Difference between revisions of "Monomorium floricola"

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==Identification==
 
==Identification==
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A member of the [[Monomorium_monomorium_species_group#boerorum_complex|''M. boerorum'' complex]] in the [[Monomorium_monomorium_species_group|''M. monomorium'' species group]].
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Heterick (2006) - Workers of this species bear a striking resemblance in appearance and morphology to dark-headed, bicolored specimens of ''[[Monomorium termitobium]]'', but can be distinguished by the combination of a uniformly dark brown or chocolate head and gaster. In ''M. termitobium'' the gaster is not uniformly dark brown or black, although it may be a dingy brownish-yellow or yellow with dark infuscation. The petiolar node in all Malagasy specimens of ''M. floricola'' that I have seen is also very low and broadly conical to tumular, barely higher than the postpetiole. The ventral surface of the petiole lacks a lobe of any description. ''Monomorium termitobium'' workers possess a petiolar node that is distinctly higher than the postpetiole, even when it is low conical in shape, and a subpetiolar lobe of varying degrees is always present.  
 
Heterick (2006) - Workers of this species bear a striking resemblance in appearance and morphology to dark-headed, bicolored specimens of ''[[Monomorium termitobium]]'', but can be distinguished by the combination of a uniformly dark brown or chocolate head and gaster. In ''M. termitobium'' the gaster is not uniformly dark brown or black, although it may be a dingy brownish-yellow or yellow with dark infuscation. The petiolar node in all Malagasy specimens of ''M. floricola'' that I have seen is also very low and broadly conical to tumular, barely higher than the postpetiole. The ventral surface of the petiole lacks a lobe of any description. ''Monomorium termitobium'' workers possess a petiolar node that is distinctly higher than the postpetiole, even when it is low conical in shape, and a subpetiolar lobe of varying degrees is always present.  
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Bolton (1987) - In the Afrotropical fauna ''floricola'' shares a specific character combination of 12-segmented antennae and described eye form with only 5 other species. None of these show the colour pattern of ''floricola'' and all have antennal scapes which are relatively shorter, see comparative measurements under ''[[Monomorium rotundatum]]''.
  
 
{{Species identification keys}}
 
{{Species identification keys}}
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<!--DO NOT EDIT THIS TEXT. To update this list add or remove taxa from individual regional taxon list pages.-->
 
<!--DO NOT EDIT THIS TEXT. To update this list add or remove taxa from individual regional taxon list pages.-->
 
===Distribution based on [[:Category:Regional Taxon List|Regional Taxon Lists]]===
 
