Difference between revisions of "Myrmecophiles"

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===Syrphidae===
 
===Syrphidae===
 
*''[[Afromicrodon]]''
 
*''[[Afromicrodon]]''
 +
All are restricted to Madagascar and the Comoros Islands.
 
*''[[Hypselosyrphus]]''
 
*''[[Hypselosyrphus]]''
 
Found in Mexico, host ants are ''Pachycondyla''
 
Found in Mexico, host ants are ''Pachycondyla''
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File:Microdon-ocellaris 7616.jpg|''Microdon ocellaris larva
 
File:Microdon-ocellaris 7616.jpg|''Microdon ocellaris larva
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Pseudomicrodon]]''
 +
There are 15 known species. Larvae are found in ant nests. Native to the New World tropics.
 
*''[[Rhopalosyrphus]]''
 
*''[[Rhopalosyrphus]]''
 
The larvae feed as scavengers in the nests of ants, ''Pseudomyrmecinae''.  There are three native species from the southern United States to northern Argentina.
 
The larvae feed as scavengers in the nests of ants, ''Pseudomyrmecinae''.  There are three native species from the southern United States to northern Argentina.
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==Coleoptera==
 
==Coleoptera==
 
===Carabidae===
 
===Carabidae===
 
====Paussinae (subfamily)====
 
 
 
Paussinae have a predominantly pan-tropical distribution. They comprise about 800 species.
 
Paussinae have a predominantly pan-tropical distribution. They comprise about 800 species.
 
+
*''Carabidomemnus''
====Paussini====
+
*''Eohomopterus''
 
+
*''Arthropterus''
====''Carabidomemnus''====
+
*''Cerapterus''
====''Eohomopterus''====
 
====''Arthropterus''====
 
 
 
====''Cerapterus''====
 
 
There are thirty-two species in this genus. All are assumed to be myrmecophiles.
 
There are thirty-two species in this genus. All are assumed to be myrmecophiles.
 
+
*''[[Heteropaussus]]''
====Heteropaussina====
 
 
 
=====''[[Heteropaussus]]''=====
 
 
There are 26 species in this myrmecophilous genus
 
There are 26 species in this myrmecophilous genus
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Heteropaussus hastatus.jpg
 
File:Heteropaussus hastatus.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Homopterus]]''
====Homopterina====
 
 
 
=====''[[Homopterus]]''=====
 
 
A myrmecophilous genus of 12 species from South and Central America.
 
A myrmecophilous genus of 12 species from South and Central America.
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Homopterus species.jpg|''Homopterus sp.''
 
File:Homopterus species.jpg|''Homopterus sp.''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Ceratoderus]]''
====Subtribe Paussina====
 
 
 
=====''[[Ceratoderus]]'' <small>Westwood 1841</small>=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Ceratoderus bifasciatus.jpg
 
File:Ceratoderus bifasciatus.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''Eopaussus''
=====''Eopaussus'' <small>Wasmann, 1926</small>=====
 
 
The genera of the Paussidae of the Baltic amber. Zool Anz 68(1/2): 25-30.  A single species, ''Eopaussus balticus'' from Baltic Amber.
 
The genera of the Paussidae of the Baltic amber. Zool Anz 68(1/2): 25-30.  A single species, ''Eopaussus balticus'' from Baltic Amber.
 
+
*''[[Euplatyrhopalus]]''<gallery>
===== ''[[Euplatyrhopalus]]'' <small>Desneux, 1905</small>=====
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
 
File:Euplatyrhopalus vexilifer.jpg
 
File:Euplatyrhopalus vexilifer.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
There are seven species in this myrmecophilous genus of Carabidae.
 
There are seven species in this myrmecophilous genus of Carabidae.
 
+
*''[[Lebioderus]]''
===== ''[[Lebioderus]]'' <small>Westwood, 1838</small>=====
 
 
The genus ''Lebioderus'' Westwood, 1938, belongs to the subtribe Platyrhopalina Jeannel, 1946, of the tribe Paussini Latreille, 1807, and is represented by nine species from Southeast Asia, including Indonesia [Jawa (Java), Sumatera (Sumatra), and Kalimantan], Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), and the Philippines (Luzon) (Luna de Carvalho, 1987).  
 
The genus ''Lebioderus'' Westwood, 1938, belongs to the subtribe Platyrhopalina Jeannel, 1946, of the tribe Paussini Latreille, 1807, and is represented by nine species from Southeast Asia, including Indonesia [Jawa (Java), Sumatera (Sumatra), and Kalimantan], Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), and the Philippines (Luzon) (Luna de Carvalho, 1987).  
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Lebioderus percheronii.jpg|''Lebioderus percheronii''
 
File:Lebioderus percheronii.jpg|''Lebioderus percheronii''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Leleupaussus]]''
===== ''[[Leleupaussus]]'' <small>Luna de Carvalho, 1962</small>=====
+
*''[[Melanospilus]]''
 
 
===== ''[[Melanospilus]]'' <small>Westwood, 1845</small>=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Melanospilus yamasakoi.jpg
 
File:Melanospilus yamasakoi.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''Paussoides''
=====''Paussoides''=====
 
 
''Paussoides mengei'' is found in Prussian amber.
 
