Tetramorium bellerophoni

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Tetramorium bellerophoni
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Species group: semilaeve
Species: T. bellerophoni
Binomial name
Tetramorium bellerophoni
Salata & Borowiec, 2017

Tetramorium bellerophoni F16.jpg

Tetramorium bellerophoni F15.jpg

Specimens were collected from a sunny, dry, grassy area inside the archeological site of ancient Termessos, 1018 m a.s.l. The nest was located under a stone. (Salata and Borowiec 2017)

Identification

Salata and Borowiec (2017) - Tetramorium bellerophoni in all castes is extremely similar to Tetramorium galaticum. The best distinguishing characters are found in males. However, in examining a group of workers from a nest series the following differences can be observed (characters for T. galaticum in parentheses): head in workers of T. bellerophoni is striated on almost the whole surface, also on the postocular area, only between frontal rugose area and rugosities along ocular area on each side with a small area of diffused rugosities (usually on sides of frons and in postocular area with large smooth patches), propodeal spines of T. bellerophoni are longer and spiniform (shorter and triangular). Head in T. bellerophoni is slightly stouter than in T. galaticum (CL/CW ratio 1.036 vs. 1.051). Gynes of T. bellerophoni have a slimmer head (CW/CL ratio 1.078 vs. 1.091). Males of T. bellerophoni differ in the head less regularly rounded behind eyes, slightly trapezoidal (regularly rounded), clypeus with circular rugosities or at least strongly converging (parallel rugosities at most with only two medial ridges partly convergent), frons microreticulate, dull or with only narrow smooth area (partly smooth and shiny), area between eye and ocelli with high oblique rugosities (partly without rugosities only with dull microretoculation), male genitalia in profile more deeply constricted before apex with slightly longer and sharper apical angle and almost twice as short apical setae (less constricted before apex with slightly shorter and less sharp apical angle and almost twice longer apical setae).

Workers of Tetramorium kephalosi and Tetramorium hippocratis differ in darker body, brown to black (in T. bellerophoni yellow), in nests of T. kephalosi most workers have a head with distinct smooth areas laterally to frons and in the postocular area (in T. bellerophoni head is mostly striate with very small smooth areas). Gynes of T. kephalosi and T. hippocratis differ in darker body colour, brown to black (yellow to yellowish-brown in T. bellerophoni) and smaller size with ML always below 1.96 and MW below 1.22 (in T. bellerophoni above 2.0 and 1.3 respectively). Scutum in gynes of T. kephalosi are usually more distinctly striated than in both relatives. Males of T. kephalosi and T. hippocratis differ in top of inner margin of paramere before apical denticle with narrow lamella (without lamella in T. bellerophoni), male of T. bellerophoni differs also in clypeus with circular striation (parallel in both T. kephalosi and T. hippocratis).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Turkey (type locality).


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • bellerophoni. Tetramorium bellerophoni Salata & Borowiec, 2017: 285, figs. 15-27, 47 (w.q.m.) TURKEY.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

