Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
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Cardiocondyla emeryi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Emery, 1869
Type species
Cardiocondyla elegans
74 species
(Species Checklist)

Cardiocondyla emeryi casent0005964 profile 1.jpg

Cardiocondyla emeryi

Cardiocondyla emeryi casent0005964 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label


Cardiocondyla are tiny myrmicine ants which live in colonies consisting of several dozen to a few hundred workers. Queen number varies by species. Nests are commonly in the soil, less so under rocks and in just a few species are known to be made in vegetation. Open arid habitats are favored by many Cardiocondyla. Several species are well known tramp species (Seifert, 2003).


Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - Worker monomorphic; head in full-face view subrectangular; frontal lobe small and narrow; frontal carina and antennal scrobe absent; median portion of clypeus prominently extended forward, and fused to the flattened lateral portions to form a shelf which hides basal part of mandibles in full-face view but is elevated away from the dorsal surface of mandibles in lateral view; posteromedian portion of clypeus relatively broadly inserted between frontal lobes; median clypeal seta present; mandible triangular, with 5 teeth which decrease in size from apex to base; palp formula 5,3; stipes of maxilla with a transverse crest at about midlength; antenna 12-segmented, with 3-segmented club; eye generally large and conspicuous; promesonotal dorsum in lateral view flattened to slightly convex;promesonotal suture absent dorsally; metanotal groove absent or distinctly impressed dorsally; propodeum nearly unarmed to strongly bispinose; propodeal lobe roundly extended posteriad; petiole pedunculate anteriorly and with distinct node; subpetiolar process present but small; postpetiole in lateral view dorsoventrally flattened, in dorsal view very broad, much broader than petiolar node; gastral shoulder indistinct or distinct; dorsa of head, mesosma, waist and gaster lacking standing hairs.

The worker of Cardiocondyla is similar to Monomorium and Temnothorax, but in the latter two genera the postpetiole is as broad as or only a little broader than the petiolar node, and the dorsa of head, mesosoma, waist and gaster bear at least a few standing hairs.

Seifert (2003) - [slightly modified from Bolton, 1982] Small to minute, monomorphic myrmicine ants. Palp formula 5,3 (16 species examined). Mandibles with 5 teeth which decrease in size from apical to basal. Clypeus with flattened and prominent projecting lateral portions, which are fused to the raised projecting median portion to form a shelf which projects forward over the mandibles. Median portion of clypeus posteriorly broadly inserted between narrow frontal lobes. Antennal scrobes absent. Eyes relatively large, situated in front of mid length of the head sides. Antennae with 11 - 12 segments, usually with a distinct 3-segmented club. Dorsal mesosoma without sutures; pronotal corners broadly rounded to bluntly angular. Propodeum unarmed to strongly bispinose. Metapleural lobes low and rounded. Petiole nodiform, with a moderate to long, usually slender, anterior peduncle. Postpetiole dorsoventrally flattened, in dorsal view always much broader than petiole. Sting large, knife blade-like in profile, without lamelliform appendages. Pilosity on dorsal body sparse to absent.

Keys including this Genus


Keys to Species in this Genus


Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Cardiocondyla Species Richness.png


The biology of most Cardiocondyla species has not been studied. Seifert (2003) revised the holarctic species of Cardiocondyla and the following is based on his excellent treatment of the biology of the genus. References to other publications and more details about what is reported here can be found in Seifert (2003).

Cardiocondyla ants are minute to small. Natural nests have small populations and are difficult to discover because of the single and tiny entrance holes, which are usually unmarked by ejections of nesting substrate. When nesting in soil, trials to excavate complete nest populations may have a very frustrating outcome and need a very special skill. As a consequence, Cardiocondyla ants are neglected or overlooked by many field entomologists and are underrepresented in scientific collections. A recent world-wide catalogue recognized 49 taxa as valid species (Bolton 1995). This figure is undoubtedly far from conceiving the real species-richness as the following examples suggest: 371 samples from the Palaearctic, which is much less rich in Cardiocondyla species than the Palaeotropics, contained 31 species of which 14 are described here as new. Within only 67 samples from the tropical rain forests of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea were 18 species with 8 of them new (Seifert in prep.). Including the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Australasian regions clearly more than 100 species of Cardiocondyla should occur on the globe.