''Paussoides mengei'' is found in Prussian amber.
 
+
*''[[Paussomorphus]]''
===== ''[[Paussomorphus]]'' <Small>Raffray, 1885</small>=====
+
*''[[Paussopsis]]''
 
 
=====''[[Paussopsis]]''=====
 
 
There are two extinct species in this genus from the Lower Oligocene, Florissant, Colorado.
 
There are two extinct species in this genus from the Lower Oligocene, Florissant, Colorado.
 
+
*''[[Paussus]]''
===== ''[[Paussus]]'' <small>Linnaeus, 1775</small>=====
 
 
A most species-rich genus with about 350 described species, all are assumed to have an obligatory symbiosis with ants. In this symbiosis the beetles provide rewarding chemical secretions to their host ants and in return receive protection, a safe place for their vulnerable larvae to develop and a reliable source of protein-rich food: the ants, particularly the brood.
 
A most species-rich genus with about 350 described species, all are assumed to have an obligatory symbiosis with ants. In this symbiosis the beetles provide rewarding chemical secretions to their host ants and in return receive protection, a safe place for their vulnerable larvae to develop and a reliable source of protein-rich food: the ants, particularly the brood.
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Paussus acuminicoxis.jpg|''Paussus acuminicoxis''
 
File:Paussus acuminicoxis.jpg|''Paussus acuminicoxis''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Platyrhopalopsis]]''
===== ''[[Platyrhopalopsis]]'' <small>Desneux, 1905</small>=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Platyrhopalopsis picteti.jpg
 
File:Platyrhopalopsis picteti.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Platyrhopalus]]''
===== ''[[Platyrhopalus]]'' <small>Westwood, 1838</small>=====
 
 
There are sixteen species in this genus.
 
There are sixteen species in this genus.
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Platyrhopalus (Platyrhopalus) denticornis (Donovan, 1804).jpg
 
File:Platyrhopalus (Platyrhopalus) denticornis (Donovan, 1804).jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Pterorhopalus]]''
===== ''[[Pterorhopalus]]'' <small>Maruyama, 2011</small>=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Pterorhopalus mizotai.jpg
 
File:Pterorhopalus mizotai.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Helluomorphoides]]''
====Harpalinae (subfamily)====
 
 
 
====Heluonini (tribe)====
 
=====''[[Helluomorphoides]]''=====
 
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Helluomorphoides praeustus bicolor (Harris) - ZooKeys-245-001-g042.jpeg|''Helluomorphoides praeustus bicolor''
 
File:Helluomorphoides praeustus bicolor (Harris) - ZooKeys-245-001-g042.jpeg|''Helluomorphoides praeustus bicolor''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Cryptocephalomorpha]]''
====Pseudomorphinae (subfamily) ====
 
=====''[[Cryptocephalomorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Cryptocephalomorpha indica.jpg
 
File:Cryptocephalomorpha indica.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Guyanemorpha]]''
====Pseudomorphini (tribe) ====
 
 
 
=====''[[Guyanemorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Guyanemorpha spectabilis 7708.jpg|''Guyaenmorpha spectabilis''
 
File:Guyanemorpha spectabilis 7708.jpg|''Guyaenmorpha spectabilis''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Manumorpha]]''
=====''[[Manumorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Manumorpha biolat 7711.jpg|''Manumorpha biolat''
 
File:Manumorpha biolat 7711.jpg|''Manumorpha biolat''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Notopseudomorpha]]''
=====''[[Notopseudomorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Notopseudomorpha laevissima 7714.jpg|''Notopseudomorpha laevissima''
 
File:Notopseudomorpha laevissima 7714.jpg|''Notopseudomorpha laevissima''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Pseudomorpha]]''
=====''[[Pseudomorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:800px-Pseudomorpha sp. - ZooKeys-245-001-g043.jpeg
 
File:800px-Pseudomorpha sp. - ZooKeys-245-001-g043.jpeg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Samiriamorpha]]''
=====''[[Samiriamorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Samiriamorpha grace 7710.jpg|''Samiriamorpha grace''
 
File:Samiriamorpha grace 7710.jpg|''Samiriamorpha grace''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Tuxtlamorpha]]''
=====''[[Tuxtlamorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Tuxtlamorpha tuxtla 7713.jpg|''Tuxtlamorpha tuxtla''
 
File:Tuxtlamorpha tuxtla 7713.jpg|''Tuxtlamorpha tuxtla''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Yasunimorpha]]''
=====''[[Yasunimorpha]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Yasunimorpha piranha 7709.jpg|''Yasunimorpha piranha''
 
File:Yasunimorpha piranha 7709.jpg|''Yasunimorpha piranha''
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Histeridae is worldwide in distribution with just under 4,300 known species, grouped into about 350 genera. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics. Both subfamilies Chlamydopsinae, mainly distributed in southern Asia, Pacific, and Australia, and Haeteriinae contain myrmeco- or termitophilous species. It is accepted that myrmecophiles feed on the larvae of ants or other insects or even regurgitated food from the host ants (Lapeva-Gjonova, 2013).
 
