Tetramorium pacificum

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tetramorium pacificum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Species group: bicarinatum
Species: T. pacificum
Binomial name
Tetramorium pacificum
Mayr, 1870

Tetramorium pacificum casent0005829 profile 1.jpg

Tetramorium pacificum casent0005829 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Hita Garcia and Fisher (2011) - Tetramorium pacificum has a vast distribution range in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions, and, as the species epithet suggests, is present in most Pacific island systems. In addition, T. pacificum has been introduced to Canada, California, Florida, Central America and the Caribbean, Switzerland (one record from the zoo in Zurich), and the Malagasy region. Schlick-Steiner et al. (2006b) point out that it might not be possible to delimit its native range due to frequent transfers by humans. However, its distribution suggests the native range of this species is most probably in the Indo-Australian region, including the island systems of the Pacific Ocean (McGlynn, 1999).

Identification

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Australasian Region: Australia, New Caledonia.
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Indonesia, Krakatau Islands, Malaysia, Micronesia (Federated States of), New Guinea, Niue, Palau, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga (type locality), Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands.
Nearctic Region: United States.
Oriental Region: India, Sri Lanka, Thailand.
Palaearctic Region: China.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Association with Other Organisms

  • This species is a prey for the tiger beetle Cicindela duponti (a predator) in Western Ghats, India (Sinu et al., 2006).

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • pacificum. Tetramorium pacificum Mayr, 1870b: 976 (w.q.) TONGA. Imai, Kubota, et al. 1985: 47 (k.). Senior synonym of subscabrum: Bolton, 1977: 102. See also: Schlick-Steiner, Steiner & Zettel, 2006: 182; Hita Garcia & Fisher, 2011: 24.
  • subscabrum. Tetramorium pacificum var. subscabrum Emery, 1893f: 246 (w.) SRI LANKA. Subspecies of pacificum: Wheeler, W.M. 1909d: 340. Junior synonym of pacificum: Bolton, 1977: 102; Schlick-Steiner, Steiner & Zettel, 2006: 187.

Type Material

Hita Garcia and Fisher (2011):

  • Tetramorium pacificum. Syntype workers, queen, TONGA, Tongatabu (NMW, BMNH) [examined].
  • Tetramorium pacificum var. subscabrum Syntype workers, SRI LANKA, Kandy and Colombo (E. Simon) (MHNG) [examined].

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Hita Garcia and Fisher (2011) - HL 0.780 - 0.870 (0.845); HW 0.665 - 0.760 (0.737); SL 0.565 - 0.645 (0.626); EL 0.155 - 0.190 (0.178); PW 0.530 - 0.570 (0.554); WL 0.970 - 1.120 (1.067); PSL 0.215 - 0.255 (0.236); PTL 0.300 - 0.355 (0.332); PTH 0.290 0.340 (0.318); PTW 0.245 - 0.275 (0.259); PPL 0.270 - 0.300 (0.290); PPH 0.275 - 0.310 (0.296); PPW 0.310 - 0.350 (0.330); CI 85 - 90 (87); SI 81 - 88 (85); OI 23 - 25 (24); PSLI 26 - 30 (28); PeNI 44 - 49 (47); LPeI 101 - 106 (104); DPeI 75 - 82 (78); PpNI 56 - 62 (59); LPpI 93 - 101 (98); DPpI 110 - 120 (114); PPI 123 - 132 (127) (20 measured).

Head distinctly longer than wide (CI 85 - 90). Anterior clypeal margin with distinct median impression. Frontal carinae strongly developed, either reaching posterior head margin or ending shortly before. Antennal scrobes weakly developed, narrow and shallow, posterior and ventral margins never differentiated, not reaching posterior head margin. Antennal scapes of moderate length, not reaching posterior margin of head (SI 81 - 88). Eyes of moderate size (OI 23 - 25), with 11 to 14 ommatidia in longest row. Metanotal groove not impressed. Propodeal spines long, relatively narrow and acute (PSLI 26 - 30). Propodeal lobes elongate-triangular to triangular and acute. Node of petiole nodiform, in profile anterior and posterior faces roughly parallel, anterodorsal angle situated much lower than posterodorsal, dorsum slopes upwards posteriorly, node weakly longer than high (LPeI 101 - 106), in dorsal view node distinctly much longer than high (DPeI 75 - 82). Postpetiole in profile rounded, weakly higher than long to as high as long (LPpI 93 - 101), in dorsal view noticeably wider than long (DPpI 110 - 120) and much more voluminous than petiolar node (PPI 123 - 132). Mandibles unsculptured, smooth, and shiny. Clypeus with 3 well-developed longitudinal rugae. Most of head with reticulate-rugose sculpturation, area between frontal carinae close to posterior clypeal margin often more longitudinally rugose but always with cross-meshes; ground sculpturation on head weak and faint. Mesosoma and waist segments reticulate-rugose without any distinct ground sculpturation. First gastral tergite with basigastral costulae, rest of gaster completely unsculptured, smooth, and shiny. All dorsal surfaces of head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster with numerous long, standing hairs, depending on population hairs either fine or thick; hairs on antennal scapes and tibiae appressed to suberect. Colouration dark brown to blackish brown.

