Tetramorium impurum

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tetramorium impurum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Species: T. impurum
Binomial name
Tetramorium impurum
(Foerster, 1850)

Tetramorium impurum casent0173645 profile 1.jpg

Tetramorium impurum casent0173645 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

This species is parasitized by the workerless inquilines Tetramorium atratulum and Tetramorium inquilinum and the slave-making ants Strongylognathus alpinus and Strongylognathus testaceus.

Photo Gallery

  • Tetramorium impurum worker with eggs. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Tetramorium impurum colony. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Tetramorium impurum, queen and workers. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Tetramorium impurum worker foraging on european hornet (Vespa crabro) corpse. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Identification

A member of the Tetramorium caespitum complex. The species can be determined with a discriminant analysis of a set of morphological measurements. See Wagner et al. (2017) and https://webapp.uibk.ac.at/ecology/tetramorium/

Distribution

Wagner et al. (2017) - Eastern clade: Anatolia, Balkans, Italy, Central Europe, Benelux northward to 52° N. Western clade: Iberia, western France.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic (type locality), Germany (type locality), Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Wagner et al. (2017) - Less thermophilic than most other species of complex, different from all species except Tetramorium caucasicum. Temperature difference (t-test, p = 0.000) between eastern (TAS of 124 sites 13.7 ± 2.7 °C) and western clade (TAS of 31 sites 15.7 ± 2.3 °C). Eastern clade in Central Europe in mountain areas but also lowlands, in southern Europe on high evaluation. Typical habitats are meadows, semi-dry grasslands, rocky pastures, subalpine dwarf-shrub heathland, heaths, gravel pits, rock heaps, road embankments, avalanche trenches, rocky bright forests (pine, spruce, larch). In Central Europe often on loamy soil. Eastern clade of T. impurum shows strong affinity to stony habitats, while T. caespitum is more frequently collected from meadows. Western clade of T. impurum in sandy areas near coast, riverbanks, and oak forests. Nests typically under stones, but small soil mounds exist.

Monogynous (Seifert 2007).

Adult sexuals in nests on 23 August ± 27 [29 June, 14 October] (n = 36).

Tetramorium atratulum, Strongylognathus testaceus, and Strongylognathus alpinus were found in nests of T. impurum.

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • impurum. Myrmica impura Foerster, 1850a: 48 (w.) GERMANY.
    • Emery, 1925c: 184 (q.); Kutter, 1977c: 151 (m.).
    • Combination in Tetramorium: Mayr, 1855: 426.
    • Junior synonym of caespitum: Curtis, 1854: 215; Mayr, 1855: 427; Nylander, 1856b: 87; Smith, F. 1858b: 117; Roger, 1863b: 26; Mayr, 1863: 456; Mayr, 1865: 89; Smith, F. 1871b: 3; André, 1874: 203 (in list); Forel, 1874: 100 (in list); Emery & Forel, 1879: 458; Dalla Torre, 1893: 132; Emery, 1924d: 276.
    • Subspecies of caespitum: Emery, 1925c: 178.
    • Status as species: Kutter, 1977c: 159; Pasteels, et al. 1981: 675; Cammaerts, et al. 1985: 109; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 277 (in key); López, 1991a: 31; Bolton, 1995b: 409; Radchenko, et al. 1998: 109; Sanetra, et al. 1999: 321; Czechowski, et al. 2002: 65; Seifert, 2007: 248; Casevitz-Weulersse & Galkowski, 2009: 497; Boer, 2010: 68; Czechowski, et al. 2012: 178; Borowiec, L. 2014: 199 (see note in bibliography); Radchenko, 2016: 246; Wagner, et al. 2017: 120 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of gregori: Wagner, et al. 2017: 120.
    • Senior synonym of penninum: Sanetra, et al. 1999: 321; Radchenko, 2016: 246; Wagner, et al. 2017: 120.
  • gregori. Tetramorium staerckei var. gregori Kratochvíl, in Kratochvíl, et al. 1944: 66, fig. 7 (w.q.m.) CZECHOSLOVAKIA.
    • Subspecies of impurum: Bolton, 1995b: 408.
    • Junior synonym of impurum: Wagner, et al. 2017: 120.
  • penninum. Tetramorium caespitum var. penninum Santschi, 1927a: 54 (w.) SWITZERLAND.
    • Subspecies of caespitum: Novák & Sadil, 1941: 87 (in key); Bolton, 1995b: 412.
    • Junior synonym of impurum: Sanetra, et al. 1999: 321.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Wagner et al. (2017) - Medium size, CS = 741 ± 48 [624, 891] μm. Light brown to blackish, eastern clade often with lighter mesosoma.