(n=15): CL: 0.772 ± 0.034 (0.693-0.816); POC: 0.292 ± 0.018 (0.257-.324); CW: 0.745 ± 0.038 (0.659-0.793); FR: 0.281 ± 0.018 (0.235-0.302); FL: 0.286 ± 0.017 (0.251-0.313); SL: 0.561 ± 0.025 (0.503-0.589); OMD: 0.192 ± 0.01 (0.179-0.212); EL: 0.146 ± 0.01 (0.123-0.156); EH: 0.111 ± 0.007 (0.101-0.123); ML: 0.852 ± 0.044 (0.76-0.911); SPSP: 0.168 ± 0.013 (0.148-0.201); SPL: 0.111 ± 0.007 (0.101-0.123); PEL: 0.227 ± 0.014 (0.204-0.246); NOL: 0.182 ± 0.016 (0.156-0.212); PPL: 0.204 ± 0.016 (0.17-0.223); PEH: 0.263 ± 0.015 (0.243-0.291); NOH: 0.194 ± 0.012 (0.168-0.212); PPH: 0.268 ± 0.011 (0.249-0.282); MW: 0.488 ± 0.029 (0.425-0.536); PEW: 0.238 ± 0.017 (0.201-0.268); PPW: 0.287 ± 0.018 (0.26-0.313); CS: 0.759 ± 0.035 (0.676-0.804); EYE: 0.169 ± 0.007 (0.155-0.183); CL/CW: 1.037 ± 0.015 (1.0-1.077); FR/CS: 0.37 ± 0.012 (0.348-0.392); FL/FR: 1.015 ± 0.026 (0.964-1.076); SL/CS: 0.738 ± 0.014 (0.705-0.757); MW/CS: 0.643 ± 0.017 (0.603-0.676); PEW/PPW: 286 S. Salata and L. Borowiec 0.829 ± 0.047 (0.773-0.977); NOH/NOL: 1.045 ± 0.081 (0.884-1.218); NOH/PEL: 0.838 ± 0.061 (0.7-0.918); NOL/PEL: 0.801 ± 0.041 (0.753-0.862); PEH/NOL: 1.422 ± 0.102 (1.295-1.558); PEW/PEH: 0.924 ± 0.054 (0.845-1.0); CS/PEW: 3.192 ± 0.155 (2.893-3.565); CS/PPW: 2.642 ± 0.098 (2.504-2.827; CW/MW: 1.557 ± 0.041 (1.479-1.659).

Small to medium size, CS 0.759 [0.676-804]. Head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole yellow, the darkest specimens yellowish-ochraceous but never dark brown or black, gaster yellowish-brown with paler basal third, appendages yellow. Head approximately as long as wide CL/CW 1.037 [1.0-1.077], with almost parallel sides, slightly concave occipital margin and rounded occipital corners. Eyes small, EYE 0.169 [0.155-0.183]. Frons moderately wide, FR/CS 0.37 [0.348-0.392], frontal lobes as wide as frons, FL/FR 1.015 [0.964-1.076]. Scape short, SL/CS 0.738 [0.705-0.757], without dorsal carina basally, surface smooth and shiny. Promesonotal dorsum slightly convex, metanotal groove very shallow, sometimes indistinct. Propodeal teeth short to moderately long, triangular to spiniform, apex of spine located approximately at 2/3 height of mesosoma. Dorsal surface of petiole flat to slightly convex, NOH/NOL 1.045 [0.884-1.218], petiole relatively high, PEH/NOL 1.422 [1.295-1.558], postpetiole distinctly transverse, approximately 1.5 times as wide as long. General appearance distinctly rugose, ground surface shiny. Head dorsum almost completely longitudinally rugose, microreticulate but shiny between rugae, rugae extend occipital margin of head, occiput with complete rugae, sides in anterior half longitudinally rugose and shiny between rugae. In all specimens between frontal rugose area and rugosities along ocular area on each side small area with diffused rugosities but smooth area never exceeds 1/8 of the anterior surface of head and never completely smooth. Alitrunk dorsum longitudinally rugose and microreticulate but never reticulate, top of alitrunk occasionally with very small shiny area without rugosities. Sides of pronotum and meso- and metapleuron usually coarsely microreticulate, reticulation tends to form transverse lines but surface never appears distinctly striate or rugose, pronotum close to ventral margin without or with very small, shiny patch. Dorsum of petiolar node smooth and shiny with sides carinate, lateral surface microreticulate. Dorsum of postpetiole smooth and shiny, sides microreticulate. First gastral tergite smooth and shiny. Whole dorsum, including head, covered with sparse setae, the longest on pronotum and the shortest on frons. Ventral surface of head with sparse short and 3-5 moderately long setae not forming a psammophore.