===Distribution based on [[:Category:Regional Taxon List|Regional Taxon Lists]]===
'''[[:Category:Afrotropical Region|Afrotropical Region]]''': [[Cameroun]], [[Comoros]], [[Ghana]], [[Nigeria]], [[Togo]], [[United Republic of Tanzania]].<br />'''[[:Category:Australasian Region|Australasian Region]]''': [[Australia]], [[New Caledonia]], [[Norfolk Island]].<br />'''[[:Category:Indo-Australian Region|Indo-Australian Region]]''': [[Borneo]], [[Cook Islands]], [[Fiji]], [[French Polynesia]], [[Guam]], [[Hawaii]], [[Indonesia]], [[Kiribati]], [[Krakatau Islands]], [[Malaysia]], [[Marshall Islands]], [[Micronesia (Federated States of)]], [[New Guinea]], [[Niue]], [[Northern Mariana Islands]], [[Palau]], [[Philippines]], [[Samoa]], [[Solomon Islands]], [[Tokelau]], [[Tonga]], [[Vanuatu]], [[Wallis and Futuna Islands]].<br />'''[[:Category:Malagasy Region|Malagasy Region]]''': [[Mauritius]], [[Mayotte]], [[Réunion]], [[Seychelles]].<br />'''[[:Category:Nearctic Region|Nearctic Region]]''': [[United States]].<br />'''[[:Category:Neotropical Region|Neotropical Region]]''': [[Anguilla]], [[Bahamas]], [[Barbados]], [[Brazil]], [[Cayman Islands]], [[Chile]], [[Colombia]], [[Costa Rica]], [[Cuba]], [[Dominican Republic]], [[Ecuador]], [[El Salvador]], [[French Guiana]], [[Galapagos Islands]], [[Greater Antilles]], [[Grenada]], [[Guadeloupe]], [[Guatemala]], [[Guyana]], [[Haiti]], [[Lesser Antilles]], [[Mexico]], [[Paraguay]], [[Puerto Rico]], [[Suriname]], [[Trinidad and Tobago]].<br />'''[[:Category:Oriental Region|Oriental Region]]''': [[India]] {{SmallFont|([[type locality]])}}, [[Laos]], [[Nicobar Island]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[Thailand]], [[Vietnam]].<br />'''[[:Category:Palaearctic Region|Palaearctic Region]]''': [[China]], [[Japan]], [[Republic of Korea]], [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland]].<br />
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'''[[:Category:Afrotropical Region|Afrotropical Region]]''': [[Cameroun]], [[Comoros]], [[Ghana]], [[Nigeria]], [[Togo]], [[United Republic of Tanzania]].<br />'''[[:Category:Australasian Region|Australasian Region]]''': [[Australia]], [[New Caledonia]], [[Norfolk Island]].<br />'''[[:Category:Indo-Australian Region|Indo-Australian Region]]''': [[Borneo]], [[Cook Islands]], [[Fiji]], [[French Polynesia]], [[Guam]], [[Hawaii]], [[Indonesia]], [[Kiribati]], [[Krakatau Islands]], [[Malaysia]], [[Marshall Islands]], [[Micronesia (Federated States of)]], [[New Guinea]], [[Niue]], [[Northern Mariana Islands]], [[Palau]], [[Philippines]], [[Samoa]], [[Solomon Islands]], [[Tokelau]], [[Tonga]], [[Vanuatu]], [[Wallis and Futuna Islands]].<br />'''[[:Category:Malagasy Region|Malagasy Region]]''': [[Mauritius]], [[Mayotte]], [[Réunion]], [[Seychelles]].<br />'''[[:Category:Nearctic Region|Nearctic Region]]''': [[United States]].<br />'''[[:Category:Neotropical Region|Neotropical Region]]''': [[Anguilla]], [[Bahamas]], [[Barbados]], [[Brazil]], [[Cayman Islands]], [[Chile]], [[Colombia]], [[Costa Rica]], [[Cuba]], [[Dominican Republic]], [[Ecuador]], [[El Salvador]], [[French Guiana]], [[Galapagos Islands]], [[Greater Antilles]], [[Grenada]], [[Guadeloupe]], [[Guatemala]], [[Guyana]], [[Haiti]], [[Lesser Antilles]], [[Mexico]], [[Netherlands Antilles]], [[Paraguay]], [[Puerto Rico]], [[Suriname]], [[Trinidad and Tobago]].<br />'''[[:Category:Oriental Region|Oriental Region]]''': [[India]] {{SmallFont|([[type locality]])}}, [[Laos]], [[Nicobar Island]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[Thailand]], [[Vietnam]].<br />'''[[:Category:Palaearctic Region|Palaearctic Region]]''': [[China]], [[Japan]], [[Republic of Korea]], [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland]].<br />
 
<!--END OF DISTRIBUTION LIST-->
 
<!--END OF DISTRIBUTION LIST-->
  
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==Biology==
 
==Biology==
[[File:Monomorium-floricola-1826.jpg|350px|thumb|left|]]
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{{#ev:youtube|v=43IKVmtlC0A|400|left|San Cristóbal, República Dominicana. Video by Judá Isaí Martínez Uribe.|frame}}
 
Wetterer (2010) - The worldwide spread of ''M. floricola'' is in some respects surprising given its biology. The queens of ''M. floricola'' are wingless and thus cannot disperse aerially. Instead, new colonies are formed through budding, where a fragment of a large colony separates to found a new colony (Snelling 2005). The tiny ''M. floricola'' workers are very slow moving, severely limiting overland dispersal. Other life history characters, however, facilitate dispersal. Colonies of ''M. floricola'' are polygynous (with multiple fertile queens), polydomous (workers of one colony may be divided among multiple small nest sites), and can nest in the tiniest cavities. This allows colony fragments that include queens to be readily transported inside floating vegetation (e.g., branches, logs, and coconuts), and more recently inside human transported cargo.
 
Wetterer (2010) - The worldwide spread of ''M. floricola'' is in some respects surprising given its biology. The queens of ''M. floricola'' are wingless and thus cannot disperse aerially. Instead, new colonies are formed through budding, where a fragment of a large colony separates to found a new colony (Snelling 2005). The tiny ''M. floricola'' workers are very slow moving, severely limiting overland dispersal. Other life history characters, however, facilitate dispersal. Colonies of ''M. floricola'' are polygynous (with multiple fertile queens), polydomous (workers of one colony may be divided among multiple small nest sites), and can nest in the tiniest cavities. This allows colony fragments that include queens to be readily transported inside floating vegetation (e.g., branches, logs, and coconuts), and more recently inside human transported cargo.
  
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A common species in Florida, occurring as far north as Putnam county. Nests are usually in hollow twigs and branches, or in the dry stems of herbs and grasses. Foraging trails occasionally appear in buildings; these trails usually, but not always, originate from outside. Pest status: may cause minor annoyance when it appears indoors. First published Florida record: Emery 1895; earlier specimens: 1887. (Deyrup, Davis & Cover, 2000.)
 