Histeridae is worldwide in distribution with just under 4,300 known species, grouped into about 350 genera. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics. Both subfamilies Chlamydopsinae, mainly distributed in southern Asia, Pacific, and Australia, and Haeteriinae contain myrmeco- or termitophilous species. It is accepted that myrmecophiles feed on the larvae of ants or other insects or even regurgitated food from the host ants (Lapeva-Gjonova, 2013).
  
====Chlamysopsinae====
+
*''[[Chlamydopsis]]''
A myrmecophilous subfamily
+
*''[[Alienister]]''
=====''[[Chlamydopsis]]''=====
+
*''[[Aritaerius]]''
 
 
====Haeteriinae====
 
A myrmecophilous subfamily
 
 
 
====Haeteriini (tribe) ====
 
 
 
=====''[[Alienister]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''[[Aritaerius]]''=====
 
 
A myrmecophilous genus found in Arizona and Mexico.  Host ants are unknown.
 
A myrmecophilous genus found in Arizona and Mexico.  Host ants are unknown.
 
+
*''[[Eretmotus]]''
=====''[[Eretmotus]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Eretmotus alluaudi.jpg|''Eretmotus alluaudi''
 
File:Eretmotus alluaudi.jpg|''Eretmotus alluaudi''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Euxenister]]''
=====''[[Euxenister]]''=====
+
*''[[Haeterius]]''
 
 
=====''[[Haeterius]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Haeterius 1653.jpg|Haeterius brunneipennis in nest of ''[[Formica exsectoides]]''
 
File:Haeterius 1653.jpg|Haeterius brunneipennis in nest of ''[[Formica exsectoides]]''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Hippeutister]]''
=====''[[Hippeutister]]''=====
 
 
A myrmecophilous genus of six species found in North, Central, and South America. This genus is found in the nest of ''Solenopsis''.
 
A myrmecophilous genus of six species found in North, Central, and South America. This genus is found in the nest of ''Solenopsis''.
 
+
*''[[Nymphister]]''
=====Mesynodites=====
+
*''[[Pinaxister]]''
 
 
=====''[[Nymphister]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''[[Pinaxister]]''=====
 
 
A myrmecophilous genus found with ''Pheidole'' ants.
 
A myrmecophilous genus found with ''Pheidole'' ants.
 
+
*''[[Renclasea]]''
=====''[[Renclasea]]''=====
 
 
 
 
This is a myrmecophilous genus of six species. ''Neivamyrmex'' is the probable host ant.
 
This is a myrmecophilous genus of six species. ''Neivamyrmex'' is the probable host ant.
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Tishechkin-&-Caterino-2009-8 Renclasea falli.jpg
 
File:Tishechkin-&-Caterino-2009-8 Renclasea falli.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Satrapes]]''
=====''[[Satrapes]]''=====
 
 
This Palearctic genus of five species is characterized by its elongate and subcylindrical shape, short, very wide tibia, and triangular labrum.  They live in ant nests of several genera including ''Lasius'', ''Aphaenogaster'', ''Formica'', and ''Tetramorium''.
 
This Palearctic genus of five species is characterized by its elongate and subcylindrical shape, short, very wide tibia, and triangular labrum.  They live in ant nests of several genera including ''Lasius'', ''Aphaenogaster'', ''Formica'', and ''Tetramorium''.
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Satrapes sartorii.jpg|''Satrapes sartorii''
 
File:Satrapes sartorii.jpg|''Satrapes sartorii''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Sternocoelis]]''
=====''[[Sternocoelis]]''=====
+
The genus ''Sternocoelis'' Lewis, 1888 is a small genus of myrmecophilous histerids with 27 described species distributed in the Mediterranean area with most species described from Morocco and Algeria.
The genus Sternocoelis Lewis, 1888 is a small genus of myrmecophilous histerids with 27 described species distributed in the Mediterranean area with most species described from Morocco and Algeria.
 
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Lackner-&-Yelamos-2001-3-Sternocoelis-berberus.jpg|''Sternoceolis berberus''
 
File:Lackner-&-Yelamos-2001-3-Sternocoelis-berberus.jpg|''Sternoceolis berberus''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Terapus]]''
=====''[[Terapus]]''=====
+
There are fourteen species in this myrmecophilous genus of New World Histeridae. The host ant is the genus ''Pheidole''.
There are fourteen species in this myrmecophilous genus of New World Histeridae. The host ant is the genus Pheidole.
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Terapus species.jpg
 
File:Terapus species.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Ulkeus]]''
=====''[[Ulkeus]]''=====
 
 
 
 
There are six species in this myrmecophilous genus of Histeridae.
 
