Difference between revisions of "Entomopathogenic fungi"

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|Kobayasi, 1981
 
|Kobayasi, 1981
 
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|''Ophiocordyceps irangiensis''
 
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|Thailand
 
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|''Ophiocordyceps japonensis''
 
|Hara, 1914
 
|Japan
 
 
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|''Torrubiella liberiana''
 
|''Torrubiella liberiana''
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==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 02:17, 31 May 2020

A synopsis of the abundant widespread neotropical fungi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (likely a group of species) from Wikipedia [1] provides an introduction to this topic:

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is an entomopathogen, or insect-pathogenising fungus, discovered by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace in 1859, and currently found predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. O. unilateralis, also referred to as a zombie fungus, infects ants of the Camponotini tribe, with the full pathogenesis being characterized by alteration of the behavioral patterns of the infected ant. Infected hosts leave their canopy nests and foraging trails for the forest floor, an area with a temperature and humidity suitable for fungal growth; they then use their mandibles to affix themselves to a major vein on the underside of a leaf, where the host remains until its eventual death. The process leading to mortality takes 4–10 days, and includes a reproductive stage where fruiting bodies grow from the ant's head, rupturing to release the fungus's spores. O. unilateralis is in turn also susceptible to fungal infection itself, an occurrence which can limit its impact on ant populations, which has otherwise been known to devastate ant colonies.

The genus of ant infecting fungi were once all in the genus Cordyceps but most have been moved to the genus Ophiocordyceps (Sung et al. 2007).

Photo Gallery

  • Camponotus atriceps infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis, biting onto a leaf edge. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus atriceps infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis biting onto a liana, after a heavy rain at Brazilian Amazon. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus renggeri infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-renggeri, biting onto liana. The leg joints and antenna are covered by specialized cells that produce asexual spores that are transmitted by contact. The round structures (ascoma), suspended by the long stalks (stroma) produce sexual spores that will be released onto the forest 􀃓oor. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus nidulans infected by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-nidulantis on its typical display where the antennae are spread in order to optimize the transmission of asexual spores produced along the antenna. Dead on a summit position, aiming to spread the sexual spores. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Daceton armigerum infected by Ophiocordyceps dacetini. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Paraponera clavata infected by Ophiocordycceps ponerinarum. In this association, the fungus leads the ant to climb up on a tree, to die attached to the trunk. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Polyrhachis sp. infected by Ophiocordyceps buquetii, in Ghana. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Paltothyreus tarsatus biting onto a green stem. Once infected by an Ophiocordyceps species (still undescribed), it climbs up to a vertical stem to die biting onto it. In this case, the fungus we see is actually a hyerparasite of the Ophiocordyceps fungus, which overcame it and procuced these torrubielloid sexual structures. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Very tip of a palm leaf, showing Camponotus hippocrepis infected by Ophiocordyceps camponotihippocrepidis. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Campontus bispinosus biting onto a palm spine, as it typically dies from infection of Ophiocordyceps camponotibispinosi. (Photo by João P. M. Araújo)
  • Camponotus floridanus attached to Spanish moss moments after the final manipulated biting behavior induced by Ophiocordyceps camponoti-floridani. Photo by Charissa de Bekker.
  • Likely killed by the fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Likely killed by the fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Likely killed by fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.
  • Camponotus ligniperda queen likely killed by the parasitic fungus Desmidiospora myrmecophila. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Fungal Species

Formica rufa with Aegeritella epizoic fungal infection. Photo by Michal Kukla.
Formica rufa with Aegeritella epizoic fungal infection. Photo by Michal Kukla.

Aegeritella superficialis

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Aegeritella maroccana

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Aegeritella roussillonensis

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Aegeritella superficialis

Aegeritella tuberculata

These fungi were first noted by Wisniewski in 1967 although their fungal nature was not proven then. The fungi grow over the cuticle like dark protuberances (= bulbils). On first sight, they look like dirt, and its form is usually a dome, rounded in perimeter, and up to 400 μm diameter. The number of bulbils may be from a single one to several hundred. The distribution of bulbils on the body of ants is heterogeneous, being more abundant at the rear part. The total number of bulbils is inversely related to ant size, with bigger ants having less bulbils than smaller ants. Bulbils have been detected in workers and queens.