A common species in Florida, occurring as far north as Putnam county. Nests are usually in hollow twigs and branches, or in the dry stems of herbs and grasses. Foraging trails occasionally appear in buildings; these trails usually, but not always, originate from outside. Pest status: may cause minor annoyance when it appears indoors. First published Florida record: Emery 1895; earlier specimens: 1887. (Deyrup, Davis & Cover, 2000.)
  
<gallery perrow=3 caption='The following images are provided by Gary D. Alpert'>
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<gallery perrow=4 caption='The following images are provided by Gary D. Alpert'>
 
File:Monomorium-floricola1880.jpg|Infestation in greenhouse
 
File:Monomorium-floricola1880.jpg|Infestation in greenhouse
 
File:Monomorium-floricola1899.jpg|Carrying brood
 
File:Monomorium-floricola1899.jpg|Carrying brood
File:Monomorium-floricola-1846.jpg|Worker
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File:Monomorium-floricola-1846.jpg
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File:Monomorium-floricola-1826.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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===Life History Traits===
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{{LifeHistoryTraits
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|queen_number=polygynous
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|queen_number_source=Frumhoff & Ward, 1992
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|queen_number_notes=
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|queen_type=<!--winged or dealate;ergatoid;dichthadiiform;brachypterous;gamergate-->
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|queen_type_source=
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|queen_type_notes=
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|male_type=<!--winged;ergatoid;brachypterous-->
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|male_type_source=
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|male_type_notes=
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|worker_caste=<!--present;absent-->
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|worker_caste_source=
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|worker_caste_notes=
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|worker-produced_males=<!--present;absent-->
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|worker-produced_males_source=
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|worker-produced_males_notes=
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|colony_type=<!--monodomous;polydomous;supercolony-->
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|colony_type_source=
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|colony_type_notes=
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|mean_colony_size=
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|mean_colony_size_source=
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|mean_colony_size_notes=
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|max_colony_size=
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|max_colony_size_source=
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|max_colony_size_notes=
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|compound_colony_type=<!--free living;dulotic;inquiline;temporary parasite;xenobiotic-->
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|compound_colony_type_source=
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|compound_colony_type_notes=
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|colony_founding=<!--claustral independent;non-claustral independent;dependent;facultative dependent;social parasite-->
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|colony_founding_queen_number=<!--haplometrotic;pleometrotic-->
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|colony_founding_source=
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|colony_founding_notes=
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|nest_site=<!--hypogaeic;epigeic;under objects;litter;dead wood;arboreal cavity; arboreal carton;hypogaeic carton;woven leaves;sand;cave;thatch mound-->
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|nest_site_source=
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|nest_site_notes=
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|foraging_behaviour=<!--mass recruiter; group hunter; solitary forager; fungus grower; army ant; homopteran tender; tandem recruitment; trunk trail-->
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|foraging_behaviour_source=
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|foraging_behaviour_notes=
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|activity_time=<!--diurnal; nocturnal; hypogaeic; crepuscular-->
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|activity_time_source=
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|activity_time_notes=
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|diet=<!--generalist predator; generalist; seed harvester; sugar feeder; seed harvester; specialist predator; fungivore-->
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|diet_source=
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|diet_notes=
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|invasiveness_status=<!--native; exotic; invasive-->
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|invasiveness_status_source=
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|invasiveness_status_notes=
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}}
  
 
==Castes==
 
==Castes==
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==References==
 
==References==
*Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 54: 263-452 (page 390, Senior synonym of angusticlava and impressum)
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*[[Media:Bolton 1987.pdf|Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the ''Solenopsis'' genus-group and revision of Afrotropical ''Monomorium'' Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology. 54: 263-452.]]. (page 390, Senior synonym of angusticlava and impressum)
 
*[[Media:Campos, A.E.C., Kato, L.M. et al. 2011. Occurrence of different gynandromorphs and ergatandromorphs.pdf|Campos, A.E.C., Kato, L.M., Zarzuela, M.F.M. 2011. Occurrence of different gynandromorphs and ergatandromorphs in laboratory colonies of the urban ant, ''Monomorium floricola''. Journal of Insect Science 11(17): 1-10.]]
 
*[[Media:Campos, A.E.C., Kato, L.M. et al. 2011. Occurrence of different gynandromorphs and ergatandromorphs.pdf|Campos, A.E.C., Kato, L.M., Zarzuela, M.F.M. 2011. Occurrence of different gynandromorphs and ergatandromorphs in laboratory colonies of the urban ant, ''Monomorium floricola''. Journal of Insect Science 11(17): 1-10.]]
*[[Media:Crawley 1920d.pdf|Crawley, W. C. 1920d. A gynandromorph of Monomorium floricola, Jerd. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 32: 217-218 '''PDF''']] (page 217, gynandromorph described)
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*[[Media:Crawley 1920d.pdf|Crawley, W. C. 1920d. A gynandromorph of Monomorium floricola, Jerd. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 32: 217-218.]] (page 217, gynandromorph described)
 
*[[Media:Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida.pdf|Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126, 293-325.]]
 
