Difference between revisions of "Morphology and Terminology"

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(Body Morphology)
 
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[[File:Myrmecia_brevinoda_(large_ant)_%26_Carebara_atoma_(small_ant)_SEM.jpg|thumb|400px|''[[Myrmecia brevinoda]]'', one of the largest ants, together with one of the smallest, ''[[Carebara atoma]]'', photographed using an electron microscope. Photo by Bob Taylor and Colin Beaton.]]
 
[[File:Myrmecia_brevinoda_(large_ant)_%26_Carebara_atoma_(small_ant)_SEM.jpg|thumb|400px|''[[Myrmecia brevinoda]]'', one of the largest ants, together with one of the smallest, ''[[Carebara atoma]]'', photographed using an electron microscope. Photo by Bob Taylor and Colin Beaton.]]
 
{{LargeFont|Information on morphology and terminology can be found on the following pages.}}
 
{{LargeFont|Information on morphology and terminology can be found on the following pages.}}
*[[Morphological Terms]] (Bolton 1995, in part)
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==Body Morphology==
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*Worker Morphology ([[Morphological Terms]], from Bolton, 1994, in part)
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**Head (see [[Media:Richter, A., Keller, R.A. et al. 2019. The cephalic anatomy of workers of the ant species Wasmannia affinis.pdf|Richter et al., 2019]]; [[Media:Richter, A., Hita Garcia, F. et al. 2020. Comparative analysis of worker head anatomy (10.26049@ASP78-1-2020-06).pdf|Richter et al., 2020]])
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**Tentorium (see [[Media:Kubota, H., Yoshimura, J. et al. 2019. Morphology of the tentorium in the ant genus Lasius.pdf|Kubota et al., 2019]])
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**Mesosoma (see [[Media:Liu, S.-P., Richter, A. et al. 2019. The mesosomal anatomy of Myrmecia nigrocincta workers.pdf|Liu et al., 2019]])
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**Metathoracic spiracles (see [[Media:Fedoseeva, E.B. 2017. The metathoracic spiracles in some ants and wasps.pdf|Fedoseeva, 2017]])
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**Distal leg structures (see [[Media:Beutel, R.G., Richter, A. et al. 2020. Distal leg structures of the Aculeata (10.1002@jmor.21133).pdf|Beutel et al., 2020]])
 
*[[Queen and Male Morphology]] (Boudinot, 2015)
 
*[[Queen and Male Morphology]] (Boudinot, 2015)
*[[Surface Sculpturing]] (Harris 1979)
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*Mandibles ([[Morphological and Functional Diversity of Ant Mandibles]])
*[[Surface Sculpturing II]]
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*Trap-jaw mechanisms ([[Dacetine trap-jaws]])
*[[Morphological Measurements]]
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*[[Male Genitalia]] (see [[Media:Boudinot_BE_(2013)_The_male_genitalia_of_ants_musculature,_homology,_and_functional_morphology.pdf|Boudinot, 2013]]; [[Media:Boudinot, B.E. 2018. A general theory of genital homologies for the Hexapoda (10.1016@j.asd.2018.11.001).pdf|Boudinot, 2018]]; [[Media:Tozetto, L., Lattke, J.E. 2020. Revealing male genital morphology in the giant ant genus Dinoponera (10.1016@j.asd.2020.100943).pdf|Tozetto & Lattke, 2020]].)
*[[Caste Terminology]]
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*Setae
*[[Terminology]] Descriptions of life history strategies used throughout AntWiki.
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**[[Hair Shape]] (Lattke et al. 2018)
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**Stature ([[Media:Wilson 1955a.pdf|Wilson, 1955]])
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*[http://portal.hymao.org Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Portal] (Hymenoptera-wide homology concepts)
  
The [http://portal.hymao.org Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Portal] provides a catalog of anatomical terms and images.
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==Wings==
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*Wing venation (see [[Media:Brown & Nutting 1950.pdf|Brown & Nutting, 1950]])
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*Hindwings (see [[Media:Cantone, S., Zuben, C.J. von. 2019. The hindwings of ants.pdf|Cantone et al., 2019]])
  
==Ant Mandibles==
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==Morphometrics==
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*[[Morphological Measurements]]
  
<gallery>
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==Surface Sculpture==
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*[[Surface Sculpturing]] (Harris 1979)
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*[[Surface Sculpturing II]]
  
</gallery>
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==Caste morphology==
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*[[Caste Terminology]]
  