Karyotype

  • 2n = 22 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Abe T., S. Yamane, and K. Onoyama. Ants collected on the Krakatau Islands 100 years after the great eruptions. Biogeography 14: 65-75.
  • André E. 1892. Voyage de M. Chaper à Bornéo. Catalogue des fourmis et description des espèces nouvelles. Mém. Soc. Zool. Fr. 5: 46-55.
  • Asfiya W., R. Ubaidillah, and Sk. Yamane. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Krakataus, and Sebesi and Sebuku islands. Treubia 36: 1-9.
  • Bolton B. 1977. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions, and in Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 36:67-151.
  • Bolton B. 1979. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 38:129-181.
  • Bolton, B. "The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicinae. The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions and in Australia." Bulletin of the British Museum (National History): Entomology series 36, no. 2 (1977): 68-151.
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Cheesman L. E., and W. C. Crawley. 1928. A contribution towards the insect fauna of French Oceania. - Part III. Formicidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10(2): 514-525.
  • Clouse R. M. 2007. The ants of Micronesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Micronesica. 39: 171-295.
  • Clouse, R.M. 2007. The ants of Micronesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Micronesica 39(2): 171-295.
  • Collingwood, C. A. and Van Harten, Antonius. 2001. The Ants (Hym., Formicidae)of Niue, Souh West Pacific. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 137:139-143.
  • Crawley W.C. 1924. Ants from Sumatra, with biological notes by Edward Jacobson. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9)13: 380-409
  • Dlussky G.M. 1994. Zoogeography of southwestern Oceania. Zhivotnoe naselenie ostrovov Iugo-Zapadnoi Okeanii ekologo-geograficheskie issledovanii 48-93.
  • Eguchi K., and S. Yamane. 2003. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a lowland rainforest, northwestern Borneo. New Entomol. 52(1,2): 49-59.
  • Emery C. 1893. Formicides de l'Archipel Malais. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 1: 187-229.
  • Emery C. 1893. Voyage de M. E. Simon aux îles Philippines (mars et avril 1890). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62: 259-270.
  • Emery C. 1893. Voyage de M. E. Simon à l'île de Ceylan (janvier-février 1892). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62: 239-258.
  • Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. Nova Caledonia. A. Zoologie 1:393-437.
  • Emery, C. "Voyage de MM. Bedot et Pictet dans l'Archipel Malais. Formicides de l'Archipel Malais." Revue Suisse de Zoologie 1 (1893): 187-229.
  • Field Museum Collection, Chicago, Illinois (C. Moreau)
  • Floren A., W. Wetzel, and M. Staab. 2013. The contribution of canopy species to overall ant diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in temperate and tropical ecosystems. – Myrmecological News 19: 65-74.
  • Fontanilla A. M., A. Nakamura, Z. Xu, M. Cao, R. L. Kitching, Y. Tang, and C. J. Burwell. 2019. Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in southwest China. Insects 10, 128; doi:10.3390/insects10050128
  • Forel A. 1901. Formiciden des Naturhistorischen Museums zu Hamburg. Neue Calyptomyrmex-, Dacryon-, Podomyrma- und Echinopla-Arten. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 18: 43-82.
  • Forel A. 1905. Ameisen aus Java. Gesammelt von Prof. Karl Kraepelin 1904. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hambg. 22: 1-26.
  • Forel A. 1909. Ameisen aus Java und Krakatau beobachtet und gesammelt von Herrn Edward Jacobson. Notes Leyden Mus. 31: 221-232.
  • Forel A. 1912. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute. Formicidae (Hym.) (Schluss). Entomol. Mitt. 1: 45-61.
  • Forel A. 1913. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute: Formicidae II. Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(6): 183-202
  • Framenau V.W., and M.L. Thomas. 2008. Ants of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean); identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25: 45-85.