Head moderately elongate, CL / CW = 1.017 ± 0.017 [0.951, 1.049]. Smallest eye of complex, EYE / CS = 0.168 ± 0.005 [0.155, 0.181]. Scape moderately long, SLd / CS = 0.779 ± 0.015 [0.741, 0.820]. Mesosoma short and moderately wide, ML / CS = 1.146 ± 0.025 [1.082, 1.200], MW / CS = 0.632 ± 0.011 [0.606, 0.654].

Promesonotal dorsum convex, metanotal groove shallow. – Head dorsum and occiput with longitudinal costae and costulae. Postoculo-temporal area of head with rather many costae and costulae, POTCos = 8.80 ± 1.78 [5.00, 14.75]. Mesosoma dorsum longitudinally rugulose, lateral side of propodeum with pronounced sculpture, Ppss = 29.4 ± 14.2 [3.4, 79.5]. – Dorsum of petiolar node usually with stronger costae and often fine transverse or reticulate microsculpture, exceptionally smooth. General surface appearance rather dull compared with other species. – Connected stickman-like or reticulate microsculpture: small units scattered over 1st gastral tergite, MC1TG = 15.25 ± 2.93 [6.70, 24.92]. – Some workers with long c-shaped, crinkly, or sinuous hairs on ventral head posterior to buccal cavity.

Male

Wagner et al. (2017) - Paramere structure belongs to impurum-like form: rounded ventral paramere lobe without any sharp corner in dorsal or ventral view but with clear division of ventral and dorsal paramere lobes, visible by deep emargination between lobes in posterior view. No sharp corner at end of ventral lobe visible in posterior view. Relatively short dorsal paramere lobe, visible in posterior and dorsal view. Paramere structure length in lateral view > 1014 μm. No corner on ventral paramere lobe between lobe top and emargination with dorsal lobe in dorsal and posterior view.