*[[Morphological and Functional Diversity of Ant Mandibles]]
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==Internal Organs==
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*[[Digestive tract]]
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*[[Thoracic crop]] (see Petersen-Braun, M.; Buschinger, A. 1975: Entstehung und Funktion eines thorakalen Kropfes bei Formiciden-Königinnen. Insectes Sociaux 22: 51-66 (Development and function of a thoracic crop in ant queens); Casadei-Ferreira, A., Fischer, G., Economo, E.P. 2020. Evidence for a thoracic crop in the workers of some Neotropical Pheidole species (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Arthropod Structure, Development 59, 100977 (doi:10.1016/J.ASD.2020.100977)
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During independent, claustral colony foundation of ant queens the flight muscles degenerate. The then „empty“ space within the thorax can be filled with a considerable swelling of the esophagus, which may serve as a „thoracic crop“, in addition to the usual crop in the gaster. Hölldobler & Wilson 1990, p.157: „More recently, it has been found that the esophagus of the queen expands into a "thoracic crop" in which the converted tissues are temporarily held in liquid form. In Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis), the esophagus diameter widens from 7-10 micrometers to 265 micrometers. The thoracic crop has been demonstrated in five genera of Myrmicinae and Formicinae so far (Petersen-Braun and Buschinger, 1975).“
  
*[[Dacetine trap-jaws]]
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==Life History Strategies==
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*[[Terminology]] Descriptions of life history strategies used throughout AntWiki.
  
==Males==
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{{Economolab 3D
See [[Media:Boudinot_BE_(2013)_The_male_genitalia_of_ants_musculature,_homology,_and_functional_morphology.pdf|Boudinot, 2013]] for discussion of genitalia.
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|name = ''Proceratium'' sp.
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|caste = worker
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|view = head
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|link = https://sketchfab.com/models/ae46a62622d64dfeadf028b717d2aeb7/embed
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|specimenidentifier = CASENT0790271
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|institution = OIST
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|notes = Specimen from USA
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}}
  
[[category:I'm Interested In]]
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{{Economolab 3D
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|name =''Melissotarsus''
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|caste =worker
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|view =mouthparts
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|link =https://sketchfab.com/models/b69cb7ceac5749ea8a9dcc38c731c72c/embed
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|specimenidentifier =CASENT0790604
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|institution =
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|notes =Open mouthparts of bark-inhabiting ant species ''Melissotarsus'' sp. from Africa.
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}}

Latest revision as of 10:43, 27 April 2021

Ants vary greatly in size. Here a Discothyrea sexarticulata worker rests on Dinoponera australis. Photo by Guilherme Ide (MZUSP).
Myrmecia brevinoda, one of the largest ants, together with one of the smallest, Carebara atoma, photographed using an electron microscope. Photo by Bob Taylor and Colin Beaton.

Information on morphology and terminology can be found on the following pages.

Body Morphology

Wings

Morphometrics

Surface Sculpture

Caste morphology

Internal Organs

  • Digestive tract
  • Thoracic crop (see Petersen-Braun, M.; Buschinger, A. 1975: Entstehung und Funktion eines thorakalen Kropfes bei Formiciden-Königinnen. Insectes Sociaux 22: 51-66 (Development and function of a thoracic crop in ant queens); Casadei-Ferreira, A., Fischer, G., Economo, E.P. 2020. Evidence for a thoracic crop in the workers of some Neotropical Pheidole species (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Arthropod Structure, Development 59, 100977 (doi:10.1016/J.ASD.2020.100977)

During independent, claustral colony foundation of ant queens the flight muscles degenerate. The then „empty“ space within the thorax can be filled with a considerable swelling of the esophagus, which may serve as a „thoracic crop“, in addition to the usual crop in the gaster. Hölldobler & Wilson 1990, p.157: „More recently, it has been found that the esophagus of the queen expands into a "thoracic crop" in which the converted tissues are temporarily held in liquid form. In Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis), the esophagus diameter widens from 7-10 micrometers to 265 micrometers. The thoracic crop has been demonstrated in five genera of Myrmicinae and Formicinae so far (Petersen-Braun and Buschinger, 1975).“

Life History Strategies

  • Terminology Descriptions of life history strategies used throughout AntWiki.

Economo-header (arilab.unit.oist.jp).png  X-ray micro-CT scan 3D model of Proceratium sp. (worker) prepared by the Economo lab at OIST.

Specimen from USA See on Sketchfab. See list of 3D images.

Economo-header (arilab.unit.oist.jp).png  X-ray micro-CT scan 3D model of Melissotarsus (worker) prepared by the Economo lab at OIST.

Open mouthparts of bark-inhabiting ant species Melissotarsus sp. from Africa. See on Sketchfab. See list of 3D images.