  • Gay H., and R. Hensen. 1992. Ant specificity and behaviour in mutualisms with epiphytes: the case of Lecanopteris (Polypodiaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 47: 261-284.
  • Guo Zhenchao. 2006. Taxonomic Study on the ant fauna from Jigongshan and Funiushan in Henan Province. Guangxi Normal University. Master's thesis 91 pages.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Hashimoto Y., and M. Mohamed. 2004. A preliminary survey of ant fauna at Crocker Range Park. In: Maryati Mohamed, Zulhazman Hamzah, T. Tachi & J. Nais (eds.). Crocker Range scientific expedition 2002. Kota Kinabalu: Universiti Malaysia Sabah, pp. 51-71.
  • Herwina H., N. Nasir, Jumjunidang, and Yaherwandi. 2013. The composition of ant species on banana plants with Banana Bunchy-top Virus (BBTV) symptoms in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Asian Myrmecology 5: 151-161.
  • Herwina H., and K. Nakamura. 2007. Ant species diversity study using pitfall traps in a small yard in Bogor Botanic garden, West Java, Indonesia. Treubia 35: 99-116.
  • Hita Garcia F., and B. L. Fisher. 2011. The ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Malagasy region—introduction, definition of species groups, and revision of the T. bicarinatum, T. obesum, T. sericeiventre and T. tosii species groups. Zootaxa 3039: 1-72.
  • Hita García, F., and B. L. Fisher. "The ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Malagasy region—taxonomy of the T. bessonii, T. bonibony, T. dysalum, T. marginatum, T. tsingy, and T. weitzeckeri species groups." Zootaxa 3365 (2012): 1-123.
  • Imai H. T., M. Kubota, W. L. Brown, Jr., M. Ihara, M. Tohari, and R. I. Pranata. 1985. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from Indonesia. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 35: 46-48.
  • Ito, F.; Yamane, S.; Eguchi, K.; Noerdjito, W. A.; Kahono, S.; Tsuji, K.; Ohkawara, K.; Yamauchi, K.; Nishida, T.; Nakamura, K. 2001. Ant species diversity in the Bogor Botanic Garden, West Java, Indonesia, with descriptions of two new species of the genus Leptanilla (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Tropics 10:379-404.
  • Janda M., G. D. Alpert, M. L. Borowiec, E. P. Economo, P. Klimes, E. Sarnat, and S. O. Shattuck. 2011. Cheklist of ants described and recorded from New Guinea and associated islands. Available on http://www.newguineants.org/. Accessed on 24th Feb. 2011.
  • Jennings J. T., L. Krogmann, and C. Burwell. 2013. Review of the hymenopteran fauna of New Caledonia with a checklist of species. Zootaxa 3736(1): 1-53.
  • Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden, 2002. Report of Rapid Biodiversity Assessments at Qixingkeng Nature Reserve, Southwest Guangdong, 29 April to 1 May and 24 November to 1 December, 1998. South China Biodiversity Survey Report Series (Online Simplified Version): No. 4. KFBG, Hong Kong SAR, ii + 22 pp.
  • Kami K.S., and S. E. Miller. 1998. Samoan insects and related arthropods: checklist and bibliography. Bishop Museum Technical Report 13, pp 121.
  • Kami KS & Miller SE. 1998. Samoan insects and related arthropods: checklist and bibliography. Bishop Museum Technical Report No. 13.
  • Kishimoto-Yamata K., F. Hyodo, M. Matsuoka, Y. Hashimoto, M. Kon, T. Ochi, S. Yamane, R. Ishii, and T. Itioka. 2012. Effects of remnant primary forests on ant and dung beetle species diversity in a secondary forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Insect Conservation DOI 10.1007/s10841-012-9544-6
  • Kutter H. 1932. Ameisen aus dem Museum zu Dresden. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 15: 207-210.
  • Latumahina F., M. Borovanska, N. S. Putra, and M. Janda. 2015. Ants of Ambon Island – diversity survey and checklist. ZooKeys 472: 43–57.
  • Lee T. L., and Y. S. Wei. 2005. Study for the temporal and spatial variation of the ant assemblages as the biological indicator in national parks. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(4): 491-496.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Mairouch N., H. Jourdan and J. Chazeau. 2002. Nuisance perçue par l'Homme. Pp 107-135. In Etude de l'invasion de la Nouvelle-Calédonie par la fourmi pionnière Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger): modalités, impact sur la diversité et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes, moyens d'une maîtrise de la nuisance. Programme INWASCAL, Conventions Sciences de la Vie, Zoologie Appliquée 13.