The ant-fungus relationship has not been properly ascertained although a reduced life duration or activity level has been suggested. In a similar vein, Bałazy et al. note some workers with hundreds of bulbils, having immobilized bucal palps, all covered by hyphae. Nothing is known of the dynamics of infestation or transmission mechanisms of those enigmatic fungi, not even its phylogenetic position within the realm of Fungi.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Hormiscium myrmecophilum

The species was described from an Amazonian Pseudomyrmex and remained elusive since its original description until it was found in Europe eighty years later. The filamentous, somewhat dichotomic thallus is undifferentiated and grows directly out of different parts of the ant body, without any apparent attaching structure. Mycelia have a maximum length of 163 μm and constant width of 10 μm. Spores are unknown.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Laboulbeniales

Laboulbeniales - fungi found growing on adult ants; also associated with other arthropods

Laboulbenia camponoti

Under the binocular, the thallus of this species looks like a distorted ant hair and is found all over the body, albeit more abundant in dorsal surfaces and external surface of legs. Density is much lower than in other ant-specific Laboulbeniales. In the Holarctic, it has been detected exclusively in Camponotus species, all six from the subgenus Tanaemyrmex

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Laboulbenia formicarum

This is one of the smallest Laboulbeniales species (up to 0.3mm total length). Thalli can be extremely abundant on infested workers, which go foraging seemingly unaffected amid noninfested workers.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Myrmicinosporidium

This fungi were first noted by Holldobler although it was formally described later, in 1933. Its phylogenetic position is still unknown, and its true fungal nature has been only proved recently. Infested ants are usually well detected because the darker spores are visible through the integument; spores number may be very low, but usually they reach more than one hundred in a single ant. The caveat here is that the fungus may be much difficult to detect in ants having fuscous or black colouration. As a consequence, host range is probably biased. The usual aspect of concave spores, with a bow-like depression, is an artefact of fixation in alcohol.

Although the infested workers are almost certainly killed by the fungus when spores begin producing hyphae, life span seems not to be curtailed. Infested workers seem scarcely affected in its normal behaviour, and infested queens may participate in swarming flights and show normal fertility. Males have been found infected too. Life cycle and mode on infestation are unknown although reports of Myrmicinosporidium from callow workers in Pogonomyrmex badius indicate that the infection is carried over from immature stages. It is perhaps significant that the majority of diseased ants were collected in late summer and fall. After hibernation, those infected workers die. Its geographical distribution is ample as is also the range of hosts.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Rickia wasmannii

This species is extremely characteristic in its microscopic morphological aspect and is limited to several species of Myrmica. Infested ants may harbour from a few thalli to several hundred thalli all over the body. Heavy infestations are visible to the naked eye and give a greyish shade, a pulverulent image to living individuals. Worker and queens may be infested.

See Espadaler & Santamaria (2012) for further details.

Ant Hosts

Taxon Fungus Locality Source Notes
Acromyrmex echinatior Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Acromyrmex lundii Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Acromyrmex octospinosus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Acromyrmex subterraneus Aspergillus flavus Sales & Toledo, 2020
Acromyrmex subterraneus Metarhizium anisopliae Sales & Toledo, 2020
Aphaenogaster baronii Aegeritella maroccana Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Aphaenogaster senilis Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Atta Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Atta Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Atta Fusarium graminearum Quevillon, 2018
Atta Fusarium oxysporum Quevillon, 2018
Atta Fusarium solani Quevillon, 2018
Atta Purpureocillium lilacinum Quevillon, 2018
Atta Trichoderma atroviride Quevillon, 2018
Atta bisphaerica Aspergillus ochraceus Quevillon, 2018
Atta cephalotes Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Asia, North and South America Shrestha et al., 2017
Atta colombica Ophiocordyceps subramanianii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Atta mexicana Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Atta sexdens Metarhizium anisopliae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Atta texana Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Atta texana Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Bothroponera Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Bothroponera pachyderma Ophiocordyceps australis Africa Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus aberrans Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus aberrans Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Africa Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus aethiops Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus americanus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus americanus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis North America Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus apicalis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis South America Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017; Sobczak et al., 2017
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps lloydii Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps unilateralis North and South America Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps lloydii lloydii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus atriceps Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus auriventris Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus auriventris Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus auriventris Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus baldaccii Laboulbenia camponoti Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Camponotus baldaccii Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus balzani Ophiocordyceps camponoti-balzani Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus balzani Ophiocordyceps camponoti-balzani Brazil Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-bispinosi Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-bispinosi South America Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus brutus Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus brutus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus brutus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus buchneri Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus buchneri Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus castaneus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus castaneus Ophiocordyceps kimflemingiae Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus castaneus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato Mangold et al., 2019
Camponotus chartifex Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus chartifex Ophiocordyceps camponoti-chartificis Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus chartifex Ophiocordyceps camponoti-chartificis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus chromaiodes Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Blounts Creek, North Carolina, USA
Camponotus crassus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus cruentatus Ophiocordyceps halabalaensis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus cruentatus Ophiocordyceps ridleyi Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus dolichoderoides Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus dolichoderoides Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus femoratus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-femorati Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus femoratus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-femorati Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus femoratus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus floridanus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-floridani Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus floridanus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-floridani Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus helleri Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus hippocrepis Ophiocordyceps camponoti-hippocrepidis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus hippocrepis Ophiocordyceps camponoti-hippocrepidis Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus indianus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-indiani Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus japonicus Ophiocordyceps formicarum Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus ligniperda Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus ligniperda Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus ligniperda Desmidiospora myrmecophila based on a photo by Michal Kukla, fungal identification by João Araújo
Camponotus melanoticus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-melanotici Brazil Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus nidulans Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus nidulans Ophiocordyceps camponoti-nidulantis Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus nidulans Ophiocordyceps camponoti-nidulantis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus novogranadensis Ophiocordyceps camponoti-novogranadensis Brazil Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus obscuripes Ophiocordyceps formicarum Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus obscuripes Ophiocordyceps pulvinata Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus obscuripes Ophiocordyceps sessilis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus paradoxus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus pennsylvanicus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus piceus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus pilicornis Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus polyrhachioides Gibellula formicarium Quevillon, 2018
Camponotus polyrhachioides Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus punctatissimus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020 identification of host needs confirmation
Camponotus rapax Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus rapax Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus rectangularis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus renggeri Ophiocordyceps camponoti-renggeri Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus rufifemur Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus rufifemur Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus rufipes Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis Brazil Andersen et al., 2012; Araujo et al., 2018; Evans et al., 2011; Loreto et al., 2014; Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus sanctaefidei leonhardi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus senex Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus sericeiventris Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus sericeiventris Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Camponotus sexguttatus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus sexguttatus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-sexguttati Araujo et al., 2018