Queen

(n=5): CL: 1.182 ± 0.019 (1.151-1.206); POC: 0.421 ± 0.037 (0.355-0.465); CW: 1.274 ± 0.05 (1.201-1.237); FR: 0.468 ± 0.019 (0.439-0.489); FL: 0.44 ± 0.043 (0.358-0.478); SL: 0.804 ± 0.025 (0.771-0.739); OMD: 0.262 ± 0.009 (0.246-0.268); EL: 0.306 ± 0.01 (0.291-0.318); EH: 0.248 ± 0.007 (0.237-0.254); ML: 2.124 ± 0.05 (2.033-2.184); SPSP: 0.375 ± 0.017 (0.352-0.405); SPL: 0.233 ± 0.011 (0.218-0.246); PEL: 0.389 ± 0.022 (0.358-0.419); NOL: 0.287 ± 0.018 (0.273-0.318); PPL: 0.357 ± 0.014 (0.346-0.38); PEH: 0.508 ± 0.006 (0.502-0.514); NOH: 0.355 ± 0.01 (0.346-0.369); PPH: 0.534 ± 0.007 (0.525-0.542); MW: 1.351 ± 0.019 (1.324-1.367); PEW: 0.468 ± 0.007 (0.46-0.478); PPW: 0.635 ± 0.011 (0.618-0.651); CS: 1.226 ± 0.035 (1.176-1.267); EYE: 0.221 ± 0.007 (0.213-0.229); CL/CW: 0.926 ± 0.024 (0.898-0.958); FR/CS: 0.383 ± 0.006 (0.373-0.391); FL/FR: 1.079 ± 0.1 (1.015-1.285); SL/CS: 0.649 ± 0.014 (0.636-0.67); MW/CS: 1.1 ± 0.047 (1.045-1.162); PEW/PPW: 0.738 ± 0.019 (0.708-0.758); NOH/NOL: 1.241 ± 0.097 (1.088-1.352); NOH/PEL: 0.916 ± 0.075 (0.826-1.031); NOL/PEL: 0.739 ± 0.022 (0.714-0.763); PEH/NOL: 1.775 ± 0.093 (1.616-1.842); PEW/PEH: 0.922 ± 0.02 (0.897-0.952); CS/PEW: 2.619 ± 0.095 (2.46-2.711); CS/PPW: 1.919 ± 0.04 (1.864-1.979); CW/MW: 0.911 ± 0.039 (0.860-0.957); WAIST: 0.903 ± 0.024 (0.880-0.943)

Moderate size, CS 1.226 [1.176-1.267]. Whole body yellow to yellowish-brown, scutum without pattern, appendages yellowish. Head wider than long, CL/CW 0.926 [0.898-0.958], with straight subparallel sides, shallowly emarginate occipital margin and rounded occipital corners. Frons moderately wide, FR/CS 0.383 [0.373-0.391], frontal lobes approximately as wide as frons, FL/FR 1.079 [1.015-1.285]. Scape short, SL/CS 0.649 [0.636-0.67], without dorsal carina basally, smooth and shiny. Head as wide as scutum, MW/CS 1.1 [1.045-1.162]. Propodeal teeth short, triangular. Dorsal crest of petiolar node in frontal view straight to slightly rounded. Petiolar node dorsum steeply rounded backward. Petiole and postpetiole relatively narrow, postpetiole distinctly transverse, almost twice wider than long, WAIST 0.903 [0.880-0.943]. General appearance smooth and shiny. Head dorsum, occiput and sides completely rugulose, ground surface indistinctly microreticulate but shiny. Frons longitudinally rugulose. Mesosoma flat, sides of pronotum visible from above. Scutum and scutellum sparsely punctate along sides, interspaces completely smooth and shiny, without striation. Sides of pronotum microreticulate with distinct longitudinal striation, anepisternum in basal half smooth and shiny in dorsal half with fine longitudinal rugae, katepisternum mostly smooth and shiny only along posterior margin microreticulate and obliquely striate. Whole surface of petiolar node distinctly reticulate. Postpetiole with sides narrowly rounded, dorsum of postpetiole microreticulate but appears shiny, sides granulate. First gastral tergite smooth and shiny. Whole dorsum, including head, covered with short, sparse setae. Ventral surface of head with several short setae, as long as to 1.5 times longer than frontal setae, arising posteriorly to buccal cavity.