  • Mann W. M. 1921. The ants of the Fiji Islands. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 64: 401-499.
  • Mann W. M. 1925. Ants collected by the University of Iowa Fiji-New Zealand Expedition. Stud. Nat. Hist. Iowa Univ. 11(4): 5-6.
  • Mohamed M. 1995. A preliminary list of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In: Ghazally Ismail et al. (eds.), Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, Pelanduk Pub. Pp. 205-213.
  • Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58
  • Pfeiffer, M., H. Cheng Tuck, and T. Chong Lay. 2008. Exploring arboreal ant community composition and co-ccurrence patterns in plantations of oil palm Elaeis guineensis in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. Ecography 31(1): 21-32.
  • Rizali A., A. Rahim, B. Sahari, L.B. Prasetyo, and D. Buchori. 2011. Impact of invasive ant species in shaping ant community structure on small islands in Indonesia. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 7(2): 221-230.
  • Rizali A., Clough Y., Buchori D. and Tscharntke T. 2013. Dissimilarity of ant Communities Increases with Precipitation, but not Reduced Land-Use Intensity, in Indonesian Cacao Agroforestry. Diversity. 5: 26-38
  • Rizali A., D. J. Lohman, D. Buchori, L. Budi Prasetyo, H. Triwidodo, M. M. Bos, S. Yamane, and C. H. Schulze. 2009. Ant communities on small tropical islands: effects of island size and isolation are obscured by habitat disturbance and tramp ant species. Journal of Biogeography 37(2): 229-236.
  • Rizali A., M. M. Bos, D. Buchori, Sk. Yamane, and C. H. Schulze. 2008. Ants in tropical urban habitats: the myrmecofauna in a densely populated area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 15(2): 77-84.
  • Rizali A., M.M. Bos, D. Buchori, Sk. Yamane, C. Hans, and J. Schulze. 2008. Ants in tropical urban habitats: the myrmecofauna in a densely populated area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 77-84.
  • Rizali A., Y. Clough, D. Buchori, M. L . A. Hosang, M. M. Bos, and T. Tscharntke. 2012. Long-term change of ant community structure in cacao agroforestry landscapes in Indonesia. Insect Conservation and Diversity doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00219.x
  • Santschi F. 1919. Cinq notes myrmécologiques. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 52: 325-350.
  • Santschi F. 1928. Formicidae (Fourmis). Insects Samoa. 5: 41-58.
  • Santschi F. 1928. Fourmis de îles Fidji. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 35: 67-74.
  • Santschi F. 1932. Résultats scientifiques du voyage aux Indes orientales néerlandaises de LL. AA. RR. le Prince et la Princesse Léopold de Belgique. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique. (2)4: 11-29.
  • Sarnat Eli M. 2009. The Ants [Hymenoptera: Formicdiae] of Fiji: Systematics, Biogeography and Conservation of an Island Arc Fauna. 80-252
  • Schlick-Steiner B. C.; F.M. Steiner, and H. Zettel. 2006. Tetramorium pacificum Mayr, 1870, T. scabrum Mayr, 1879 sp.rev., T. manobo (Calilung, 2000) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) – three good species. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:181-191.
  • Sukimin S., M. Mohamed, and H. Aris. 2010. Ant diversity of Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 6:89-101.
  • Tang J., Li S., Huang E., Zhang B. and Chen Y. 1995. Hymenoptera: Formicidae (1). Economic Insect Fauna of China 47: 1-133.
  • Taylor R. W. 1976. The ants of Rennell and Bellona Islands. Natural History of Rennell Island, British Solomon Islands 7: 73-90.
  • Taylor R. W. 1987. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41: 1-92.
  • Taylor R. W., and D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2: 1-149. 
  • Taylor, R. W. 1967. Entomological Survey of the Cook Islands and Niue. New Zealand Journal of Science. 10(4):1092-95.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Tiwari R. N., B. G. Kundu, S. Roy Chowdhury, and S. N. Ghosh. 2003. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Fauna of Sikkim. Part 4. State Fauna Series. 9.Zool.Surv.India. i-iii, 1-512. Chapter pagination: 467-506.
