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Temporal range: 37.2–0 Ma Eocene – Recent
Vollenhovia emeryi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Vollenhovia
Mayr, 1865
Type species
Vollenhovia punctatostriata
77 species
3 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Vollenhovia emeryi casent0003196 profile 1.jpg

Vollenhovia emeryi

Vollenhovia emeryi casent0003196 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships















































some Lordomyrma



[some Lordomyrma


some Lordomyrma











Based on Ward et al. (2014) and Blaimer et al. (2018).

Vollenhovia species usually inhabit forest habitats and nest in rotting twigs, wood fragments and logs, and in spaces under the bark of logs. (Eguchi, Bui and Yamane 2011)


Similar to Gauromyrmex but differing by the 12-segmented antennae and the unarmed propodeum.

Terayama and Kinomura (1997) - This genus is distinguished from the other genera of the subfamily Myrmicinae by the following characteristics: 1) frontal carinae and antennal scrobes absent; 2) clypeus more or less longitudinally bicarinate; 3) antennae with 12 segments, rarely 11 segments. the funicles ending in a 3-segmented club; 4) frontal lobes present; 5) maxillary palp with 1-3 segments. usually 2 segments; 6) eyes present, relatively large; 7) ventral processes distinct on meso-and metasternum; 8) middle and hind legs without tibial spur; 9) petiole sessile or subsessile; 10) subpetiolar process present, often blade-like; 11) petiole not particularly more voluminous than postpetiole in dorsal view.

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - The worker of Vollenhovia is easily separated from those of other known Vietnamese myrmicine genera by the flattened body and the posterodorsal margin of petiole produced as a rim.

Keys including this Genus


Keys to Species in this Genus


Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps




Worker Morphology

  • Antennal segment count: 11; 12
  • Antennal club: 3
  • Palp formula: 2,2; 2,1
  • Total dental count: 5-8
  • Spur formula: 0, 0
  • Sting: present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12; 13 • Antennal club gradual • Palp formula 2,2 • Total dental count 0 • Spur formula 0, 0


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • VOLLENHOVIA [Myrmicinae: Stenammini]
    • Vollenhovia Mayr, 1865: 21. Type-species: Vollenhovia punctatostriata, by monotypy.
    • Vollenhovia senior synonym of †Propodomyrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 51; Emery, 1922e: 163.
    • Vollenhovia senior synonym of Vollenhovenia: Forel, 1893a: 166.
    • Vollenhovia senior synonym of Dorothea, Dyomorium, Heteromyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 146.
    • Vollenhovia senior synonym of Aratromyrmex: Baroni Urbani, 1980: 96.
  • ARATROMYRMEX [junior synonym of Vollenhovia]
    • Aratromyrmex Stitz, 1938: 105. Type-species: Aratromyrmex luctuosus, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1943f: 625.
    • Aratromyrmex junior synonym of Vollenhovia: Baroni Urbani, 1980: 96.
  • DOROTHEA [junior synonym of Vollenhovia]
    • Dorothea Donisthorpe, 1948c: 65. Type-species: Dorothea novobritainae, by monotypy.
    • Dorothea junior synonym of Vollenhovia: Ettershank, 1966: 146.
  • DYOMORIUM [junior synonym of Vollenhovia]
    • Dyomorium Donisthorpe, 1947d: 191. Type-species: Dyomorium ireneum, by original designation.
    • Dyomorium junior synonym of Vollenhovia: Ettershank, 1966: 146.
  • HETEROMYRMEX [junior synonym of Vollenhovia]
    • Heteromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53. Type-species: Vollenhovia rufiventris, by original designation.
    • Heteromyrmex junior synonym of Vollenhovia: Ettershank, 1966: 146.
  • PROPODOMYRMA [junior synonym of Vollenhovia]
    • Propodomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 163 (by indication). Type-species: †Propodomyrma samlandica (junior synonym of †Macromischa beyrichi), by monotypy.
    • [†Propodomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 413. Nomen nudum.]
    • Propodomyrma junior synonym of Vollenhovia: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 51.
  • VOLLENHOVENIA [junior synonym of Vollenhovia]
    • Vollenhovenia Dalla Torre, 1893: 61, unjustified subsequent emendation of Vollenhovia.
    • Vollenhovenia junior synonym of Vollenhovia: Forel, 1893a: 166; Emery, 1922e: 163.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Taxonomic Notes

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - Workers of Vietnamese species have the following features. Worker monomorphic; head in full-face view subrectangular; frontal carina and antennal scrobe absent; median portion of clypeus raised, laterally margined with a slight to conspicuous longitudinal carina; anteromedian portion often forming a transverse strip; an isolated median seta absent; posteromedian portion relatively narrowly inserted between frontal lobes; lateral portion of clypeus never modified into a distinct ridge or wall in front of antennal insertion; mandible triangular; masticatory margin with 6 or more teeth; antennae 11- or 12-segmented, with 3-segmented club; eye always present, small to medium sized; mesosoma in lateral view long and low; promesonotum in lateral view usually not domed; promesonotal suture absent dorsally; metanotal groove weakly to slightly impressed dorsally; posterodorsal portion of propodeum with rounded corners or small teeth; propodeal lobe present as carina or low lamella; petiole nodiform; anterior peduncle short and obscure; posterodorsal margin of petiole produced posterodorsad as a rim which is distinctly (or at least a little) higher than the dorsal outline of helcium of petiole when waist segments stretched posteriad; subpetiolar process usually (but not always) developed as a large lamella; gastral shoulder absent.



  • Vollenhovia sp.(ANIC-3): 2n = 40 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Vollenhovia sp.1: 2n = 49 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Vollenhovia sp.1: 2n = 50 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Vollenhovia sp.2: 2n = 36 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).
  • Vollenhovia sp.2: 2n = 33 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Vollenhovia sp.2: 2n = 34 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Vollenhovia: n = 11 (Crozier, 1975).


  • Terayama, M. and K. Kinomura. 1997. Taxonomic studies of Japanese Formicidae, part 3. Genus Vollenhovia Mayr. Nature and Human Activities. 2:1-8.
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Stenammini)
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1980a. Die Stellung der Gattung Aratromyrmex Stitz (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 56: 95-96 (page 96, Vollenhovia senior synonym of Aratromyrmex)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Vollenhovia senior synonym of Gauromyrmex (and its junior synonyms Acalama and Solenomyrma); Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Metaponini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 9, 206, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Stenammini)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 61, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 81, Vollenhovia incertae sedis in Myrmicinae)
  • Eguchi, K., Bui, T.V. & Yamane, S. 2011. Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam. Part 1 – Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Zootaxa 2878: 1-61.
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Vollenhovia in Myrmicidae, Pheidolidae)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Emery, C. 1912b. Études sur les Myrmicinae. [I-IV.]. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 56: 94-105 (page 105, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 41, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini [subtribe Monomoriini])
  • Emery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B: 95-206 (page 163, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
  • Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171 (page 146, Vollenhovia senior synonym of Dorothea, Dyomorium, and Heteromyrmex, and review of genus; Vollenhovia incertae sedis in Myrmicinae)
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 166, Vollenhovia senior synonym of Vollenhovenia)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 242, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)
  • Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 16, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Metaponini)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 21, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Rabeling, C. 2020. Social Parasitism. In: Starr, C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Social Insects. Springer, Cham. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_175-1).
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 139, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 51, Vollenhovia senior synonym of Propodomyrma; Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 662, Vollenhovia in Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini)