Difference between revisions of "Formica"

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{{For|the plastic|Formica (plastic)}}
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{{Italic title}}
{{location|38.2833|-122.45}}
 
 
 
 
{{Taxobox
 
{{Taxobox
| image=A Formica rufa collecting.jpg
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|name = ''Formica''
| image_width = 260px
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|image = Formica rufa casent0173862 head 1.jpg
| image_caption = ''[[Formica rufa]]'' collecting
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|image_caption = ''[[Formica rufa]]''
| regnum = [[Animal]]ia
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|image_width = {{width}}
| phylum = [[Arthropod]]a
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|fossil_range = {{fossil_range|48.6|0}}Eocene – Recent
| classis = [[Insect]]a
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|regnum = [[Animal]]ia
| ordo = [[Hymenoptera]]
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|phylum = [[Arthropod]]a
| familia = [[Formicidae]]
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|classis = [[Insect]]a
| subfamilia = [[Formicinae]]
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|ordo = [[Hymenoptera]]
| tribus = [[Formicini]]
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|familia = [[Formicidae]]
| genus = '''''Formica'''''
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|subfamilia = [[Formicinae]]
| genus_authority = [[Linnaeus]], 1758
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|tribus = [[Formicini]]
| type_species = ''[[Formica rufa]]''
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|genus = '''''Formica'''''
| diversity_link = Formica
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|genus_authority = Linnaeus, 1758
| diversity = c. 200
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|type_species =''[[Formica rufa]]''
| subdivision_ranks = Species
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|diversity_link = :category:List of species
| subdivision =  
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|diversity = {{Species Diversity|Fossil=Yes}}
''[[Formica aquilonia]]''<br />
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<hr>  
''[[Formica cunicularia]]''<br />
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[[File:Formica rufa casent0173862 profile 1.jpg|{{width}}]]
''[[Formica exsecta]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica exsectoides]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica fusca]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica lugubris]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica polyctena]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica pratensis]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica rufa]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica rufibarbis]]''<br />
 
''[[Formica sanguinea]]''<br />
 
&nbsp;many more, see text
 
}}
 
{{Unreferenced|date=June 2008}}
 
__TOC__
 
'''''Formica''''' is a [[genus]] of [[ant]]s. It is the type genus of the family [[Formicidae]] and the subfamily [[Formicinae]], and in turn ''Formica'''s own type species is the European red wood ant ''[[Formica rufa]]''. Common names for this group are wood ant, mound ant, and field ant.  Many of the better known forest species have common names that include the words "wood ant", although ''F.rufa'' is also known as the "horse ant". (However in German, the equivalent term ''Rossameise'' refers to the carpenter ants of the genus ''[[Camponotus]]''.)
 
  
As the name wood ant implies, many ''Formica'' species live in wooded areas where there exists no shortage of material with which they can thatch their mounds. The most shade tolerant species are ''F. lugubris'' in Eurasia and ''F. subaenescens (fusca)'' in North America. However, sunlight is  important to most ''Formica'' species, and colonies rarely survive for any considerable period in deeply shaded, dense woodland.  The majority of species, especially outside the ''rufa'' species group, are inhabitants of more open woodlands or treeless grassland or shrubland. In North America, at least, these habitats had a long history of frequent landscape-scale fires that kept them open before European settlement. Conversion to agriculture and fire suppression have reduced the abundance of most American ''Formica'', while the cessation of traditional haycutting seems to have had the same effect in Europe. However, at least a few ''Formica'' species may be found in a wide range of habitats from cities to seasides to grasslands to swamps to forests of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. 
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''[[Formica rufa]]''
  
[[Image:Ant Formica sp.jpg|left|thumb|A worker ant in the ''Formica pallidefulva'' group]]
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[[File:Formica rufa casent0173862 dorsal 1.jpg|{{width}}]]
Mound building, forest dwelling ''Formica'' like ''F. rufa'' often have a considerable effect on their environment.  They maintain large populations of aphids on whose secretions they feed, and the ants defend them from other predators.  They also prey on other insects.  In fact in many countries they  are introduced in forests to control tree pests, such as swains jack pine sawfly and eastern tent caterpillars in North America. The effects of mound-building grassland species such as ''F. montana'' are not well-studied but their local abundance, conspicuous mound-building and very frequent association with aphids and membracids points to a comparable important ecological role.
 