Type Material

Wagner et al. (2017) - Neotype designation: Schlicksteiner & al. 2006: 267. Mirwart vic. Saint-Hubert (Belgium), (50.03° N 05.27° E), 360 m a.s.l., leg. Y. Roisin, 4.VIII.2000.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Agosti, D. and C.A. Collingwood. 1987. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 60: 51-62
  • AntArea. Accessed on February 5th 2014 at http://antarea.fr/fourmi/
  • Antarea (at www.antarea.fr on June 11th 2017)
  • Asociacion Iberica de Mirmecologia. 2014. List of species collected during the Taxomara 2014 Oviedo. Iberomyrmex 6: 23-24.
  • Baugnee J. Y. 2003. Camponotus piceus (Leach, 1825), fourmi nouvelle pour la faune belge decouverte dans le parc naturel Viroin-Hermeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin S. R. B. E./K. B. V. E. 139: 219-225.
  • Behr D., and K. Colln. 1993. Zur ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) von Gonnersdorf (Kr. Daun). Dendrocopos 20: 148-160.
  • Bernadou A., G. Latil, V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2006. Etude des communautés de fourmis d'une vallée andorrane. Union International pour l'Etude des Insectes Sociaux, Colloque annuel de la section francaise, 4pp.
  • Bernadou A., V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. 2013. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Andorra. Zookeys 277: 13-23.
  • Bernadou A., X. Espadaler, A. Le Goff, and V. Fourcassie. 2015. Ant community organization along elevational gradients in a temperate ecosystem. Insect. Soc. 62:59–71
  • Bernadou, A., G. Latil, V. Fourcassié, and X. Espadaler. "Les formigues de la Vall del Madriu-Perafita-Claror : diversitat i distribució." Hàbitats, 13 (2006): 10-21.
  • Bezdecka P. 1996. The ants of Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomofauna carpathica 8: 108-114.
  • Bezdecka P., and K. Bezdeckova. 2012. Updated list of the ants of the Czech Republic. Pp 7-12. Bezd??ka P. & Bezd??ková K. (eds) 2012: Blanok?ídlí v ?eských zemích a na Slovensku 8, Chaloupky, 1.-3. ?ervna 2012, sborník abstrakt? z konference. – MVJ Jihlava, 37 pp.
  • Boer P. 2019. Species list of the Netherlands. Accessed on January 22 2019 at http://www.nlmieren.nl/websitepages/specieslist.html
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. Van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. Lijst van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) van Belgie en Nederland, hun Nederlandse namen en hun voorkomen. Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 63: 54-58.
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. Lijst van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) van Belgie en Nederland, hun Nederlandse namen en hun voorkomen. Entomologische Berichten 63(3): 54-57.
  • Boer P., W. Dekoninck, A. J. van Loon, and F. Vankerkhoven. 2003. List of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Belgium and The Netherlands, their status and Dutch vernacular names. Entomologische Berichten 63 (3): 54-58.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Bracko G. 2007. Checklist of the ants of Slovenia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Natura Sloveniae 9: 15-24
  • Bracko G., K. Kiran, C. Karaman, S. Salata, and L. Borowiec. 2016. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Greek Thrace. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7945. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7945
  • Bracko, G. 2006. Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Croatia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 14(2): 131-156.
  • Bracko, G. "Review of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Croatia." Acta Entomologica Slovenica Vol 14 st (2006): 131-156.
  • Buschinger A. 1985. New records of rare parasitic ants (Hym., Form.) in the French Alps. Insectes Sociaux 32(3): 321-324.
  • Buschinger A. 1999. Bemerkenswerte ameisenfunde aus Sudtirol (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 3: 1-8.
  • Buschinger, A. "Teleutomyrmex schneideri Kutter 1950 and other parasitic ants found in the Pyrenees." Spixiana 10 (1987): 81-83.
  • Cammaerts R., J. M. Pasteels, and Y. Roisin. 1985. Identification et distribution de Tetramorium caespitum (L.) et T. impurum (Foerster) en Belgique. Actes des Colloques Insectes Sociaux 2: 109-118.
  • Casevitz-Weulersse J., and C. Galkowski. 2009. Liste actualisee des Fourmis de France (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 114: 475-510.
  • Cerda, X., E. Angulo, R. Boulay and A. Lenoir. 2009. Individual and collective foraging decisions: a field study of worker recruitment in the gypsy ant Aphaenogaster senilis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:551-562
  • Csosz S., B. Marko, K. Kiss, A. Tartally, and L. Galle. 2002. The ant fauna of the Ferto-Hansag National Park (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: Mahunka, S. (Ed.): The fauna of the Fert?-Hanság National Park. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, pp. 617-629.