Camponotus singularis Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus singularis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus sylvaticus Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus universitatis Laboulbenia camponoti Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Camponotus vividus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Camponotus vividus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Cardiocondyla elegans Myrmicinosporidium durum France Giehr et al., 2015
Cataglyphis cursor Aegeritella roussillonensis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Cataglyphis hispanica Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Cataulacus guineensis Corydceps amoene-roseus Quevillon, 2018
Cephalotes Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps cucumispora Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps evansii Sanjuan et al., 2015; Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps niphofioides Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Cephalotes atratus Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Cephalotes atratus Ophiocordyceps ovalispora var. ovalispora Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Colobopsis leonardi Ophiocordyceps camponoti-leonardi Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Colobopsis leonardi Ophiocordyceps camponoti-leonardi Andersen, Ferrari et al., 2012; Andersen, Hughes et al., 2012; Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Colobopsis leonardi Ophiocordyceps camponoti-saundersi Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Colobopsis leonardi Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Colobopsis leonardi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Colobopsis saundersi Ophiocordyceps camponoti-saundersi Araujo et al., 2018
Colobopsis vitrea praerufa Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Colobopsis vitrea praerufa Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster Corydceps amoene-roseus Quevillon, 2018
Crematogaster Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Crematogaster Ophiocordyceps sp. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster Stilbella sp. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster auberti Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Crematogaster bequaerti Pseudogibellula formicarum Quevillon, 2018
Crematogaster bequaerti Sporothrix insectorum Quevillon, 2018
Crematogaster bequaerti Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster bequaerti Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster bequaerti Stilbella buquetti var. formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster clariventris Pseudogibellula formicarum Quevillon, 2018
Crematogaster clariventris Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster clariventris Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster clariventris Stilbella buquetti var. formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster gabonensis Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster striatula Corydceps amoene-roseus Quevillon, 2018
Crematogaster striatula Pseudogibellula formicarum Quevillon, 2018
Crematogaster striatula Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster striatula Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Crematogaster striatula Stilbella buquetti var. formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Daceton armigerum Ophiocordyceps daceti Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Daceton armigerum Ophiocordyceps daceti Araujo et al., 2018
Diacamma rugosum Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Diacamma rugosum Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dinomyrmex gigas Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dinomyrmex gigas Ophiocordyceps halabalaensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dinomyrmex gigas Ophiocordyceps halabalaensis Araujo et al., 2018
Dinomyrmex gigas Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dinoponera Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dinoponera gigantea Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dolichoderus Ophiocordyceps pseudolloydii Philippines Sung et al., 2007; Evans & Samson, 1984
Dolichoderus attelaboides Ophiocordyceps cucumispora dolichoderi South America Evans & Samson 1982; Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus attelaboides Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dolichoderus attelaboides Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides dolichoderi South America Evans & Samson 1982; Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus attelaboides Ophiocordyceps ovalispora dolichoderi Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dolichoderus attelaboides Stilbella buquetti formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dolichoderus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dolichoderus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps monacidis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dolichoderus bispinosus Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides monacidis Araujo et al., 2018; Shrestha et al., 2017
Dolichoderus thoracicus Mycodomus formicartus Thailand Jitjak & Sanoamuang, 2019
Dolichoderus thoracicus Ophiocordyceps lloydii s.l. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dorylus Verticillium nodulosum Quevillon, 2018
Dorylus Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Dorylus Polycephalomyces cylInd.rosporus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Echinopla Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Echinopla lineata Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Echinopla melanarctos Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Echinopla melanarctos Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Ectatomma ruidum Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica Ophiocordyceps subunilateralis Shrestha et al. 2017
Formica argentea Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica argentea Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica aserva Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica aserva Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica curiosa Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica curiosa Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica decipiens Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica exsecta Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica exsecta Pandora myrmecophaga Romania Csata et al., 2013
Formica exsecta Pandora formicae Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica fusca Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica fusca Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica fusca Pandora formicae Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica incerta Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica incerta Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lasioides Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica lasioides Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica lemani Pandora formicae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica lemani Pandora myrmecophaga Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013 ant identification as ''Formica'' cf. ''lemani''
Formica lugubris Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica montana Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica montana Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica neogagates Laboulbenia formicarium Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica neogagates Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pallidefulva Laboulbenia formicarium Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica pallidefulva Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica polyctena Aegeritella superficialis Pascovici, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica polyctena Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica polyctena Pandora myrmecophaga Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013