Sociobiologists have paid much attention to Cardiocondyla during the last two decades because of some biological traits, which are rare among ants and provide good models to test several kinship theories. Cardiocondyla species have unusually long-lived ergatoid males performing a constant spermiogenesis throughout their whole imaginal life. These males usually stay within the mother nest, mate intranidally, and try to monopolize all matings by killing other ergatoid males, preferentially when these still are in the pupal stage. As a consequence, such heavily-armed ergatoids do occur within a nest in singularity or in lower numbers (Stuart & al. 1987, Kinomura & Yamauchi 1987, Heinze & Holldobler 1993, Heinze & al. 1993).

The very small space needed for nest construction, the expressed polygyny in several species, a sufficient survival rate after shortage of water, and in particular the fact that, in some species, a dozen of detached workers with brood can establish a fully reproductive new colony containing all castes explains the higher number of cosmopolitan tramp species in Cardiocondyla such as Cardiocondyla mauritanica, Cardiocondyla obscurior, Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, Cardiocondyla emeryi, and Cardiocondyla minutior, which all seem to be abundant around the globe. These species probably have reached many areas of their actual range by passive transport via human trade routes. Others, as the Pacific island-hopping Cardiocondyla nuda, seem to have a more restricted range.

Wing reduction or inability to fly is apparently abundant in sexuals of Cardiocondyla. Within the studied material, macropterous gynes were observed in 13 and brachypterous gynes in 11 species, with five species showing both forms. 14 species with ergatoid males are known. Only five species are reported to produce alate males but this is probably an under-recording because of their temporary occurrence. Isolated occurrence on small habitat patches within large desert systems, the tendency to dominate these habitat patches and to reduce the risk of flight dispersal could have selected for female brachyptery, male aptery, and intranidal mating. The resulting isolation and high inbreeding coefficients could have created an unknown number of rare, locally distributed species. Some of the species described here as new might belong to this category.

Habitats, nesting, and behavior

Knowledge on habitat selection and biology is poor or lacking in most of the known species. Many species of the world fauna are typically found in anthropogenically or naturally disturbed, open and xerothermous habitats along rivers, traffic lines, or wood margins and in sand dunes or other badlands. In particular the tramp species, but not only these, show a preference for habitats with a high degree of urbanization and the question arises which are the natural habitats. These should be, first of all, semi deserts and steppes as well as open habitats on immature soils at rivers, lakes, and sea shore and to a lesser extent forest margins or burned-down woodland patches. In contrast to this open-land group, the original habitats of many tropical species are primary rain forests.

In the majority of species, nests are constructed in the soil and less frequently under stones. Nests usually have a single entrance hole of only 1 - 1.5 mm diameter which is not marked by soil ejections. A very narrow vertical duct leads down to 2 - 15 cm depth before it changes abruptly to a horizontal direction or ends in a simple chamber of 15 - 20 mm diameter and 3 - 4 mm height. Simple nests without a complex vertical structure are found if moist soil horizons are not very deep and if the local climate does not show extreme temperature amplitudes. The depth of the uppermost chamber depends upon climatic conditions and the cohesiveness of soil particles (Creighton & Snelling 1974, Mei 1984; J. Heinze, pers. comm.; own observations). In the desert species Cardiocondyla ulianini, when ground water is very deep, the nest structure can be much more complex with the vertical duct crossing as much as 40 - 50 of such chambers one after the other down to a depth of 1 50 cm. This elaborate vertical structuring ensures direct access to ground water, it enables a free choice of narrow temperature optima during the extreme diurnal temperature changes in the desert, and it provides a protected hibernation during the cold Central Asian winter (Martkovsky & Yakushkin 1974).

Nesting in plant structures above soil surface is obviously rare in Holarctic Cardiocondyla. This behaviour is typical for Cardiocondyla obscurior and Cardiocondyla wroughtonii which occur in open areas, in grassland, at forest margins, in urban areas, or plantations.

Mature natural nests of monogynous and polygynous species usually contain less than 500 workers as found in C. wroughtonii, C. obscurior, Cardiocondyla mauritanica, C. ulianini, Cardiocondyla koshewnikovi, and Cardiocondyla elegans. The real frequency of monogyny within the genus is unknown; it has been observed so far in C. elegans, Cardiocondyla batesii, and C. ulianini. The cosmopolitan tramp species C. wroughtonii, C. obscurior, C. mauritanica, Cardiocondyla emeryi, and C. minutior are polygynous and found new colonies preferentially by nest splitting.