  • Csősz S., B. Markó, and L. Gallé. 2001. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Stana Valley (Romania): Evaluation of the effectiveness of a myrmecological survey. – Entomologica Romanica 6 : 121-126.
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko,and W. Czechowska. 1998. Tetramorium impurum (Foerst.) i Tetramorium moravicum Krat. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) w Polsce. Przegl. Zool. 42: 235-236.
  • Dekoninck W., H. De Koninck, J. Y. Baugnee, and J. P. Maelfait. 2007. Ant biodiversity conservation in Belgian calcareous grasslands: active management is vital. Belg. J. Zool. 137 (2): 137-146.
  • Dubovikoff D. A., and Z. M. Yusupov. 2018. Family Formicidae - Ants. In Belokobylskij S. A. and A. S. Lelej: Annotated catalogue of the Hymenoptera of Russia. Proceedingss of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 6: 197-210.
  • Espadaler, X., and C. Ascaso. "Adición a las hormigas del Montseny (Barcelona)." Orsis 5 (1990): 141-147.
  • Espadaler, X., and X. Roig. "Ants from the Montnegre-Corredor Natural Park with description of the male lasius cinereus Seifert." Miscellanea Zoologica 23 (2) (2001): 45-53. Abstract
  • Espadaler, X. "Catalogos entomofauna aragonesa: Familia: Formicidae." Catalogos entomofauna aragonesa 13 (1997): 13-21.
  • Espadaler, X. "Catàleg de les formigues del països catalans." Ses. Entomol. ICHN-SCL IX (1997): 23-42.
  • Espadaler, X. "Formicidos de las sierras de Cazorla, del Pozo y Segura (Jaén, España)." Ecología 11 (1997): 489-499.
  • Formidabel Database
  • GRETIA. 2017. Bilan annuel de l'enquete sur la repartition des fourmis armoricaines. 23 pages.
  • Galkowski C. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Galkowski C., and C. Foin. 2013. Nouvelles données sur la répartition de Strongylognathus huberi Forel, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) en France. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux (n.s.) 41: 167-174.
  • Gallé L., B. Markó, K. Kiss, E. Kovács, H. Dürgő, K. Kőváry, and S. Csősz. 2005. Ant fauna of Tisza river basin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). — In: Gallé, L. (szerk.): Vegetation and Fauna of Tisza River Basin I. Tiscia Monograph Series 7; Szeged, pp. 149-197.
  • Garcia Garcia F., and A. D. Cuesta-Esgura. 2017. First catalogue of the ants of Burgos province, Spain (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 60: 245–258.
  • García F., X. Espadaler, P. Echave, and R. Vila. 2011. Hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) de los acantilados de l'Avenc de Tavertet (Osona) Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 47: 363-367.
  • Glaser F. 2009. Die Ameisen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Amtlicher Lehrmittelverlag, Vaduz, 2009 (Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein; Bd. 26).
  • Hosoishi, S., S. Yamane and K. Ogata. 2010. Subterranean species of the ant genus Crematogaster in Asia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 13:345-350.
  • Karaman C., K. Kiran, and V. Aksoy. 2014. New records of the genus Strumigenys Smith, 1860 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Black Sea region of Turkey. Trakya University Journal of Natural Sciences, 15(2): 59-63.
  • Karaman M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp.
  • Karaman M. G., and G. S. Karaman. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Serbia. The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts. Glasnik of the Section of Natural Sciences 15: 39-58. 
  • Kiran K., C. Karaman, and V. Aksoy. 2014. Strongylognathus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) cinsi kar?ncalarda atipik sosyal parazitlik. Proceeding of 22st National Congress of Biology, Eski?ehir, Turkey.
  • Kiran K., and C. Karaman. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1-38.
  • Markó B., S. Csősz. 2001: Nine new ant species in the Romanian fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): morphology, biology and distribution. – Entomologica Romanica 6: 127-132.
  • Neumeyer R., and B. Seifert. 2005. Commented check list of free living ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species of Switzerland. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Suisse 78: 1-17.
  • Obregon R., J. Lopez, J. L. Reyes-Lopez. 2014. A catalogue of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Sierra Mágina (Jaén, southern Spain). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 370–374.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2002. Contribution to the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of the Banat Province (Serbia). Archives of Biological Sciences, Belgrade, 54(1–2): 57-64.
  • Petrov I. Z. 2012. Preliminary data on ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) on Mountain Avala (Belgrade, Serbia). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 5: 95-99.