Formica polyctena Pandora formicae Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica polyctena Pandora myrmecophaga Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica pratensis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica pratensis Aegeritella superficialis Pascovici, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica pratensis Pandora myrmecophaga Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013
Formica pratensis Pandora formicae Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica pressilabris Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica puberula Laboulbenia formicarium Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica puberula Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa Pandora formicae Małagocka et al., 2017
Formica rufa Alternaria tenuis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Formica rufa Aegeritella sp. photo by Michal Kukla
Formica rufa Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica rufa Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa Aegeritella tuberculata Pascovici, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica rufa Pandora myrmecophaga Turian & Wuest, 1977; Bałazy, 1993; Sosnowska et al., 2004; Boer, 2008; Csata et al., 2013
Formica rufibarbis Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica sanguinea Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Formica sanguinea Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica selysi Aspergillus parasiticus Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi Penicillium sizovae Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi Penicillium skrjabinii Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi Petromyces alliaceus Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi Purpureocillium lilacinum Quevillon, 2018
Formica selysi Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica selysi Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica selysi Metarhizium brunneum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subintegra Laboulbenia formicarium Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subintegra Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subpolita Laboulbenia formicarium Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subpolita Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica subsericea Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica subsericea Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica truncorum Aegeritella superficialis Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Formica vinculans Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Formica vinculans Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Gnamptogenys Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Goniomma hispanicum Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Lasius Pandora formicae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Lasius alienus Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius alienus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius distinguendus Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius flavus Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius fuliginosus Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius grandis Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius grandis Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius grandis Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius murphyi Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius murphyi Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius neglectus Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius neglectus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius neoniger Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius neoniger Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius niger Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius niger Laboulbenia formicarum
Lasius nitidigaster Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius pallitarsis Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Lasius pallitarsis Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius pallitarsis Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Lasius umbratus Aegeritella tuberculata Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Leptogenys Metarhizium anisopliae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Megaponera analis Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Megaponera analis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Messor Rickia sp. 1 Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Messor barbarus Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Messor structor Rickia lenoirii Báthori et al. 2015b, Santamaria and Espadaler 2015
Messor wasmanni Rickia lenoirii
Myrmecia nigriscapa Purpureocillium lilacinum Quevillon, 2018
Myrmecia nigriscapa Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmecocystus mimicus Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmecocystus mimicus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica Hormiscium myrmecophilum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica curvithorax Rickia wasmannii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica curvithorax Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica gallienii Rickia wasmanniii
Myrmica rubra Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Myrmica rubra Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica rubra Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Myrmica rubra Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Myrmica rubra Ophiocordyceps subramanianii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Myrmica rubra Rickia wasmannii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica ruginodis Rickia wasmanniii Csata et al., 2013
Myrmica sabuleti Hormiscium myrmecophilum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica sabuleti Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica sabuleti Rickia wasmannii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica scabrinodis Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica scabrinodis Rickia wasmanniii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica specioides Rickia wasmannii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica specioides Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica spinosior Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Myrmica vandeli Rickia wasmanniii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Myrmica vandeli Rickia wasmanniii Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012; De Kesel et al. 2016, Haelewaters et al. 2015a, 2015b
Neoponera apicalis Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Neoponera crenata Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Neoponera curvinodis Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Neoponera foetida Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Neoponera moesta Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Neoponera villosa Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Neoponera villosa Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Nylanderia vividula Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Odontomachus Cordyceps morakotii Shrestha et al., 2017
Odontomachus hastatus Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Oecophylla longinoda Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Oecophylla longinoda Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Oecophylla longinoda Stilbella burmensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Oecophylla longinoda Stilbum burmense Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Oecophylla smaragdina Ophiocordyceps oecophyllae Araujo et al., 2018