  
[[Image:Formica obscuripes 26474.JPG|left|thumb|A ''Formica obscuripes'' mound]]
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[[:File:Formica rufa casent0173862 label 1.jpg|Specimen Label]]
''Formica'' nests are of many different types from simple shaft-and-chamber excavations in soil with a small crater or turret of soil above to large mounds, under stones or logs, or in stumps. None are arboreal. The genus is abundant in both the Nearctic and Palearctic Regions. Due to their relatively large size and diurnal activity, they are among the more commonly seen ants in northern North America.
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|synonyms =
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*''[[Adformica]]'' Lomnicki, 1925
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*''[[Coptoformica]]'' Müller, 1923
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*''[[Formicina]]'' Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840
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*''[[Neoformica]]'' Wheeler, W.M., 1913
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*''[[Raptiformica]]'' Forel, 1913
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*''[[Serviformica]]'' Forel, 1913
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}}
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{{Formicini Relationships}}
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A large holarctic genus that are common in many northern temperate areas. For many reasons this genus as a whole has many well studied species. The taxonomy is fractured into many smaller subdivisions (both subgenera and species groups; see [[Formica species groups|''Formica'' species groups]]), many of which have no official taxonomic designation and are poorly delineated. In some cases older group names have been replaced by newer names, and new arrangements of species, but the older groups remain in use by some myrmecologists and not others.  
  
There are many species of ''Formica'' ([[Integrated Taxonomic Information System|ITIS]] records nearly 200). Some species, including ''Formica rufa'', which is common in [[Southern England]], make large visible nests of dry plant stems, leaves, or conifer needles, usually based around a rotting stump.  Wood ants typically secrete [[formic acid]]; ''F. rufa'' can squirt the acid from its acidopore several feet if alarmed, a habit which may have given rise to the archaic term for ant pismire, and by analogy its American equivalent piss-ant. They can be relatively large: ''F. rufa'' workers can reach a maximum length of around 10 mm. The eastern US species ''F. dolosa'' and the western ''F. ravida (=haemorrhoidalis)'' may reach slightly greater lengths.
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{{Photo Gallery
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|name1=Formica sanguinea group, tending aphids, Grafton, Massachusetts (Tom Murray).JPG
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|size1=450px
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|comment1=''Formica sanguinea'' group workers tending aphids at Grafton, Massachusetts. Photo by Tom Murray.
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|name2=Formica 6954.jpg
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|size2=450px
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}}
  
''Formica'' are notable for their parasitic and slave making behaviors.  There are three categories. 
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==Identification==
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[[Formica species groups]]
  
In the ''exsecta'' and ''rufa-microgyna'' groups, virgin queens cannot start colonies on their own, but invade colonies of other groups and by various processes eventually oust the host queen and have the host workers help them raise their own brood.  Eventually the colony consists of only the invading queen's offspring.  This is called temporary social parasitism.
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{{Genus identification keys}}
  
In the ''sanguinea'' group, colonies are started as above, but then in some species of the group workers go out and raid colonies of other groups for new workers to act as a work force, so-called slaves (but this is a poor analogy). Some species of this group need to do this to survive, for others it is optional.
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==Distribution==
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{{World Distribution}}
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==Biology==
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'''Subgeneric Phylogentics''' Romiguier et al. (2018) "resolved the phylogenetic relationships among palearctic ''Formica'' subgenera (''Formica'' str. s., ''Coptoformica'', ''Raptiformica'' and ''Serviformica''). Interestingly, our phylogenetic tree reveals that the free-living ''Serviformica'' species do not form a monophyletic clade, and that parasitic colony founding in wood ants and ''Raptiformica'' slave-makers is likely to have a single origin. Our results suggest that parasitic colony founding is likely to be an intermediary step between free-living hosts and slave-maker parasites in the ''Formica'' genus. Similar studies in other genera containing slave-making species (e.g. ''Temnothorax, Harpagoxenus, Myrmoxenus, Protomognathus''…) will be necessary to get a better global picture of the evolution of slave-making in ants."
  