There are six species in this myrmecophilous genus of Histeridae.
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Ulkeus.jpg
 
File:Ulkeus.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Kaszabister]]''
====Nymphistrini (tribe) ====
 
 
 
====Synoditulini (tribe) ====
 
 
 
====Histerinae====
 
 
 
====Exosternini====
 
=====''[[Kaszabister]]''=====
 
 
There are four species in this myrmecophilous genus that live in the nests of ''Solenopsis''
 
There are four species in this myrmecophilous genus that live in the nests of ''Solenopsis''
 
 
===Hydrophilidae===
 
===Hydrophilidae===
=====''[[Sphaerocetum]]''=====
+
*''[[Sphaerocetum]]''
  
 
===Scarabaeidae===
 
===Scarabaeidae===
 
+
*''[[Centrocheilus]]''
====Cetoniinae====
 
 
 
====Cremastocheilini====
 
 
 
=====''[[Centrocheilus]]''=====
 
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Krikken-1976-10.jpg|''Centrocheilus howdeni''
 
File:Krikken-1976-10.jpg|''Centrocheilus howdeni''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Clinterocera]]''
=====''[[Clinterocera]]''=====
 
 
There are thirty-two species from China and adjacent regions; host ant ''Liometopum''.
 
There are thirty-two species from China and adjacent regions; host ant ''Liometopum''.
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Clinterocera davidis.jpg
 
File:Clinterocera davidis.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Cremastocheilus]]''
=====''[[Cremastocheilus]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Cremastocheilus angularis JGross.jpg|''[[Cremastocheilus angularis]]''
 
File:Cremastocheilus angularis JGross.jpg|''[[Cremastocheilus angularis]]''
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File:MCZ-ENT00003787 Cremastochilus wheeleri had.jpg|''[[Cremastocheilus wheeleri]]''
 
File:MCZ-ENT00003787 Cremastochilus wheeleri had.jpg|''[[Cremastocheilus wheeleri]]''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
=====''[[Cyclidius]]''=====
+
*''[[Cyclidius]]''
 
+
*''[[Euparia]]''
=====''[[Euparia]]''=====
+
*''[[Genuchinus]]''
 
+
*''[[Lissomelas]]''
=====''[[Genuchinus]]''=====
+
*''[[Lomanoxia]]''
 
+
*''[[Myrmecaphodius]]''
=====''[[Lissomelas]]''=====
+
*''[[Paracyclidius]]''
 
+
*''[[Psilocnemis]]''
=====''[[Lomanoxia]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''[[Myrmecaphodius]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''[[Paracyclidius]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''[[Psilocnemis]]''=====
 
  
 
===Staphylinidae===
 
===Staphylinidae===
 
+
*''[[Ecitophya]]''
=====''[[Ecitophya]]''=====
+
*''[[Doryloxenus]]''
 
+
*''Drusilla''
====Aleocharinae====
 
 
 
=====''[[Doryloxenus]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''Drusilla''=====
 
 
*''Drusilla sparsa'' / ''[[Crematogaster osakensis]]''
 
*''Drusilla sparsa'' / ''[[Crematogaster osakensis]]''
 
+
*''[[Goniusa]]''
=====''[[Goniusa]]''=====
+
*''[[Tetradonia]]''
 
+
*''[[Lomechusa]]''
=====''[[Tetradonia]]''=====
 
 
 
====Lomechusini====
 
*Currently there are 207 genera and 2205 species or subspecies.
 
;Subtribe Lomechusina (all members are strict myrmecophiles with 3 genera and 40 species)
 
 
 
=====''[[Lomechusa]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Lomechusa publicollis.jpg|''Lomechusa pubicollis''
 
File:Lomechusa publicollis.jpg|''Lomechusa pubicollis''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Lomechusoides]]''
=====''[[Lomechusoides]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Lomechusoides strumosus ms.jpg|''Lomechusoides strumosus''
 
File:Lomechusoides strumosus ms.jpg|''Lomechusoides strumosus''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Xenodusa]]''
=====''[[Xenodusa]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Xenodusa reflexa.jpg|''Xenodusa reflexa''
 
File:Xenodusa reflexa.jpg|''Xenodusa reflexa''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Ecitonidia]]''
====Subtribe Termitozyrina (11 genera and 16 species)====
+
*''[[Leptogenopapus]]''
 
+
*''[[Myrmedonota]]''
====Subtribe Myrmedoniina (193 genera and 2149 species or subspecies)====
+
*''[[Myrmechusa]]''
 
+
*''[[Pella]]''
=====''[[Ecitonidia]]''=====
+
*''[[Zyras]]''
=====''[[Leptogenopapus]]''=====
 
=====''[[Myrmedonota]]''=====
 
=====''[[Myrmechusa]]''=====
 
=====''[[Pella]]''=====
 
=====''[[Zyras]]''=====
 
 
{|
 
{|
 
||[[File:Zyras funestus 1a.jpg|thumb|''Zyras funestus'']]
 
||[[File:Zyras funestus 1a.jpg|thumb|''Zyras funestus'']]
Line 359: Line 244:
 
||[[File:Zyras limbatus 1.jpg|thumb|''Zyras limbatus'']]
 
||[[File:Zyras limbatus 1.jpg|thumb|''Zyras limbatus'']]
 
|}
 
|}
 
+
*''[[Adranes]]''
====Pselaphinae====
 
=====''[[Adranes]]''=====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Claviger]]''
=====''[[Claviger]]''=====
+
*''[[Diartiger]]''
 
+
*''[[Fustiger]]''
=====''[[Diartiger]]''=====
 
 
 
=====''[[Fustiger]]''=====
 
 
There are three species in this myrmecophilous genus.
 
There are three species in this myrmecophilous genus.
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Pselaphus]]''
=====''[[Pselaphus]]''=====
+
*''[[Dinarda]]''
 
+
*''[[Labidopullus]]''
 
+
*''[[Chevrolatia]]''
====Oxypodini====
+
*''[[Papusus]]''
=====''[[Dinarda]]''=====
 
 
 
 
 
====Leptanillophilini====
 
=====''[[Labidopullus]]''=====
 
 
 
====Scydmaeninae====
 
There are one hundred-seventeen species in twenty genera associated with 45 species of ants in twenty-eight different genera.
 
 
 
====Chevrolatiini====
 
=====''[[Chevrolatia]]''=====
 
 
 
====Clidicini====
 
=====''[[Papusus]]''=====
 
  
 
===Tenebrionidae===
 
===Tenebrionidae===
 
+
*''[[Alaudes]]''
====''[[Alaudes]]''====
 
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:MCZ-ENT00024607 Alaudes fallax had.jpg|''Alaudes fallax''
 
File:MCZ-ENT00024607 Alaudes fallax had.jpg|''Alaudes fallax''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Araeoschizus]]''
====''[[Araeoschizus]]''====
 
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Araeoschizus-airmeti.jpg|''Araeoschizus airmeti''
 
File:Araeoschizus-airmeti.jpg|''Araeoschizus airmeti''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Bycrea]]''
====''[[Bycrea]]''====
+
*''[[Cimiciopsis]]''
 
+
*''[[Cossyphodes]]''
====''[[Cimiciopsis]]''====
 
 
 
====''[[Cossyphodes]]''====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-6 Cossyphodes-arnoldi.jpg
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-6 Cossyphodes-arnoldi.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Cossyphodinus]]''
====''[[Cossyphodinus]]''====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-4 Cossyphodinus-basilewsky.jpg
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-4 Cossyphodinus-basilewsky.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Cossyphodites]]''
====''[[Cossyphodites]]''====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-11 Cossyphodites-woodroofei.jpg
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-11 Cossyphodites-woodroofei.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
+
*''[[Paramellops]]''
====''[[Paramellops]]''====
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-11 Paramellops-bewicki.jpg
 
File:Schawaller,-2013-11 Paramellops-bewicki.jpg
Line 435: Line 288:
  
 
===Curculionidae===
 
===Curculionidae===
 
+
*''[[Liometophilus]]''
=====''[[Liometophilus]]''=====
 
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Liometopum-manni.jpg|''Liometophilus manni''
 
File:Liometopum-manni.jpg|''Liometophilus manni''
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
==Lepidoptera==
+
==[[Lepidoptera|Lepidoptera / Butterflies]]==
 
===Lycaenidae===
 
===Lycaenidae===
* [[Lepidoptera| Lepidoptera / Butterflies]]
+
*''Phengaris'' (=''Maculinea'') (Lycaenidae) - Sielezniew et al. (2015) - Caterpillars develop on specific host plants (depending on species: ''Thymus'' or ''Origanum'', ''Gentiana'' and ''Sanguisorba'') and complete their development inside the nests of specific red ants (''[[Myrmica]]'' sp.) as social parasites feeding on the hosts’ brood, or being fed by [[Trophallaxis|trophallaxis]] (Thomas, 1995).  
**''Phengaris'' (=''Maculinea'') (Lycaenidae) - Sielezniew et al. (2015) - Caterpillars develop on specific host plants (depending on species: ''Thymus'' or ''Origanum'', ''Gentiana'' and ''Sanguisorba'') and complete their development inside the nests of specific red ants (''[[Myrmica]]'' sp.) as social parasites feeding on the hosts’ brood, or being fed by [[Trophallaxis|trophallaxis]] (Thomas, 1995).
+
 
***ant hosts
+
Hovestadt et al. (2019) used a population-genetic model to show how individual ''Maculinea'' species could theoretically switch ant hosts.
****''[[Myrmica schencki]]'' host of Mountain Alcon Blue (''Phengaris rebeli'') - fairly well studied association, see ''M. schencki'' species page
+
 
****''[[Myrmica lonae]]'' host of Large Blue (''Phengaris arion'')
+
**ant hosts
 +
***''[[Myrmica schencki]]'' host of Mountain Alcon Blue (''Phengaris rebeli'') - fairly well studied association, see ''M. schencki'' species page
 +
***''[[Myrmica lonae]]'' host of Large Blue (''Phengaris arion'')
  
 
==[[Mites]]==
 
==[[Mites]]==
 
There are a large number of mite species that live on and with ants.
 
There are a large number of mite species that live on and with ants.
  
===''Caesarodispus''===
+
*''Caesarodispus''
 
A genus of mites that use ants for transportation (phoresy).  
 
A genus of mites that use ants for transportation (phoresy).  
  
