup, and L. R. David Jr. 2014. Ants of the Florida Keys: Species Accounts, Biogeography, and Conservation (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Insect Sci. 14(295): DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/ieu157
  • Torres, Juan A. and Roy R. Snelling. 1997. Biogeography of Puerto Rican ants: a non-equilibrium case?. Biodiversity and Conservation 6:1103-1121.