*[[Media:Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida.pdf|Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126, 293-325.]]
 
*Donisthorpe, H. 1914b.  Three myrmecological notes. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 26: 136-138 (page 136, gynandromorph described)
 
*Donisthorpe, H. 1914b.  Three myrmecological notes. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 26: 136-138 (page 136, gynandromorph described)
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*Wheeler, W. M. 1913b.  The ants of Cuba. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 54: 477-505 (page 486, Senior synonym of cinnabari)
 
*Wheeler, W. M. 1913b.  The ants of Cuba. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 54: 477-505 (page 486, Senior synonym of cinnabari)
 
*Wheeler, W. M. 1922j.  Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 711-1004 (page 863, see also)
 
*Wheeler, W. M. 1922j.  Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 711-1004 (page 863, see also)
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==References based on [https://benoitguenard.wordpress.com/gabi-articles/ Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics]==
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*Abe T., S. Yamane, and K. Onoyama. Ants collected on the Krakatau Islands 100 years after the great eruptions. Biogeography 14: 65-75.
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*Asfiya W., L. Lach, J. D. Majer, B. Heterick, and R. K. Didham. 2015. Intensive agroforestry practices negatively affect ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) diversity and composition in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Asian Myrmecology 7: 87-104.
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*Asfiya W., R. Ubaidillah, and Sk. Yamane. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Krakataus, and Sebesi and Sebuku islands. Treubia 36: 1-9.
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*Basu P., N. Tak, and A. K. Sanyal. 2013. Ants (insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bethuadahari wildlife sanctuary, Nadia, West Bengal, India. Rec. zool, Surv. India: 113(4): 17-22.
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*Bharti H., Y. P. Sharma, M. Bharti, and M. Pfeiffer. 2013. Ant species richness, endemicity and functional groups, along an elevational gradient in the Himalayas. Asian Myrmecology 5: 79-101.
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*Bolton B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 54: 263-452.
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*Chantarasawat N., D. Sitthicharoenchai, C. Chaisuekul, and C. Lekprayoon. 2013. Comparison of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Diversity in Dry Dipterocarp and Mixed-Deciduous Forests at Sri Nan National Park, Northern Thailand. Tropical Natural History 13(1): 1-19.
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*Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
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*Cheesman L. E., and W. C. Crawley. 1928. A contribution towards the insect fauna of French Oceania. - Part III. Formicidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10(2): 514-525.
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*Crawley W.C. 1924. Ants from Sumatra, with biological notes by Edward Jacobson. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9)13: 380-409
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*D'Cunha P., and V. M. Grover Nair. 2014. Ant fauna on the mangroves of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts, Karnataka, India. Journal of Ent. Res. 38(1): 59-66.
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*D'Cunha P., and V. Mala Grover Nair. 2013. Diversity and Distribution of Ant Fauna in Hejamadi Kodi Sandspit, Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Halteres 4: 33-47.
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*Dad J. M., S. A. Akbar, H. Bharti, and A. A. Wachkoo. 2019. Community structure and ant species diversity across select sites ofWestern Ghats, India. Acta Ecologica Sinica 39: 219–228.
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*Dias R. K. S. 2002. Current knowledge on ants of Sri Lanka. ANeT Newsletter 4: 17- 21.
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*Dias R. K. S. 2006. Current taxonomic status of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. The Fauna of Sri Lanka: 43-52. Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Editor), 2006. Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union, Colombo, Sri Lanka & Government of Sri Lanka. viii + 308pp.
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*Dias R. K. S., H. P. G. R. C. Ruchirani, K. R. K. A. Kosgamage, and H. A. W. S. Peiris. 2013. Frequency of nest occurrence and nest density of Aneuretus simoni Emery (Sri Lankan Relict Ant) and other ant fauna in an abandoned rubber plantation (Kirikanda Forest) in southwest Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 5: 59-67.
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*Dias R. K. S., K. R. K. A. Kosgamage, and H. A. W. S. Peiris. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Ants (Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. p11-19.
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*Dias R. K. S., and K. R. K. Anuradha Kosgamage. 2012. Occurrence and species diversity of ground-dwelling worker ants (Family: Formicidae) in selected lands in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. J. Sci. Univ. Kelaniya 7: 55-72.
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*Dias R. K. S., and R. P. K. C. Rajapaksa. 2016. Geographic records of subfamilies, genera and species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the four climatic zones of Sri Lanka: a review. J. Sci. Univ. Kelaniya 11(2): 23-45.
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*Dias, R.K.S. 2006. Overview of ant research in Sri Lanka: 2000-2004. ANeT Newsletter 8:7-10
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*Donisthorpe, Horace. 1935. The Ants of Christmas Island. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Ser. 10: xv. 629-635.
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*Eguchi K., and S. Yamane. 2003. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a lowland rainforest, northwestern Borneo. New Entomol. 52(1,2): 49-59.