Development at room temperature from oviposition to the eclosion of adults lasted approximately 56 days in ergatoid males of C. mauritanica (Heinze & al. 1993) and 55 days in workers of “C. emeryi” (Creighton & Snelling 1974), with the egg, larval, and pupal stages lasting for 12, 27, and 16 days. Most remarkably, the callow stage in workers was as short as 2 days. Development of gynes of C. ulianini in the Central Asian deserts seems to need 100 days at least. After oviposition in May, gynes are reported to eclose by the end of August and in September, to hibernate in the nest and to leave it in next spring (Marikovsky & Jakushkin 1974). A similar situation seems to exist in C. batesii (J. Heinze, pers. comm.) in which the young gynes are most probably mated intranidally in late summer, hibernate in the nest in an alate condition, and use the moist spring situation for dispersal to have better founding success. Reproductive gynes of C. mauritanica produced 2 - 3 eggs per day in well-fed laboratory colonies and their ovaries contained 3+3 ovarioles (Heinze & al. 1993). No observations or suggestions of worker reproduction are known in Cardiocondyla. Workers of aggressive superior species such as Pheidole dentata, Solenopsis geminata, and Linepithema humile were observed to shrink back when encountering foragers of Cardiocondylaemeryi” and C. mauritanica (Creighton & Sneilling 1974) which suggests the emission of effective repellents.

Cardiocondyla ants are omnivorous. Zoophagy (zoo necrophagy and killing of small weakly sclerotised arthropods), granivory, and nectarivory are reported (Creighton & Snelling 1974, Marikovsky & Yakushkin 1974, Dlussky 1981). Recruitment to food sources or nest sites can be performed by tandem running as observed in few species (Creighton & Snelling 1974). The latter authors, the present author, and Marikovsky & Jakushkin (1974) noted a well-developed, almost linear light compass orientation of Cardiocondyla mauritanica and Cardiocondyla ulianini foragers on open surfaces.


Ergatoid males and queens are present in some species.


Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 11-12 • Antennal club 3 • Palp formula 5,3 • Spur formula 0, 0 • Sting present

Male Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 8-13 • Antennal club 0; gradual in some ergatoids • Palp formula 5,3 • Total dental count 1-5 • Spur formula 0, 0 • Caste dimorphic, alate/ergatoid


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • CARDIOCONDYLA [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Cardiocondyla Emery, 1869b: 20. Type-species: Cardiocondyla elegans, by monotypy.
    • Cardiocondyla senior synonym of Emeryia: Forel, 1892h: 461; Forel, 1892i: 313.
    • Cardiocondyla senior synonym of Xenometra: Baroni Urbani, 1973: 200; Marikovsky & Yakushin, 1974: 60.
    • Cardiocondyla senior synonym of Dyclona, Loncyda, Prosopidris: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1375; Bolton, 1982: 309.
  • DYCLONA [junior synonym of Cardiocondyla]
    • Dyclona Santschi, 1930b: 70 (footnote) [as subgenus of Cardiocondyla]. Type-species: Monomorium cristatum, by original designation.
    • Dyclona junior synonym of Cardiocondyla: Bolton, 1982: 309.
  • EMERYIA [junior synonym of Cardiocondyla]
    • Emeryia Forel, 1890b: cx. Type-species: Emeryia wroughtonii, by monotypy.
    • Emeryia junior synonym of Cardiocondyla: Forel, 1892h: 461; Forel, 1892i: 313.
  • LONCYDA [junior synonym of Cardiocondyla]
    • Loncyda Santschi, 1930b: 70 [as subgenus of Cardiocondyla]. Type-species: Cardiocondyla (Loncyda) monardi, by monotypy.
    • Loncyda junior synonym of Cardiocondyla: Bolton, 1982: 309.
  • PROSOPIDRIS [junior synonym of Cardiocondyla]
    • Prosopidris Wheeler, W.M. 1935b: 40 [as subgenus of Cardiocondyla]. Type-species: Cardiocondyla (Prosopidris) sima, by original designation.
    • Prosopidris raised to genus: Reiskind, 1965: 80.
    • Prosopidris junior synonym of Cardiocondyla: Bolton, 1982: 309.
  • XENOMETRA [junior synonym of Cardiocondyla]
    • Xenometra Emery, 1917a: 96. Type-species: Xenometra monilicornis (junior synonym of Cardiocondyla emeryi), by monotypy.
    • Xenometra junior synonym of Cardiocondyla: Baroni Urbani, 1973: 199; Marikovsky & Yakushin, 1974: 60.

Eguchi, Bui and Yamane (2011) - The Afrotropical species were revised by Bolton (1982), and the elegans-, bulgarica-, batesii-, nuda-, shuckardi-, stambuloffii-, wroughtonii-, emeryi- and minutior-groups were revised by Seifert (2003). Workers of Vietnamese species have the following features.


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