Line 481: Line 334:
 
|Rahiminejad et al. 2015
 
|Rahiminejad et al. 2015
 
|described from mites found on alates in northern Iran
 
|described from mites found on alates in northern Iran
|-
 
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
===''Oplitis''===
+
*''Oplitis''
 
Dos Santos Lopes et al. (2015) - Most Oplitidae are myrmecophilous or termitophilous (Hunter and Farrier 1975, 1976), with adults as the most commonly encountered instar on the ants. Available data suggest that host specificity in Oplitidae is quite high, with individual oplitid species usually associated with only one, or a few closely related, host species (Hunter and Farrier 1975, 1976; Campbell et al. 2013). ''Oplitis'' is found worldwide, but current understanding of local faunas varies widely among regions. For example, while the European fauna is fairly well studied, the Neotropical fauna is still relatively poorly known (Sellnick 1926, 1954, 1963; Zirngiebl-Nicol and Hirschmann 1973a, 1973b; Hirschmann 1975, 1991; Hiramatsu and Hirschmann 1983; Kontschán and Starý 2012).
 
Dos Santos Lopes et al. (2015) - Most Oplitidae are myrmecophilous or termitophilous (Hunter and Farrier 1975, 1976), with adults as the most commonly encountered instar on the ants. Available data suggest that host specificity in Oplitidae is quite high, with individual oplitid species usually associated with only one, or a few closely related, host species (Hunter and Farrier 1975, 1976; Campbell et al. 2013). ''Oplitis'' is found worldwide, but current understanding of local faunas varies widely among regions. For example, while the European fauna is fairly well studied, the Neotropical fauna is still relatively poorly known (Sellnick 1926, 1954, 1963; Zirngiebl-Nicol and Hirschmann 1973a, 1973b; Hirschmann 1975, 1991; Hiramatsu and Hirschmann 1983; Kontschán and Starý 2012).
  
 
A survey of mites on ants in the genus ''[[Neoponera]]'' from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, revealed a new ''Oplitis'' species of the paradoxa-Gruppe (Hirschmann 1991), interpreted here as ''Oplitis'' s.s., which will be described for the adult instars. This species is associated with three closely related ''Neoponera'' species in the ''Apicalis'' complex (Wild 2005).
 
A survey of mites on ants in the genus ''[[Neoponera]]'' from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, revealed a new ''Oplitis'' species of the paradoxa-Gruppe (Hirschmann 1991), interpreted here as ''Oplitis'' s.s., which will be described for the adult instars. This species is associated with three closely related ''Neoponera'' species in the ''Apicalis'' complex (Wild 2005).
  
====''Oplitis apicalis''====
+
*''Oplitis apicalis''
 
Dos Santos Lopes et al. (2015) - Associated with: ''[[Neoponera verenae]]'', ''[[Neoponera inversa]]'' and ''[[Neoponera apicalis]]''.
 
Dos Santos Lopes et al. (2015) - Associated with: ''[[Neoponera verenae]]'', ''[[Neoponera inversa]]'' and ''[[Neoponera apicalis]]''.
  
 
A total of 291 ''Oplitis'' specimens were recovered attached to ants. Five of these specimens, recovered from three different nests of ''N. verenae'', were identified as ''O. camponoti'' (Hirschmann 1991). Most likely this is accidental, as ''O. camponoti'' is normally associated with ants in the genus ''[[Camponotus]]'' (Hirschmann 1991).
 
A total of 291 ''Oplitis'' specimens were recovered attached to ants. Five of these specimens, recovered from three different nests of ''N. verenae'', were identified as ''O. camponoti'' (Hirschmann 1991). Most likely this is accidental, as ''O. camponoti'' is normally associated with ants in the genus ''[[Camponotus]]'' (Hirschmann 1991).
  
===Petalomium===
+
*''Petalomium''
 
Da Silva et al. (2017) - The mite genus ''Petalomium'' Cross 1965 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Neopygmephoridae) includes about 40 described species, most of them associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Khaustov 2015). The papers referring to ''Petalomium'' in Neotropical region are Mahunka (1981), describing ''P. affinitum'' from Santa Lucia, West Indies, and Berghoff et al. (2009), reporting 2 unidentified species from Republic of Panama. The aim of this study is to describe a new species associated with workers of the poneromorph ant ''[[Neoponera verenae]]'' from southern Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. For purposes of comparison, a closely related species, ''Petalomium gottrauxi'' Mahunka 1977 is redescribed based on the paratype and specimens from the Crimean Peninsula.
 
Da Silva et al. (2017) - The mite genus ''Petalomium'' Cross 1965 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Neopygmephoridae) includes about 40 described species, most of them associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Khaustov 2015). The papers referring to ''Petalomium'' in Neotropical region are Mahunka (1981), describing ''P. affinitum'' from Santa Lucia, West Indies, and Berghoff et al. (2009), reporting 2 unidentified species from Republic of Panama. The aim of this study is to describe a new species associated with workers of the poneromorph ant ''[[Neoponera verenae]]'' from southern Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. For purposes of comparison, a closely related species, ''Petalomium gottrauxi'' Mahunka 1977 is redescribed based on the paratype and specimens from the Crimean Peninsula.
  