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*Eguchi K.; Bui T. V.; Yamane S. 2011. Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), part I — Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Zootaxa 2878: 1-61.
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*Emery C. 1887. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). [concl.]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 25(5): 427-473.
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*Emery C. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 40: 661-722.
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*Emery, C. "Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine)." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 5, no. 25 (1887): 427-473.
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*Emery, C. "Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei." Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) (2) 20, no. 40 (1900): 661-722.
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*Ettershank G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171.
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*Fayle T.M., Bakker, L., Cheah, C., Ching, T.M., Davey, A., Dem, F., Earl, A., Huaimei, Y., Hyland, S., Johansson, B., Ligtermoet, E., Lim, R., Lin, L.K., Luangyotha, P., Martins, B.H., Palmeirim, A.F., Paninhuan, S., Rojas, S.K., Sam, L., Sam, P.T.T., Susanto, D., Wahyudi, A., Walsh, J., Weigl, S., Craze, P.G., Jehle, R., Metcalfe, D. & Trevelyan, R. 2011. A positive relationship between ant biodiversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and rate of scavenger-mediated nutrient redistribution along a disturbance gradient in a south-east Asian rain forest. Myrmecological News 14: 5-12.
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*Fellowes J. R. 1999. Exotic ants in Asia: is the mainland at risk? The case of Hong Kong. Aliens 9: 5-6.
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*Forel A. 1909. Ameisen aus Java und Krakatau beobachtet und gesammelt von Herrn Edward Jacobson. Notes Leyden Mus. 31: 221-232.
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*Forel A. 1911. Ameisen aus Ceylon, gesammelt von Prof. K. Escherich (einige von Prof. E. Bugnion). Pp. 215-228 in: Escherich, K. Termitenleben auf Ceylon. Jena: Gustav Fischer, xxxii + 262 pp.
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*Forel A. 1913. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute: Formicidae II. Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(6): 183-202
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*Forel A. 1913. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise nach Ostindien ausgeführt im Auftrage der Kgl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin von H. v. Buttel-Reepen. II. Ameisen aus Sumatra, Java, Malacca und Ceylon. Gesammelt von Herrn Prof. Dr. v. Buttel-Reepen in den Jahren 1911-1912. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 36:1-148.
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*Forel A. 1915. Fauna Simalurensis. Hymenoptera Aculeata, Fam. Formicidae. Tijdschr. Entomol. 58: 22-43.
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*Framenau V.W., and M.L. Thomas. 2008. Ants of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean); identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25: 45-85.
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*Ghosh S. N., S. Sheela, and B. G. Kundu. 2005. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rabindra Sarovar, Kolkata. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional Paper 234: 1-40.
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*Ghosh S. N., and S. Sheela. 2008. On a collection of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) from Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India, with new records of one rare genus and a rare species. Asian Myrmecology 2: 99-102.
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*Gumawardene, N.R., J.D. Majer and J.P. Edirisinghe. 2008. Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 2:71-83
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*Gunawardene N. R., J. D. Majer, and J. P. Edirisinghe. 2008. Diversity and richness of ant species in a lowland wet forest reserve in Sri Lanka. Asian Myrmecology 2: 71-83.
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*Gunawardene N. R., J. D. Majer, and J. P. Edirisinghe. 2012. Correlates of ant 5Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and tree species diversity in Sri Lanka. Myrmecological News 17: 81-90.
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*Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
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*Hashimoto Y., Y. Morimoto, E. S. Widodo, and M. Mohamed. 2006. Vertical distribution pattern of ants in a Bornean tropical rainforest (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 47(3): 697- 710.
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*Hashimoto Y., Y. Morimoto, and M. Mohamed. 2003. Species List of Ground and Leaf Litter Ants Collected in Lower Kinabatangan. Pp 13-18. In Lower Kinabatangan Scientific Expedition 2002, 176 pp. ISBN-13: 983-2369-11-8
 +
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[[category:Species]]
 
[[category:Species]]

Latest revision as of 02:49, 9 July 2020

Monomorium floricola
Monomorium floricola
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Solenopsidini
Genus: Monomorium
Species: M. floricola
Binomial name
Monomorium floricola
(Jerdon, 1851)

Monomorium floricola side view

Monomorium floricola top view

Specimen labels

Synonyms

Monomorium floricola is one of the world's most broadly distributed tramp ants. It is widespread in tropical regions of both the Old and New World. Monomorium floricola records are also common in subtropical parts of southern Japan and peninsular Florida. In addition, M. floricola is occasionally found in greenhouses and other heated buildings in temperate areas, primarily in Europe and North America. These temperate records, however, are very few compared with those of its congener Monomorium pharaonis (the pharaoh ant), a tropical ant with indoor records from almost every country in Europe and state in the US. (Wetterer 2010)


At a Glance • Polygynous  

 

Identification

A member of the M. boerorum complex in the M. monomorium species group.

