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Temporal range: Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene Baltic amber, Baltic Sea region
Enneamerus reticulatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Enneamerus
Mayr, 1868
Type species
Enneamerus reticulatus
2 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)


Radchenko and Dlussky (2017) - The genus is characterized by its 9-segmented antennae with 3-segmented club, by the presence of antennal scrobes, and by its poorly developed, subvertical frontal lobes that expose the antennal sockets in full-face view. Besides this, the mandibles have well developed, quite wide masticatory margins armed with six teeth, the propodeum bears two moderately long spines, the middle and hind tibiae lack spurs, and the mesosoma is coarsely reticulated.


This taxon is known from Baltic amber (Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene).



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • ENNEAMERUS [incertae sedis in Myrmicinae: Myrmecinini]
    • Enneamerus Mayr, 1868c: 98. Type-species: †Enneamerus reticulatus, by monotypy.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Radchenko and Dlussky (2017)

  • antennae 9-segmented with 3-segmented club;
  • antennal scrobes on the head dorsum well developed, extending above eyes;
  • frontal lobes poorly developed, subvertical, antennal sockets fully exposed;
  • central part of clypeus longitudinally concave and delineated by two lateral carinae; its anterior margin shallowly concave, without any teeth or dents and with set of longer and shorter setae;
  • mandibles rather wide, masticatory margin with six teeth;
  • middle and hind tibiae without spur;
  • propodeum with moderately long spines, directed backward and upward, distinctly divergent, acute at apex.


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Enneamerus in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 188, Ennaemerus in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 257, Ennamerus incertae sedis in Myrmecinini)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 78, Enneamerus in Myrmicinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 80, Enneamerus incertae sedis in Myrmicinae)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943g. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [part]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 617-688 (page 643, Enneamerus in Myrmicinae, Myrmicariini)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Enneamerus in Myrmicidae,Pheidolidae)
  • Mayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beitr. Naturkd. Preuss. 1: 1-102 (page 98, Enneamerus in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae]; as genus)
  • Radchenko, A and G. M. Dlussky. 2017. New species of the extinct ant genus Enneamerus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and designation of the neotype of E. reticulatus. Asian Myrmecology. Volume 9:e009012:1-12. doi:10.20362/am.009012
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 69, Enneamerus in Myrmicinae, Tetramoriini)