Male

(n=5): CL: 0.694 ± 0.014 (0.679-0.715); POC: 0.271 ± 0.014 (0.246-.285); CW: 0.823 ± 0.027 (0.785-0.858); FR: 0.254 ± 0.014 (0.24-0.274); FL: 0.283 ± 0.011 (0.268-0.296); SL: 0.325 ± 0.013 (0.307-0.346); OMD: 0.063 ± 0.01 (0.053-0.078); EL: 0.316 ± 0.019 (0.291-0.344); EH: 0.256 ± 0.007 (0.243-0.265); ML: 1.943 ± 0.049 (1.891-2.021); SPSP: 0.281 ± 0.028 (0.24-0.324); SPL: 0.232 ± 0.02 (0.201-0.257); PEL: 0.365 ± 0.015 (0.346-0.391); NOL: 0.262 ± 0.01 (0.245-0.274); PPL: 0.298 ± 0.017 (0.268-0.313); PEH: 0.32 ± 0.011 (0.312-0.341); NOH: 0.203 ± 0.018 (0.179-0.223); PPH: 0.453 ± 0.023 (0.413-0.48); MW: 1.221 ± 0.045 (1.148-1.281); PEW: 0.361 ± 0.019 (0.335-0.38); PPW: 0.549 ± 0.007 (0.541-0.559); CS: 0.759 ± 0.019 (0.733-0.787); EYE: 0.377 ± 0.008 (0.364-0.387); CL/CW: 0.844 ± 0.019 (0.816-0.868); 288 S. Salata and L. Borowiec FR/CS: 0.335 ± 0.012 (0.32-0.348); FL/FR: 1.116 ± 0.04 (1.062-1.185); SL/CS: 0.429 ± 0.016 (0.498-0.444); MW/CS: 1.609 ± 0.02 (1.566-1.628); PEW/PPW: 0.657 ± 0.031 (0.619-0.695); NOH/NOL: 0.777 ± 0.087 (0.653-0.91); NOH/PEL: 0.557 ± 0.047 (0.486-0.623); NOL/PEL: 0.719 ± 0.035 (0.684-0.775); PEH/NOL: 1.223 ± 0.07 (1.139-1.327); PEW/PEH: 1.122 ± 0.043 (1.074-1.179); CS/PEW: 2.111 ± 0.139 (1.929-2.267); CS/PPW: 1.384 ± 0.031 (1.34-1.407); CW/MW: 0.621 ± 0.009 (0.614-0.639).

Whole body brown to dark brown, appendages yellowish. Head with convex sides, rounded occipital margin and widely rounded occipital corners. Scutum distinctly wider than head. Propodeum distinctly angulate in profile. Dorsal crest of petiolar node with obtuse transversal edge, slightly emarginated in frontal view. Head distinctly sculptured, dull, with radial rugosities around ocelli, circular rugosities around antennal scapi and oblique rugosities on frons, clypeus with circular rugosities. Scutum in anterior part and laterally smooth and shiny, behind Mayrian furrows with narrow, longitudinally striate area. Scutellum partly smooth and shiny, on sides with oblique and along middle longitudinal striation. Sides of pronotum microreticulate and finely striate. Anepisternum from completely smooth and shiny, katepisternum mostly smooth and shiny only along upper margin and in posterior corner microreticulate, propodeum microreticulate with longitudinal rugosities, dull. Dorsum of petiolar node microgranulate and microreticulate, dull, postpetiole completely microreticulate, mostly dull to slightly shiny. First gastral tergite smooth and shiny. Male genitalia stout, in lateral view distinctly constricted before apex with obtuse inner angle, top moderately long and dense pubescent, dorsal margins of parameres shallowly incised, ventral margins deeply incised before apical hook, top of inner margin of paramere before apical denticle straight, without dentiform plate or lamella extending beyond the sharp edge of paramere.

Type Material

Type material: holotype worker: Turkey, Antalya Prov., ancient Termessos, 1018 m, 36°58/30°27, 3 VII 2010, L. Borowiec (Museum of Natural History no. 1224); paratype gyne: the same data (MNHW no. 1224a); 9 paratype workers, 5 paratype gynes, 3 paratype males: the same data (California Academy of Sciences, Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Taxonomy, Museum of Natural History, TU).

Etymology

Named after Bellerophon (Greek: Βελλεροϕϖν), a hero of Greek mythology and mythical founder of the ancient city Termessos, locus typicus for this new species.

References