Heterick (2006) - Workers of this species bear a striking resemblance in appearance and morphology to dark-headed, bicolored specimens of Monomorium termitobium, but can be distinguished by the combination of a uniformly dark brown or chocolate head and gaster. In M. termitobium the gaster is not uniformly dark brown or black, although it may be a dingy brownish-yellow or yellow with dark infuscation. The petiolar node in all Malagasy specimens of M. floricola that I have seen is also very low and broadly conical to tumular, barely higher than the postpetiole. The ventral surface of the petiole lacks a lobe of any description. Monomorium termitobium workers possess a petiolar node that is distinctly higher than the postpetiole, even when it is low conical in shape, and a subpetiolar lobe of varying degrees is always present.

Bolton (1987) - In the Afrotropical fauna floricola shares a specific character combination of 12-segmented antennae and described eye form with only 5 other species. None of these show the colour pattern of floricola and all have antennal scapes which are relatively shorter, see comparative measurements under Monomorium rotundatum.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Cameroun, Comoros, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo, United Republic of Tanzania.
Australasian Region: Australia, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island.
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Kiribati, Krakatau Islands, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), New Guinea, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands.
Malagasy Region: Mauritius, Mayotte, Réunion, Seychelles.
Nearctic Region: United States.
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Greater Antilles, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
Oriental Region: India (type locality), Laos, Nicobar Island, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
Palaearctic Region: China, Japan, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb Wetterer 2010 M floricola map.png

Distribution records of Monomorium floricola as provided by James Wetterer (2010).

Biology

San Cristóbal, República Dominicana. Video by Judá Isaí Martínez Uribe.

Wetterer (2010) - The worldwide spread of M. floricola is in some respects surprising given its biology. The queens of M. floricola are wingless and thus cannot disperse aerially. Instead, new colonies are formed through budding, where a fragment of a large colony separates to found a new colony (Snelling 2005). The tiny M. floricola workers are very slow moving, severely limiting overland dispersal. Other life history characters, however, facilitate dispersal. Colonies of M. floricola are polygynous (with multiple fertile queens), polydomous (workers of one colony may be divided among multiple small nest sites), and can nest in the tiniest cavities. This allows colony fragments that include queens to be readily transported inside floating vegetation (e.g., branches, logs, and coconuts), and more recently inside human transported cargo.

Regional Notes

Monomorium-floricola1829.jpg

Puerto Rico

Wheeler (1908): Common in Tillandsias, under the bark-scales of trees and in hollow twigs. All the females were apterous like those of this .. species seen in the Bahamas (Wheeler, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXI, Pp- 87, 88, figg. D and E).

Florida

A common species in Florida, occurring as far north as Putnam county. Nests are usually in hollow twigs and branches, or in the dry stems of herbs and grasses. Foraging trails occasionally appear in buildings; these trails usually, but not always, originate from outside. Pest status: may cause minor annoyance when it appears indoors. First published Florida record: Emery 1895; earlier specimens: 1887. (Deyrup, Davis & Cover, 2000.)

Life History Traits

  • Queen number: polygynous (Frumhoff & Ward, 1992)