Oecophylla smaragdina Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Oecophylla smaragdina Stilbella spp. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Pachycondyla Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Pachycondyla Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Pachycondyla Ophiocordyceps subramanianii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Pachycondyla crassinoda Ophiocordyceps australis Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pachycondyla harpax Ophiocordyceps evansii Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pachycondyla impressa Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Pachycondyla impressa Ophiocordyceps evansii Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Pachycondyla striata Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Paltothyreus tarsatus Gibellula carnata Quevillon, 2018
Paltothyreus tarsatus Gibellula liberiana Quevillon, 2018
Paltothyreus tarsatus Pseudogibellula formicarum Quevillon, 2018
Paltothyreus tarsatus Sporothrix insectorum Quevillon, 2018
Paltothyreus tarsatus Verticillium nodulosum Quevillon, 2018
Paltothyreus tarsatus Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Paltothyreus tarsatus Ophiocordyceps sp. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Paltothyreus tarsatus Polycephalomyces cylInd.rosporus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Paltothyreus tarsatus Stilbella buquetti var. formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Paltothyreus tarsatus Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Paltothyreus tarsatus Cordyceps carnata Shrestha et al., 2017
Paltothyreus tarsatus Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Paraponera clavata Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Paraponera clavata Ophiocordyceps kniphofioides Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Paraponera clavata Cordyceps doiana Colombia Kobayasi, 1981; Araujo et al., 2018; Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Paraponera clavata Ophiocordyceps australis Araujo et al., 2018; Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Paraponera clavata Ophiocordyceps ponerinarum Araujo et al., 2018; Sanjuan et al., 2015; Shrestha et al., 2017
Paratrachymyrmex cornetzi Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Paratrechina longicornis Absidia corymbifera Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Acremonium sp. Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Aspergillus candidus Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Aspergillus ochraceus Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Aspergillus versicolor Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Cladosporium sp. Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Cunninghamella equinalata Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Cunninghamella polymorpha Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Geotrichum sp. Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Penicillium sp. Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Purpureocillium lilacinum Quevillon, 2018
Paratrechina longicornis Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Paratrechina longicornis Metarhizium anisopliae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Pheidole bicarinata Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole indica Myrmicinosporidium durum Japan Hosoishi et al., 2020
Pheidole nodus Myrmicinosporidium durum Japan Hosoishi et al., 2020
Pheidole pallidula Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal, Slovenia, Spain García, F., Espadaler, X. 2010; Espadaler & Roig, 2012; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012; Gonçalves et al., 2012
Pheidole tysoni Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole williamsi Myrmicinosporidium durum Galapagos Islands Espadaler, 1997
Phrynoponera Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Phrynoponera Ophiocordyceps australis Shrestha et al., 2017
Phrynoponera gabonensis Corydceps amoene-roseus Quevillon, 2018
Plagiolepis pallescens Myrmicinosporidium durum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Plagiolepis pallescens Myrmicinosporidium durum Austria Sanchez-Peña et al., 1993; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012 as ''Plagiolepis vindobonensis''
Plagiolepis pygmaea Myrmicinosporidium durum Italy, Spain, Yugoslavia Sanchez-Peña et al., 1993; García & Espadaler, 2010; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Platythyrea conradti Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Pogonomyrmex badius Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pogonomyrmex barbatus Myrmicinosporidium durum Texas, United States Sanchez-Peña et al., 1993; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Polyergus breviceps Aegeritella sp. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission location unknown
Polyergus breviceps Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Polyergus lucidus Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Polyergus lucidus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Polyergus mexicanus Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012 note that the ants involved were identified as ''P. breviceps'' and predate Trager's (2013) revision. It is likely that these are actually ''P. mexicanus'' but this has yet to be confirmed
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps ootakii Araujo et al., 2018
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps satoi Araujo et al., 2018
Polyrhachis Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps ootaki Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps satoi Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps sp. (GH 41) Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis abdominalis Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis abdominalis Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis armata Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis armata Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis armata Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis armata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis armata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis bicolor Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis bicolor Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis bicolor Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis bicolor Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis bihamata Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis bihamata Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis calypso Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis debilis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis decemdentata Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis decemdentata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis decemdentata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis dives Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis fissa Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis fissa Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis furcata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis halidayi Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis halidayi Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis halidayi Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis halidayi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis hauxwelli Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis hauxwelli Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis hippomanes Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis hippomanes Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis hippomanes Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis hippomanes Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis illaudata Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis illaudata Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis illaudata Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis illaudata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis illaudata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis laboriosa Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis laboriosa Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis lamellidens Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis lamellidens Ophiocordyceps unilateralis var. clavata Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis latharis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis latharis Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis latispina Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis latispina Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis latona Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis militaris Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis militaris Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis militaris Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis monista Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis monista Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis monista Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis proxima Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis proxima Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis proxima Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis proxima Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis proxima Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis rastellata Ophiocordyceps formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis rastellata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis revoili Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis revoili Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis robsoni Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis robsoni Ophiocordyceps naomipierceae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis robsoni Ophiocordyceps pseudolloydii Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis robsoni Ophiocordyceps naomipierceae Araujo et al., 2018 identity of ant species uncertain
Polyrhachis rufofemorata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis rufofemorata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis sulcata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Polyrhachis sulcata Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Shrestha et al., 2017
Polyrhachis vigilans Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Polyrhachis wolfi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis Taiwan Lin et al., 2020
Prenolepis imparis Laboulbenia formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Prenolepis imparis Laboulbenia formicarum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pseudomyrmex Hormiscium myrmecophilum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Pseudomyrmex termitarius Ophiocordyceps australis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Solenopsis Myrmecomyces annellisae Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis Myrmicinosporidium durum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis carolinensis Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Solenopsis fugax Myrmicinosporidium durum Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Poland, France, Croatia (Krk), Switzerland Holldobler, 1929; Holldobler, 1933; Buschinger & Winter, 1983; Buschinger et al., 2004; Csosz et al., 2012; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Solenopsis invicta Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Solenopsis invicta Aspergillus flavipes Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Aspergillus nomius Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Aspergillus tubingensis Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Cochiobolus kusanoi Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Curvularia sp. Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Fusarium equiseti Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Fusarium oxysporum Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Hypocrea lixii Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Neosartorya fischeri Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Penicillium spinulosum Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis invicta Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis invicta Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis invicta Conidiobolus macrosporus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis invicta Metarhizium anisopliae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis richteri Acremonium strictum Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis richteri Purpureocillium lilacinum Quevillon, 2018
Solenopsis richteri Aspergillus flavus Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis richteri Beauveria bassiana Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Solenopsis saevissima Metarhizium anisopliae Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Strongylognathus caeciliae Myrmicinosporidium durum Spain García & Espadaler, 2010; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Strumigenys membranifera Myrmicinosporidium durum United States Pereira, 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tapinoma nigerrimum Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Tapinoma simrothi Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal Gonçalves et al., 2012.
Technomyrmex Stilbella dolichoderinarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Temnothorax affinis Myrmicinosporidium durum France, Croatia, Switzerland Buschinger & Winter, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax albipennis Myrmicinosporidium durum Italy Buschinger et al., 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax angustulus Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax exilis Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax lichtensteini Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax muellerianus Myrmicinosporidium durum Italy Sanchez-Peña et al., 1993; Buschinger et al., 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax nylanderi Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax racovitzai Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax recedens Myrmicinosporidium durum France, Croatia, Switzerland Buschinger & Winter, 1983; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax tuberum Myrmicinosporidium durum Germany Holldobler, 1933; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Temnothorax unifasciatus Myrmicinosporidium durum Italy, France, Croatia, Switzerland Buschinger & Winter, 1983; Sanchez-Peña et al., 1993; Buschinger et al., 2004; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium Myrmicinosporidium durum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Tetramorium aculeatum Pseudogibellula formicarum Quevillon, 2018
Tetramorium aculeatum Sporothrix insectorum Quevillon, 2018
Tetramorium aculeatum Verticillium nodulosum Quevillon, 2018
Tetramorium aculeatum Akanthomyces gracilis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium aculeatum Ophiocordyceps myrmicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium aculeatum Stilbella buquetti var. formicarum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium caespitum Myrmicinosporidium durum Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission within nest
Tetramorium caespitum Tarichium sp. Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest
Tetramorium caespitum Myrmicinosporidium durum Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium immigrans Myrmicinosporidium durum Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia Csősz et al., 2012
Tetramorium semilaeve Myrmicinosporidium durum Portugal, Spain García & Espadaler, 2010; Gonçalves et al., 2012; Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Tetramorium staerckei Myrmicinosporidium durum Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia Csősz et al., 2012
Tetraponera attenuata Ophiocordyceps irangiensis Quevillon, 2018 encounter mode primary; direct transmission; transmission outside nest

Unknown Ant Hosts

The following fungi have been reported from unknown species of ants.

Fungus Source Notes
Cordyceps myrmecogena Kobayasi & Shimizu, 1978
Cordyceps pilifera Kobayasi, 1981
Torrubiella liberiana Mains, 1949 Liberia

References

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