Line 531: Line 378:
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Collembola==
+
==[[Collembola]]==
[[Collembola|Springtails]]
 
  
 
==Pseudoscorpions==
 
==Pseudoscorpions==
Line 548: Line 394:
 
*Rahiminejad, V., H. Hajiqanbar, and A. A. Talebi. 2015. Three new species of the genus ''Caesarodispus'' (Acari: Microdispidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to species. Entomological Science. 18:461-469. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ens.12149 10.1111/ens.12149]
 
*Rahiminejad, V., H. Hajiqanbar, and A. A. Talebi. 2015. Three new species of the genus ''Caesarodispus'' (Acari: Microdispidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to species. Entomological Science. 18:461-469. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ens.12149 10.1111/ens.12149]
 
*[[Media:Parker 2016.pdf|Parker, J. 2016. Myrmecophily in beetles (Coleoptera): evolutionary patterns and biological mechanisms. Myrmecological News(22): 65-108. '''PDF''']]
 
*[[Media:Parker 2016.pdf|Parker, J. 2016. Myrmecophily in beetles (Coleoptera): evolutionary patterns and biological mechanisms. Myrmecological News(22): 65-108. '''PDF''']]
 +
*[[Media:Arboreal myrmecophiles 2014.pdf|Perez-Lachaud G, Lachaud J-P. 2014.Arboreal Ant Colonies as "Hot-Points" of Cryptic Diversity for Myrmecophiles: The Weaver Ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor and its Interaction Network with its Associates. PLoS One 9(6):1-8.'''PDF''']]
 
*Sielezniew, M., D. Patricelli, R. Rutkowski, M. Witek, S. Bonelli, and M. M. Bus. 2015. Population genetics of the endangered obligatorily myrmecophilous butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea) arion in two areas of its European range. Insect Conservation and Diversity. 8:505-516. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/icad.12129 10.1111/icad.12129]
 
*Sielezniew, M., D. Patricelli, R. Rutkowski, M. Witek, S. Bonelli, and M. M. Bus. 2015. Population genetics of the endangered obligatorily myrmecophilous butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea) arion in two areas of its European range. Insect Conservation and Diversity. 8:505-516. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/icad.12129 10.1111/icad.12129]
 
*[[Media:Smith, 1886.pdf|Smith, J.B. 1886. Ants' Nests and their inhabitants. The American Naturalist, vol. 20 (8):679-687. '''PDF''']]
 
*[[Media:Smith, 1886.pdf|Smith, J.B. 1886. Ants' Nests and their inhabitants. The American Naturalist, vol. 20 (8):679-687. '''PDF''']]

Revision as of 18:35, 10 November 2019

Myrmecophiles may occupy a variety of ecological niches within their host ant colony. Some consume waste materials in the nests, such as dead ants, dead larvae, or fungi growing in the nest. A few feed on external secretions of ants and some are fed directly by their host ants. Some myrmecophiles feed on the stored food supplies of ants, and a few are predatory on ant eggs, larvae, pupae or even adults. Others benefit the ants by providing a food source for them. Many myrmecophilous relationships are obligate, meaning one or the other participant requires the relationship for survival. Some associations are facultative, benefiting one or both participants but not being necessary to their survival. Many myrmecophiles await discovery and for many the nature of the relationship with their host is unknown.


Mountain Alcon Blue (Phengaris rebeli)

Orthoptera

Myrmecophilidae

There are five genera of ant-loving crickets in this family and around 100 species. World-wide in distribution, many species are found with different species and genera of ant hosts. Many ant hosts are still unknown. All species are relatively small, wingless and flattened. These crickets do not produce sound and lack wings. There are no tympanal organs on the front tibia.

Diptera

Syrphidae

All are restricted to Madagascar and the Comoros Islands.

Found in Mexico, host ants are Pachycondyla

There are 15 known species. Larvae are found in ant nests. Native to the New World tropics.

The larvae feed as scavengers in the nests of ants, Pseudomyrmecinae. There are three native species from the southern United States to northern Argentina.

Coleoptera

Carabidae

Paussinae have a predominantly pan-tropical distribution. They comprise about 800 species.

  • Carabidomemnus
  • Eohomopterus
  • Arthropterus
  • Cerapterus

There are thirty-two species in this genus. All are assumed to be myrmecophiles.

There are 26 species in this myrmecophilous genus

A myrmecophilous genus of 12 species from South and Central America.

  • Eopaussus

The genera of the Paussidae of the Baltic amber. Zool Anz 68(1/2): 25-30. A single species, Eopaussus balticus from Baltic Amber.

There are seven species in this myrmecophilous genus of Carabidae.

The genus Lebioderus Westwood, 1938, belongs to the subtribe Platyrhopalina Jeannel, 1946, of the tribe Paussini Latreille, 1807, and is represented by nine species from Southeast Asia, including Indonesia [Jawa (Java), Sumatera (Sumatra), and Kalimantan], Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), and the Philippines (Luzon) (Luna de Carvalho, 1987).

  • Paussoides

Paussoides mengei is found in Prussian amber.

There are two extinct species in this genus from the Lower Oligocene, Florissant, Colorado.

A most species-rich genus with about 350 described species, all are assumed to have an obligatory symbiosis with ants. In this symbiosis the beetles provide rewarding chemical secretions to their host ants and in return receive protection, a safe place for their vulnerable larvae to develop and a reliable source of protein-rich food: the ants, particularly the brood.