The ''pallidefulva, neogagates'', and ''fusca'' groups are those most often parasitized by the above groups.  They are also enslaved by ants of the genus ''[[Polyergus]]''. The evolution of this behavior is believed ultimately to have been derived from the common habit of many ''Formica'' species of adopting recently mated queens into established colonies. Indeed, in many of the parasitic species outside the "slave-makers", this "secondary polygyny" is common.
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==Castes==
  
==Species==
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==Morphology==
* ''[[Formica aquilonia]]'' <small>Yarrow</small>
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===Worker Morphology===
* ''[[Formica cunicularia]]'' <small>[[Pierre André Latreille|Latreille]]</small>
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{{Worker Morphology
* ''[[Formica exsecta]]'' <small>[[Nylander]]</small>
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|Antennal Segment Count = 12
* ''[[Formica exsectoides]]''
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|Antennal Club = absent
* ''[[Formica fusca]]'' <small>[[Linnaeus]]</small> (F. (Serviformica) fusca)
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|Palp Formula = 6,4; 5,4
* ''[[Formica lemani]]'' <small>Bondroit</small>
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|Total Dental Count = 7-10(0-3)
* ''[[Formica lugubris]]'' <small>Zetterstedt</small>
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|Spur Formula = 1 simple, 1 simple
* ''[[Formica obscuripes]]'' <small>Forel, 1886</small>
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|Eyes = present, ocelli present
* ''[[Formica polyctena]]''
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|Scrobes = absent
* ''[[Formica pratensis]]'' <small>Retzius</small>
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|Caste = some with marked size-variation
* ''[[Formica rufa]]'' <small>[[Linnaeus]]</small> 
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|Body Size =
* ''[[Formica rufibarbis]]'' <small>F.</small>
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|Sting = absent
* ''[[Formica sanguinea]]'' <small>[[Pierre André Latreille|Latreille]]</small>  <small>[[Johan Christian Fabricius|Fabricius]]</small> - enslaves other ant species<ref>cf. [[P. Huber]] via [[Charles Darwin|Darwin]]'s [[Origin of Species]], in [http://www.bartleby.com/11/8003.html Chapter VIII. Instinct]</ref>
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|Notes =
* ''[[Formica transkaucasica]]'' <small>Nasonov</small>
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}}
* ''[[Formica gagatoides]]'' <small>Ruzsky, 1904</small>
 
  
==External links==
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===Karyotype===
{{commons|Formica}}
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====Species Uncertain====
* [http://www.myrmecos.net/formicinae/formica.html Myrmecos.net: Formica ant image gallery]
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*''Formica'' sp.3: {{Karyotype|haploid=27|diploid=|karyotype=|locality=|notes='Formica fusca'' group|source=Crozier, 1975}}
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*''Formica'' sp.4: {{Karyotype|haploid=26|diploid=|karyotype=|locality=|notes=|source=Crozier, 1975}}
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====All Records for Genus====
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{{CargoGenusKaryotypeList}}
  