  • Petrov I. Z., and C. A. Collingwood. 1992. Survey of the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) of Yugoslavia. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 44: 79-91.
  • Plateaux L. 2000. Les fourmis de Lorraine. Bull. Soc. Ent. Lorr. 11-16.
  • Poldi B., M. Mei, and F. Rigato. 1995. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Vol 102. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana: 1-10.
  • Reyes-López, J., J. López-Tirado, and R. Obregón-Romero. "Nuevas citas de hormigas parásitas y esclavistas (Hym., Formicidae) para Sierra Mágina (Andalucía)." Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 35, no. 3-4 (2011): 497-501.
  • Salata S. 2014. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the National Park of the Stołowe Mts. Przyroda Sudetow 17: 161-172.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Comments to distribution of several Greek Tetramorium Mayr, 1855 species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 28(2): 1-9.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2019. Preliminary division of not socially parasitic Greek Temnothorax Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with a description of three new species. ZooKeys 877: 81-131.
  • Salgueiro, J. "Primeiros registros de Formicídeos (Hymenoptera) para dúas áreas protegidas portuguesas. Adiçao de duas novas especies á mirmecofauna de Portugal." Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 32 (2003): 109-110.
  • Sanetra M., R. Güsten, and A. Schulz. 1999. On the taxonomy and distribution of Italian Tetramorium species and their social parasites (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 77: 317-357.
  • Schlick-Steiner B. C., and F. M. Steiner. 1999. Faunistisch-ökologische Untersuchungen an den freilebenden Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Wiens. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 3: 9-53.
  • Schlick-Steiner, B. C., F. M. Steiner, K. Moder, B. Seifert, M. Sanetra, E. Dyreson, E. Stauffer, and E. Christian. "A multidiscipinary approach reveals cryptic diversity in Western Paleartic Tetramorium ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2006): 259-273.
  • Seifert B. 1994. Die freilebenden Ameisenarten Deutschlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) und Angaben zu deren Taxonomie und Verbreitung. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 67(3): 1-44.
  • Sellier Y., C. Galkowski, C. Lebas, and P. Wegnez. 2016. Découverte de Temnothorax pardoi (Tinaut, 1987) dans la réserve naturelle nationale du Pinail (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie 25(2): 106-113.
  • Sonnenburg H. 2005. Die Ameisenfauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Niedersachsens und Bremens. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 7: 377-441.
  • Steiner F. M., B. Seifert, K. Moder, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2010. A multisource solution for a complex problem in biodiversity research: description of the cryptic ant species Tetramorium alpestre sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 249: 223-254.
  • Steiner F. M., S. Schödl, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2002. Liste der Ameisen Österreichs (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Stand Oktober 2002. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 3: 17-25.
  • Sturm P., and H. Distler. 2003. Rote liste gefahrdeter ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicoidea) Bayerns. In: Bayrisches Landesamt für Umweltschutz (Ed.). Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere Bayerns. 208-212.
  • Wagner H. C., W. Arthofer, B. Seifert, C. Muster, F. M. Steiner, and B. C. Schlick-Steiner. 2017. Light at the end of the tunnel: Integrative taxonomy delimits cryptic species in the Tetramorium caespitum complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 25: 95-129.
  • Wiezik M. 2006. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formiciadae) of the Sitno National Nature Reserve (Štiavnické vrchy Protected Landscape Area). Naturae Tutela 10: 73-77.
  • Wiezik M. 2007. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of mountain and alpine ecosystems at Southern part of Krá?ovoho?ské Tatry Mts. Naturae Tutela 11: 85-90.
  • Wiezik M., A. Wiezikova, and M. Svitok. 2010. Effects of secondary succession in abandoned grassland on the activity of ground-foraging ant assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 74: 153-160
  • Wiezik M., A. Wiezikova, and M. Svitok. 2011. Vegetation structure, ecological stability, and low-disturbance regime of abandoned dry grasslands support specific ant assemblages in Central Slovakia. Tuexenia 31: 301–315.
  • de Biseau, J.-C., Y. Quinet, L. Deffernez and J.M. Pasteels. 1997. Explosive food recruitment as a competitive strategy in the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 44:59-73