  • Trainor C.R. and A.N. Andersen. 2010. The ant fauna of Timor and neighbouring islands: potential bridges between the disjunct faunas of South East Asia and Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 58: 133-144.
  • Trainor C.R., and A.N. Andersen. 2010. The ant fauna of Timor and neighbouring islands: potential bridges between the disjunct faunas of South East Asia and Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 58: 133-144.
  • Ward D. 2008. Ecological partitioning and invasive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a tropical rain forest ant community from Fiji. Pacific Science 62(4): 473-482.
  • Ward, Darren F. and James K. Wetterer. 2006. Checklist of the Ants of Fiji. Fiji Arthropods III 85: 23-47.
  • Way M. J., and B. Bolton. 1997. Competition between ants for coconut palm nesting sites. Journal of Natural History 31: 439-455.
  • Wetterer, James K. 2002. Ants of Tonga. Pacific Science. 56.2: 125-135.
  • Wetterer, James K. 2006. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Niue, Polynesia. Pacif Science. 60:(3)413-416.
  • Wetterer, James K. and Vargo, Donald Vargo L. 2003. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Samoa. Pacific Science. 57(4):409-419.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1909. Ants of Formosa and the Philippines. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 26: 333-345.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1919. The ants of Borneo. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 63:43-147.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1929. Ants collected by Professor F. Silvestri in Formosa, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24: 27-64.
  • Wheeler W.M. 1934. Formicidae of the Templeton Crocker expedition, 1933. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 21(14): 173-181.
  • Wheeler W.M. 1935. Check list of the ants of Oceania. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 11(11):1-56.
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1927. The ants of Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 62: 121-153
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1924. Ants of Krakatau and Other Islands in the Sunda Strait. Treubia. 5(1-3):1-20.
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1927. The Ants of Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 62(4): 121-153
  • Wheeler, William Morton. 1934. Formicidae of the Templeton Crocker Expedition, 1933. California Academy of Sciences. 21(14):173-181.
  • Wheeler, William Morton.1935.Checklist of the Ants of Oceania.Occasional Papers 11(11): 3-56
  • Wilson E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109.
  • Wilson E.O., and G.L. Hunt. 1967. Ant fauna of Futuna and Wallis islands, stepping stones to Polynesia. Pacific Insects 9(4): 563-584.
  • Wilson EO & Hunt GL. 1967. Ant fauna of Futuna and Wallis Islands, stepping stones to Polynesia. Pacific Insects 9.4: 563-584.
  • Wilson EO, Hunt GL. 1967. Ant fauna of Futuna and Wallis Islands, stepping stones to Polynesia. Pacific Insects 9.4: 563-584.
  • Wilson EO, Taylor RW. 1967. The ants of Polynesia. Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109.
  • Wilson, Edward O. 1959. The Ants of Rennell and Bellona Islands. Nat. Hist. Rennell Isl. By Solomon Isl. 4:13-23.
  • Wilson, Edward O. and George L. Hunt. 1967. Ant Fauna of Futuna and Wallis Islands, Stepping Stones To Polynesia. Pacific Insects. 9(4):563-584.
  • Wilson, Edward O. and Hunt, George L. Jr. 1967. Ant Fauna of Futuna and Wallis Islands, Stepping Stones to Polynesia. Pacific Insects. 9(4):563-584
  • Wu J. and Wang C. 1995. The ants of China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. 214 pp.
  • Yamane S. 2013. A Review of the ant fauna of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Nat. Hist. Hum. Hist. Ser: A, 11: 1-66
  • Yamane S.; Nona, A. R. 1994. Ants from Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak. Pp. 222-226 in: Inoue, T.; Hamid, A. A. (eds.) 1994. Plant reproductive systems and animal seasonal dynamics. Long-term study of dipterocarp forests in Sarawak. Kyoto: Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, vii + 255 pp. 
  • Yamane Sk. 2005. Krakatau in 1982, and the commencement of myrmecological research. The nature and Insects (Konchu to shizen) 40: 27-33.