=== References ===
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==Nomenclature==
<references/>
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{{Nomenclature}}
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*''<span style='color:red;font-weight:bold;'>FORMICA </span>''[Formicinae: Formicini]
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**''Formica'' Linnaeus, 1758: 579. Type-species: ''Formica rufa'', by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752.
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**''Formica'' senior synonym of ''Formicina'': Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
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**''Formica ''senior synonym of ''Raptiformica'', ''Serviformica'': Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote).
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**''Formica'' senior synonym of ''Coptoformica'' (and its junior synonym ''Adformica''): Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448.
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**''Formica'' senior synonym of ''Neoformica'': Buren, 1968a: 39.
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**''Formica'' senior synonym of ''Coptoformica, Formicina, Neoformica, Raptiformica, Serviformica'': Agosti, 1994a: 106.
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*''ADFORMICA'' [junior synonym of ''Formica'']
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**''Adformica'' Lomnicki, 1925a: 164 [as subgenus of ''Formica'']. Type-species: ''Formica exsecta'', by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1927b: 316.
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**''Adformica'' junior synonym of ''Coptoformica'': Stitz, 1939: 306 (as ''Adformica'' and ''Coptoformica'' share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
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*''COPTOFORMICA'' [junior synonym of ''Formica'']
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**''Coptoformica'' Müller, 1923: 146 [as subgenus of ''Formica'']. Type-species: ''Formica exsecta'', by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1941f: 37.
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**''Coptoformica'' senior synonym of ''Adformica'': Stitz, 1939: 306 (as ''Adformica'' and ''Coptoformica'' share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
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**''Coptoformica'' junior synonym of ''Formica'': Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
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*''FORMICINA'' [junior synonym of ''Formica'']
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**''Formicina'' Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172. Type-species: ''Formica rufa'', by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
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**[Type-species not ''Formica flava'', unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1916a: 61 (footnote); repeated by Emery, 1916b: 239 and Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 170.]
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**''Formicina'' junior synonym of ''Formica'': Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
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**''Formicina'' incorrectly as replacement name for ''Lasius'' Fabricius: Emery, 1916a: 60; Emery, 1916b: 239; Bondroit, 1918: 19.
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**''Formicina'' incorrectly as subgenus of ''Lasius'': Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172.
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**''Formicina'' incorrectly as junior synonym of ''Lasius'': Emery, 1925b: 226; Brown, 1973b: 180.
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**''Formicina ''incorrectly as junior synonym of ''Acanthomyops'': Donisthorpe, 1927b: 209.
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**''Formicina ''junior synonym of ''Formica'': Agosti, 1994a: 106.
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**[''Formica'' and ''Formicina'' share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]
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*''NEOFORMICA'' [junior synonym of ''Formica'']
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**''Neoformica'' Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82 [as subgenus of ''Formica'']. Type-species: ''Formica pallidefulva'', by original designation.
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**[''Neoformica ''also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 548.]
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**''Neoformica ''junior synonym of ''Formica'': Buren, 1968a: 39; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
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*''RAPTIFORMICA'' [junior synonym of ''Formica'']
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**''Raptiformica'' Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of ''Formica'']. Type-species: ''Formica sanguinea'', by original designation.
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**''Raptiformica'' subgenus of ''Formica'': Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 258; Creighton, 1950a: 460.
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**''Raptiformica'' junior synonym of ''Formica'': Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
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*''SERVIFORMICA'' [junior synonym of ''Formica'']
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**''Serviformica'' Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of ''Formica'']. Type-species: ''Formica fusca'', by original designation.
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**''Serviformica'' subgenus of ''Formica'': Forel, 1913i: 361; Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 245.
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**''Serviformica'' junior synonym of ''Formica'': Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Francoeur, 1973: 34; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 106.
  