Castes

Worker

Additional images can be found here

Queen

Male

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • floricola. Atta floricola Jerdon, 1851: 107 (w.) INDIA. Forel, 1893g: 388 (q.m.); Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 88 (q.m.); Donisthorpe, 1914: 136 (gynandromorph); Crawley, 1920d: 217 (gynandromorph); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1955c: 121 (l.). Combination in Monomorium: Mayr, 1879: 671. Senior synonym of poecilum: Emery, 1894c: 151; of specularis: Mayr, 1879: 671; of cinnabari: Wheeler, W.M. 1913b: 486; of floreanum: Brown, in Linsley & Usinger, 1966: 175; of angusticlava, impressum: Bolton, 1987: 390; of furina, philippinensis: Heterick, 2006: 122. See also: Solis, Fox, Kato, et al. 2010: 15.
  • cinnabari. Monomorium cinnabari Roger, 1863a: 199 (w.) CUBA. Junior synonym of floricola: Wheeler, W.M. 1913b: 486.
  • poecilum. Monomorium poecilum Roger, 1863a: 199 (w.q.) CUBA. Junior synonym of floricola: Emery, 1894c: 151.
  • specularis. Monomorium specularis Mayr, 1866a: 509 (w.) SAMOA. Junior synonym of floricola: Mayr, 1879: 671.
  • impressum. Monomorium impressum Smith, F. 1876a: 447 (q.m.) RODRIGUEZ I. Junior synonym of floricola: Bolton, 1987: 390.
  • philippinensis. Monomorium floricola var. philippinensis Forel, 1910d: 123 (w.q.) PHILIPPINES. Junior synonym of floricola: Heterick, 2006: 122.
  • furina. Monomorium floricola var. furina Forel, 1911i: 221 (w.) SRI LANKA. Junior synonym of floricola: Heterick, 2006: 122.
  • floreanum. Monomorium floreanum Stitz, 1932a: 368, fig. 1 (w.q.) ECUADOR (Galapagos Is). Junior synonym of floricola: Brown, in Linsley & Usinger, 1966: 175.
  • angusticlava. Monomorium (Monomorium) angusticlava Donisthorpe, 1947d: 189 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of floricola: Bolton, 1987: 390.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Heterick (2006) - HEAD: Head rectangular; vertex planar or weakly concave; frons shining and smooth except for piliferous pits; pilosity of frons a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with shorter decumbent setae or setulae. Eye moderate, eye width 1–1.5× greatest width of antennal scape; (in full-face view) eyes set above midpoint of head capsule; (viewed in profile) eyes set around midline of head capsule; eye elongate; Antennal segments 12; antennal club three-segmented. Clypeal carinae always well-defined; anteromedian clypeal margin emarginate, clypeal carinae terminating in small denticles; paraclypeal setae moderately long and fine, curved; posteromedian clypeal margin approximately level with antennal fossae. Anterior tentorial pits situated nearer antennal fossae than mandibular insertions. Frontal lobes straight, parallel. Psammophore absent. Palp formula 1,2. Mandibular teeth three, plus minute, basal denticle or angle; mandibles with sub-parallel inner and outer margins, smooth (except for piliferous pits); masticatory margin of mandibles approximately vertical or weakly oblique; basal tooth a small to minute denticle or angle, much smaller than t3 (four teeth present).

MESOSOMA: Promesonotum shining and mainly smooth, striolae, if present, usually vestigial and confined to lower anterior mesopleuron, in some populations entire lower mesopleuron distinctly striolate; (viewed in profile) anterior promesonotum smoothly rounded, thereafter more-or-less flattened, promesonotum on same plane as propodeum; promesonotal setae seven to twelve; standing promesonotal setae consisting of well-spaced, incurved, erect and semi-erect setae only; appressed promesonotal setulae few, mainly on sides of promesonotum. Metanotal groove strongly impressed, with distinct transverse costulae. Propodeum shining and smooth, with multiple hair like striolae on metapleuron; propodeal dorsum convex; propodeum always smoothly rounded; standing propodeal setae consisting of one prominent pair anteriad, with other shorter setae very sparse or absent; appressed propodeal setulae very sparse or absent; propodeal spiracle equidistant from metanotal groove and declivitous face of propodeum. Vestibule of propodeal spiracle absent or not visible. Propodeal lobes present as vestigial flanges or small strips of cuticle only.

PETIOLE AND POSTPETIOLE: Petiolar spiracle lateral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node; node (viewed in profile) evenly tumular to roundly conical; appearance of node shining and smooth throughout; ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) between 1:1 and 3:4; anteroventral petiolar process absent or vestigial; ventral petiolar lobe absent; height ratio of petiole to postpetiole between 4:3 and 1:1; height–length ratio of postpetiole about 1:1; postpetiole shining and smooth; postpetiolar sternite without anterior lip or carina, or this structure vestigial.

GASTER: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with a few short, appressed setulae.

GENERAL CHARACTERS: Color head, gaster brown, mesosoma tawny yellow or variegated yellow-and-brown, appendages yellow or yellowish-brown. Worker caste monomorphic.

LECTOTYPE MEASUREMENTS (M. specularis): HML 1.09 HL 0.42 HW 0.33 CeI 77 SL 0.28 SI 86 PW 0.20.

LECTOTYPE MEASUREMENTS (M. angusticlava): HML 1.15 HL 0.43 HW 0.34 CeI 79 SL 0.29 SI 87 PW 0.21.

OTHER WORKER MEASUREMENTS: HML 1.00–1.21 HL 0.39–0.43 HW 0.31–0.34 CeI 79–85 SL 0.27–0.31 SI 81–90 PW 0.20–0.23 (n=19).