[[Category:Ants]]
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==References==
[[Category:Formicinae]]
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*Agosti, D. 1991.  Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 (page 295, Formica in Formicinae, Formica genus group)
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*Agosti, D. 1994b.  The phylogeny of the ant tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of a new genus. Syst. Entomol. 19: 93-117 (page 106, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Formicina, Hypochira, Iberoformica, Neoformica, Raptiformica, and Serviformica)
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*Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b.  A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 261-293 (page 285, Balkans)
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*Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978.  Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.)  Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1.  Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 552, former European USSR)
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*Ashmead, W. H. 1905c.  A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
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*Bernard, F. 1967a [1968].  Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 287, France and Mediterranean basin)
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*Bolton, B. 2003.  Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 128, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
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*Bondroit, J. 1918.  Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 41, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
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*Buren, W. F. 1968a.  Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 3: 25-40 (page 39, Formica senior synonym of Neoformica)
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*Buren, W. F. 1968a.  Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 3: 25-40 (page 36, Key to Nearctic fauna)
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*Collingwood, C. A. 1978.  A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Rev. Esp. Entomol. 52: 65-95 (page 93, Iberian Peninsula)
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*Collingwood, C. A. 1979.  The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 8: 1-174 (page 112, Fennoscandia and Denmark)
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*Cotti, G. 1963.  Bibliografia ragionata 1930-1961 del gruppo Formica rufa in Italiano, Deutsch, English. Collana Verde 8: 1-413 (page 1, rufa-group)
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*Creighton, W. S. 1950a.  The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 456, Keys to Nearctic fauna)
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*Curtis, J. 1839.  Formica rufa. The red, hill, or horse Ant, or Pismire. Plate 752 [plus 2 unnumbered pages of text] in: Curtis, J. British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland. Volum (page 752, Type-species: Formica rufa; by subsequent designation)
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*Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893.  Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 192, Formica in Camponotinae)
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*Dlussky, G. M. 1965a.  Ants of the genus Formica L. of Mongolia and northeast Tibet (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 23: 15-43 (page 15, Mongolia and Tibet)
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*Dlussky, G. M. 1967a.  Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 39, key to Palearctic fauna)
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*Dlussky, G. M. 1967b.  Ants of the genus Formica from the Baltic amber. Paleontol. Zh. 1967(2 2: 80-89 (page 80, (Baltic Amber))
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*Emery, C. 1895l.  Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 772, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
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*Emery, C. 1925d.  Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 241, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
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*Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879.  Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 450, Formica in Camponotinae [Camponotidae])
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*Forel, A. 1878c.  Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 15: 337-392 (page 373, Formica in Camponotinae [Camponotidae])
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*Forel, A. 1886h.  Études myrmécologiques en 1886. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 30: 131-215 (page 205, Formica in Camponotinae, Camponotini)
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*Forel, A. 1893b.  Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 165, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
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*Forel, A. 1899h.  Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 105-136 (page 127, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
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*Forel, A. 1912j.  Formicides néotropiques. Part VI. 5me sous-famille Camponotinae Forel. Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 20: 59-92 (page 89, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
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*Forel, A. 1917.  Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 250, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
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*Francoeur, A. 1973.  Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 34, Formica senior synonym of Serviformica)
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*Francoeur, A. 1973.  Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 272, key to Nearctic fauna (fusca group))
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*[[Media:Gomezetal 2018 Serviformica.pdf|Gomez, K., Lorite, P., Garcia, F., Tinaut, A., Espadaler, X., Palomeque, T., Sanllorente, O., Trager, J. 2018. Differentiating ''Iberoformica'' and ''Formica'' (''Serviformica'') with description of the sexual castes of ''Formica'' (''Serviformica'') ''gerardi'' Bondroit, 1917 stat. rev. Sociobiology 65: 463-470 (DOI 10.13102/sociobiology.v65i3.3315).]]
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*[[Media:Goropashnaya, A.V., Fedorov, V.B. et al. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic Formica species.PDF|Goropashnaya, A.V., Fedorov, V.B., Seifert, B., Pamilo, P. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic ''Formica'' species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences. PloS one, 7(7), p.e41697.]]
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*Gösswald, K. 1985.  Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. (page 274, Germany)
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*Gösswald, K. 1989.  Die Waldameise. Band 1. Biologische Grundlagen, Ökologie und Verhalten. Wiesbaden: AULA-Verlag, xi + 660 pp. (page 1, rufa-group)
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*Kutter, H. 1977c.  Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 236, Switzerland)
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*Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, A. 1835 [1836].  Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères. Tome I. Paris: Roret, 547 pp. (page 199, Formica in Formicites)
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*Linnaeus, C. 1758.  Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae [= Stockholm]: L. Salvii, 824 pp. (page 579, Formica as genus)
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*Mayr, G. 1861.  Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 45, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
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*Mayr, G. 1862.  Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 653, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
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*Mayr, G. 1865.  Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1.  Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 8, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
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*Mayr, G. 1868c.  Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beitr. Naturkd. Preuss. 1: 1-102 (page 47, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
 +
*Romiguier, J., J. Rolland, C. Morandin, and L. Keller. 2018. Phylogenomics of palearctic ''Formica'' species suggests a single origin of temporary parasitism and gives insights to the evolutionary pathway toward slave-making behaviour. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 18:8. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1159-4 10.1186/s12862-018-1159-4]
 +
*Smith, D. R. 1979.  Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.)  Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata).  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pr (page 1448, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Serviformica and Raptiformica.)
 +
*Smith, F. 1858a.  Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 1, Formica in Formicidae)
 +
*Smith, M. R. 1951c.  Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.)  Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue.  U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 860, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Serviformica and Raptiformica.)
 +
*Snelling, R. R.; Buren, W. F. 1985.  Description of a new species of slave-making ant in the Formica sanguinea group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 18: 69-78 (page 71, Key to Nearctic fauna (sanguinea-group))
 +
*Wheeler, W. M. 1910b.  Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 143, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
 +
*Wheeler, W. M. 1911c.  Three formicid names which have been overlooked. Science (N. Y.) (n.s.) 33: 858-860 (page 860, Formica senior synonym of Formicina)
 +
*Wheeler, W. M. 1911g.  A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175 (page 164, Formica senior synonym of Formicina)
 +
*Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914].  The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 120, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
 +
*Wheeler, W. M. 1922i.  Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 699, Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica and Serviformica (footnote); Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  
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Revision as of 16:11, 11 June 2019

Formica
Temporal range: 48.6–0 Ma
Eocene – Recent
Formica rufa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Formica
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Formica rufa
Diversity
279 species
68 fossil species
(Species Checklist)

Formica rufa casent0173862 profile 1.jpg

Formica rufa

Formica rufa casent0173862 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Formicinae

Myrmelachistini
  (2 genera)




Lasiini
  (10 genera)




Melophorini
  (9 genera)




Formicini


Polyergus
  (15 species)




Formica
  (279 species)



Iberoformica
  (1 species)






Bajcaridris
  (3 species)




Proformica
  (28 species)




Cataglyphis
  (110 species)



Rossomyrmex
  (4 species)










Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla



Plagiolepidini
  (9 genera)





Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella



Camponotini
  (8 genera)








Based on Ward et al. 2016.

A large holarctic genus that are common in many northern temperate areas. For many reasons this genus as a whole has many well studied species. The taxonomy is fractured into many smaller subdivisions (both subgenera and species groups; see Formica species groups), many of which have no official taxonomic designation and are poorly delineated. In some cases older group names have been replaced by newer names, and new arrangements of species, but the older groups remain in use by some myrmecologists and not others.

Photo Gallery

  • Formica sanguinea group workers tending aphids at Grafton, Massachusetts. Photo by Tom Murray.
  • Formica 6954.jpg

Identification

Formica species groups

Keys including this Genus

 

Keys to Species in this Genus

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Biology

Subgeneric Phylogentics Romiguier et al. (2018) "resolved the phylogenetic relationships among palearctic Formica subgenera (Formica str. s., Coptoformica, Raptiformica and Serviformica). Interestingly, our phylogenetic tree reveals that the free-living Serviformica species do not form a monophyletic clade, and that parasitic colony founding in wood ants and Raptiformica slave-makers is likely to have a single origin. Our results suggest that parasitic colony founding is likely to be an intermediary step between free-living hosts and slave-maker parasites in the Formica genus. Similar studies in other genera containing slave-making species (e.g. Temnothorax, Harpagoxenus, Myrmoxenus, Protomognathus…) will be necessary to get a better global picture of the evolution of slave-making in ants."

Castes

Morphology

Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 12 • Antennal club absent • Palp formula 6,4; 5,4 • Total dental count 7-10(0-3) • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes present, ocelli present • Scrobes absent • Caste some with marked size-variation • Sting absent

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Formica sp.3: n = 27 (Crozier, 1975) ('Formica fusca group).
  • Formica sp.4: n = 26 (Crozier, 1975).