Queen

Heterick (2006) - HEAD: Head rectangular; vertex weakly concave or planar; frons shining and smooth except for piliferous pits and striolae around antennal sockets, frontal carinae and below the eyes; frons a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with shorter setae or setulae, which are decumbent or appressed, longer setae thickest on vertex. Eye elliptical, curvature of inner eye margin may be more pronounced than that of its outer margin; (in full-face view) eyes set at about midpoint of head capsule; (viewed in profile) eyes set around midline of head capsule.

MESOSOMA: Anterior mesoscutum smoothly rounded, thereafter more-or-less flattened; pronotum, mesoscutum and mesopleuron shining and mainly smooth, vestigial striolae, if present, confined to anterior katepisternum; length–width ratio of mesoscutum and scutellum combined about 2:1. Axillae narrowly separated (i.e., less than width of one axilla). Standing pronotal/mesoscutal setae a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer, erect and semi-erect setae which are curved distally, interspersed with much shorter, incurved, decumbent setae; appressed pronotal, mescoscutal and mesopleural setulae few, mainly on sides of pronotum and mesopleuron. Propodeum shining and smooth, metapleuron with a few distinct striolae; propodeum always smoothly rounded; propodeal dorsum convex; standing propodeal setae consisting of up to a dozen or more longer erect and shorter sub-erect setae; appressed propodeal setulae well-spaced and sparse; propodeal spiracle nearer metanotal groove than declivitous face of propodeum; propodeal lobes present as vestigial flanges only, or absent.

WING: Wing not seen (queens dealated).

PETIOLE AND POSTPETIOLE: Petiolar spiracle lateroventral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node; node, in profile conical, vertex rounded; appearance of node shining and smooth; ratio of greatest node breadth to greatest node width about 1:1. Anterior petiolar process absent or vestigial; height ratio of petiole to postpetiole about 1:1; height–length ratio of postpetiole between 3:2 and 4:3; postpetiole shining and smooth; postpetiolar sternite without anterior lip or carina, or this structure vestigial.

GASTER: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with a few appressed setulae.

GENERAL CHARACTERS: Color head, gaster brown, mesosoma and nodes yellowish. Brachypterous alates not seen. Ergatoid or worker-female intercastes not seen.

LECTOTYPE MEASUREMENTS (M. impressum): HML 1.88 HL 0.72 HW 0.59 CeI 81 SL 0.60 SI 103 PW 0.42.

OTHER QUEEN MEASUREMENTS: HML 1.75–1.88 HL 0.54–0.55 HW 0.44–0.46 CeI 82–85 SL 0.39–0.40 SI 85–89 PW 0.31–0.33.

Male

Heterick (2006) - HEAD: Head width–mesosoma width ratio between 4:3 and 1:1; frons smooth to finely striolate. Compound eyes protuberant and elliptical; margin of compound eye nearly abutting clypeus. Ocelli weakly turreted. Ratio of length of first funicular segment of antenna to second funicular segment between 3:4 and 2:3. Maximum number of mandibular teeth and denticles three.

MESOSOMA: Mesoscutum broadly convex; pronotum and mesoscutum shining and mainly smooth, vestigial striolae, if present, confined to anterior katepisternum. Parapsidal furrows vestigial or absent; notauli absent. Axillae narrowly separated (i.e., less than width of one axilla).

WING: Wing veins predominantly depigmented, with distal segments reduced to vestigial lines; vein m–cu absent; vein cu–a absent.

PETIOLE AND POSTPETIOLE: Petiolar spiracle lateral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node. Petiolar node, (viewed in profile) conical, vertex rounded; appearance of node shining and smooth; ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) between 4:3 and 1:1. Anterior petiolar process absent or vestigial. Height ratio of petiole to postpetiole between 4:3 and 1:1; height–length ratio of postpetiole between 2:1 and 3:2; postpeti- ole shining and microreticulate.

GASTER: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, semi-erect setae interspersed with a few appressed setulae.

GENERAL CHARACTERS: Color uniformly brown.

MALE MEASUREMENTS: HML 1.68 HL 0.46 HW 0.50 CeI 109 SL 0.16 SI 0.32 PW 0.44.

Type Material

  • Atta floricola Jerdon, 1851: Syntype, queen(s), India.

Heterick (2006):

Atta floricola Jerdon 1851:107. Syntype ☿s, India [no types known to exist].

Monomorium cinnabari Roger 1863a:199. Syntype ☿s, CUBA [whereabouts of type material unknown]. Syn. under M. floricola (Jerdon): Wheeler, W.M. 1913:388.

Monomorium poecilum Roger 1863a:199. Syntype ☿s, CUBA [whereabouts of type material unknown]. Syn. under M. floricola (Jerdon): Emery 1894b:51.

Monomorium specularis Mayr 1866:09. Syntype ☿s (see comments below – lectotype here designated) SAMOA: Upolu (NMW) [examined]. Syn. under M. floricola (Jerdon): Mayr 1879:71.

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