All Records for Genus

Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Formica 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica 27 Crozier, 1975 'Formica fusca'' group
Formica aquilonia 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica candida 6 52 Japan Imai, 1969 as ''F. picea''
Formica cinerea 27 54 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica cunicularia 27 54 France Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica dakotensis 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica frontalis 52 Spain Lorite et al., 2002b; Lorite et al., 2004a
Formica fusca 27 54 Germany; Japan; Switerland Imai, 1969 ; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica gagates 27 54 France; old Yugoslavia Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica gerardi 27 Spain Lorite et al., 1998a; Lorite et al., 2002b
Formica japonica 27 54 Japan Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Crozier, 1975
Formica lemani 54 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica lugubris 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica montana 27 54 USA Hung, 1969
Formica obscuripes 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica picea 26 52 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica polyctena 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica pratensis 26 52 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica pressilabris 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica reflexa 26 Crozier, 1975
Formica rufa 26 52 Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica rufibarbis 27 54 Finland; Switzerland Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica sanguinea 26 52 Japan; Switzerland Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976
Formica subintegra 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica transkaucasica 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980 as ''F. transkaucasica'' (incertae sedis)
Formica truncorum 26 52 Finland; Japan; Switzerland Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1969; Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1976; Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica truncorum 28 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980 Only one pupa analyzed was ''n=27
Formica ulkei 26 USA Hung, 1969
Formica uralensis 26 Finland Rosengren et al., 1980
Formica yessensis 26 52 Japan Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • FORMICA [Formicinae: Formicini]
    • Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752.
    • Formica senior synonym of Formicina: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica, Serviformica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote).
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica): Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448.
    • Formica senior synonym of Neoformica: Buren, 1968a: 39.
    • Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica, Formicina, Neoformica, Raptiformica, Serviformica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
  • ADFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Adformica Lomnicki, 1925a: 164 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1927b: 316.
    • Adformica junior synonym of Coptoformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
  • COPTOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Coptoformica Müller, 1923: 146 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica exsecta, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1941f: 37.
    • Coptoformica senior synonym of Adformica: Stitz, 1939: 306 (as Adformica and Coptoformica share the same type-species synonymy is absolute).
    • Coptoformica junior synonym of Formica: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • FORMICINA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Formicina Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172. Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • [Type-species not Formica flava, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1916a: 61 (footnote); repeated by Emery, 1916b: 239 and Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 170.]
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164.
    • Formicina incorrectly as replacement name for Lasius Fabricius: Emery, 1916a: 60; Emery, 1916b: 239; Bondroit, 1918: 19.
    • Formicina incorrectly as subgenus of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Lasius: Emery, 1925b: 226; Brown, 1973b: 180.
    • Formicina incorrectly as junior synonym of Acanthomyops: Donisthorpe, 1927b: 209.
    • Formicina junior synonym of Formica: Agosti, 1994a: 106.
    • [Formica and Formicina share the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute.]
  • NEOFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Neoformica Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica pallidefulva, by original designation.
    • [Neoformica also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 548.]
    • Neoformica junior synonym of Formica: Buren, 1968a: 39; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • RAPTIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Raptiformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica sanguinea, by original designation.
    • Raptiformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 258; Creighton, 1950a: 460.
    • Raptiformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107.
  • SERVIFORMICA [junior synonym of Formica]
    • Serviformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus of Formica]. Type-species: Formica fusca, by original designation.
    • Serviformica subgenus of Formica: Forel, 1913i: 361; Forel, 1917: 250; Emery, 1925b: 245.
    • Serviformica junior synonym of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Francoeur, 1973: 34; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 106.

References

  • Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 (page 295, Formica in Formicinae, Formica genus group)
  • Agosti, D. 1994b. The phylogeny of the ant tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of a new genus. Syst. Entomol. 19: 93-117 (page 106, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Formicina, Hypochira, Iberoformica, Neoformica, Raptiformica, and Serviformica)
  • Agosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 60: 261-293 (page 285, Balkans)
  • Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. (page 552, former European USSR)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 384, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 287, France and Mediterranean basin)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 128, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 87: 1-174 (page 41, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Buren, W. F. 1968a. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 3: 25-40 (page 39, Formica senior synonym of Neoformica)
  • Buren, W. F. 1968a. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 3: 25-40 (page 36, Key to Nearctic fauna)
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Rev. Esp. Entomol. 52: 65-95 (page 93, Iberian Peninsula)
  • Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 8: 1-174 (page 112, Fennoscandia and Denmark)
  • Cotti, G. 1963. Bibliografia ragionata 1930-1961 del gruppo Formica rufa in Italiano, Deutsch, English. Collana Verde 8: 1-413 (page 1, rufa-group)
  • Creighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104: 1-585 (page 456, Keys to Nearctic fauna)
  • Curtis, J. 1839. Formica rufa. The red, hill, or horse Ant, or Pismire. Plate 752 [plus 2 unnumbered pages of text] in: Curtis, J. British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland. Volum (page 752, Type-species: Formica rufa; by subsequent designation)
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 192, Formica in Camponotinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1965a. Ants of the genus Formica L. of Mongolia and northeast Tibet (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 23: 15-43 (page 15, Mongolia and Tibet)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. (page 39, key to Palearctic fauna)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1967b. Ants of the genus Formica from the Baltic amber. Paleontol. Zh. 1967(2 2: 80-89 (page 80, (Baltic Amber))
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 772, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 241, Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 450, Formica in Camponotinae [Camponotidae])
  • Forel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 15: 337-392 (page 373, Formica in Camponotinae [Camponotidae])
  • Forel, A. 1886h. Études myrmécologiques en 1886. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 30: 131-215 (page 205, Formica in Camponotinae, Camponotini)
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 165, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Forel, A. 1899h. Formicidae. [part]. Biol. Cent.-Am. Hym. 3: 105-136 (page 127, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Forel, A. 1912j. Formicides néotropiques. Part VI. 5me sous-famille Camponotinae Forel. Mém. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 20: 59-92 (page 89, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 250, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Francoeur, A. 1973. Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 34, Formica senior synonym of Serviformica)
  • Francoeur, A. 1973. Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mém. Soc. Entomol. Qué. 3: 1-316 (page 272, key to Nearctic fauna (fusca group))
  • Gomez, K., Lorite, P., Garcia, F., Tinaut, A., Espadaler, X., Palomeque, T., Sanllorente, O., Trager, J. 2018. Differentiating Iberoformica and Formica (Serviformica) with description of the sexual castes of Formica (Serviformica) gerardi Bondroit, 1917 stat. rev. Sociobiology 65: 463-470 (DOI 10.13102/sociobiology.v65i3.3315).
  • Goropashnaya, A.V., Fedorov, V.B., Seifert, B., Pamilo, P. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic Formica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences. PloS one, 7(7), p.e41697.
  • Gösswald, K. 1985. Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. (page 274, Germany)
  • Gösswald, K. 1989. Die Waldameise. Band 1. Biologische Grundlagen, Ökologie und Verhalten. Wiesbaden: AULA-Verlag, xi + 660 pp. (page 1, rufa-group)
  • Kutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helv. Fauna 6: 1-298 (page 236, Switzerland)
  • Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, A. 1835 [1836]. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères. Tome I. Paris: Roret, 547 pp. (page 199, Formica in Formicites)
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae [= Stockholm]: L. Salvii, 824 pp. (page 579, Formica as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 45, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 649-776 (page 653, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 8, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beitr. Naturkd. Preuss. 1: 1-102 (page 47, Formica in Formicinae [Formicidae])
  • Romiguier, J., J. Rolland, C. Morandin, and L. Keller. 2018. Phylogenomics of palearctic Formica species suggests a single origin of temporary parasitism and gives insights to the evolutionary pathway toward slave-making behaviour. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 18:8. doi:10.1186/s12862-018-1159-4
  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Pr (page 1448, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Serviformica and Raptiformica.)
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 1, Formica in Formicidae)
  • Smith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 860, Formica senior synonym of Coptoformica (and its junior synonym Adformica), Serviformica and Raptiformica.)
  • Snelling, R. R.; Buren, W. F. 1985. Description of a new species of slave-making ant in the Formica sanguinea group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 18: 69-78 (page 71, Key to Nearctic fauna (sanguinea-group))
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 143, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911c. Three formicid names which have been overlooked. Science (N. Y.) (n.s.) 33: 858-860 (page 860, Formica senior synonym of Formicina)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1911g. A list of the type species of the genera and subgenera of Formicidae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 21: 157-175 (page 164, Formica senior synonym of Formicina)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 120, Formica in Camponotinae, Formicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 699, Formica senior synonym of Raptiformica and Serviformica (footnote); Formica in Formicinae, Formicini)