There are sixteen species in this genus.

Endomychidae

Endomychidae includes a number of species closely associated with social insects, particularly ants and termites. Wasmann (1894) listed 11 endomychids associated with ants. Price and Young (2007) noted the close proximity of adults of Rhanidea unicolor to a colony of Lasius ants, although no direct association was inferred. Myrmecophily is the most common form of social insect inquilinism among endomychids; however, termitophilous and melittophilous species are also known. Endomychids have also been recovered from birds' nests.

Histeridae

Histeridae is worldwide in distribution with just under 4,300 known species, grouped into about 350 genera. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics. Both subfamilies Chlamydopsinae, mainly distributed in southern Asia, Pacific, and Australia, and Haeteriinae contain myrmeco- or termitophilous species. It is accepted that myrmecophiles feed on the larvae of ants or other insects or even regurgitated food from the host ants (Lapeva-Gjonova, 2013).

A myrmecophilous genus found in Arizona and Mexico. Host ants are unknown.

A myrmecophilous genus of six species found in North, Central, and South America. This genus is found in the nest of Solenopsis.

A myrmecophilous genus found with Pheidole ants.

This is a myrmecophilous genus of six species. Neivamyrmex is the probable host ant.

This Palearctic genus of five species is characterized by its elongate and subcylindrical shape, short, very wide tibia, and triangular labrum. They live in ant nests of several genera including Lasius, Aphaenogaster, Formica, and Tetramorium.

The genus Sternocoelis Lewis, 1888 is a small genus of myrmecophilous histerids with 27 described species distributed in the Mediterranean area with most species described from Morocco and Algeria.

There are fourteen species in this myrmecophilous genus of New World Histeridae. The host ant is the genus Pheidole.

There are six species in this myrmecophilous genus of Histeridae.

There are four species in this myrmecophilous genus that live in the nests of Solenopsis

Hydrophilidae

Scarabaeidae

There are thirty-two species from China and adjacent regions; host ant Liometopum.

Staphylinidae

Zyras funestus
Zyras humeralis
Zyras limbatus

There are three species in this myrmecophilous genus.

Tenebrionidae

Curculionidae

Lepidoptera / Butterflies

Lycaenidae

  • Phengaris (=Maculinea) (Lycaenidae) - Sielezniew et al. (2015) - Caterpillars develop on specific host plants (depending on species: Thymus or Origanum, Gentiana and Sanguisorba) and complete their development inside the nests of specific red ants (Myrmica sp.) as social parasites feeding on the hosts’ brood, or being fed by trophallaxis (Thomas, 1995).

Hovestadt et al. (2019) used a population-genetic model to show how individual Maculinea species could theoretically switch ant hosts.

    • ant hosts
      • Myrmica schencki host of Mountain Alcon Blue (Phengaris rebeli) - fairly well studied association, see M. schencki species page
      • Myrmica lonae host of Large Blue (Phengaris arion)

Mites

There are a large number of mite species that live on and with ants.

  • Caesarodispus

A genus of mites that use ants for transportation (phoresy).

Sortable table
Ant Species Mite Reference Remarks
Pheidole sp. alate Caesarodispus pheidolei Rahiminejad et al. 2015 described from mites found on alates in northern Iran
Tetramorium sp. alate Caesarodispus khaustovi Rahiminejad et al. 2015 described from mites found on alates in northern Iran
Tetramorium sp. alate Caesarodispus nodijensis Rahiminejad et al. 2015 described from mites found on alates in northern Iran
  • Oplitis

Dos Santos Lopes et al. (2015) - Most Oplitidae are myrmecophilous or termitophilous (Hunter and Farrier 1975, 1976), with adults as the most commonly encountered instar on the ants. Available data suggest that host specificity in Oplitidae is quite high, with individual oplitid species usually associated with only one, or a few closely related, host species (Hunter and Farrier 1975, 1976; Campbell et al. 2013). Oplitis is found worldwide, but current understanding of local faunas varies widely among regions. For example, while the European fauna is fairly well studied, the Neotropical fauna is still relatively poorly known (Sellnick 1926, 1954, 1963; Zirngiebl-Nicol and Hirschmann 1973a, 1973b; Hirschmann 1975, 1991; Hiramatsu and Hirschmann 1983; Kontschán and Starý 2012).

A survey of mites on ants in the genus Neoponera from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, revealed a new Oplitis species of the paradoxa-Gruppe (Hirschmann 1991), interpreted here as Oplitis s.s., which will be described for the adult instars. This species is associated with three closely related Neoponera species in the Apicalis complex (Wild 2005).

  • Oplitis apicalis

Dos Santos Lopes et al. (2015) - Associated with: Neoponera verenae, Neoponera inversa and Neoponera apicalis.

A total of 291 Oplitis specimens were recovered attached to ants. Five of these specimens, recovered from three different nests of N. verenae, were identified as O. camponoti (Hirschmann 1991). Most likely this is accidental, as O. camponoti is normally associated with ants in the genus Camponotus (Hirschmann 1991).

  • Petalomium

Da Silva et al. (2017) - The mite genus Petalomium Cross 1965 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Neopygmephoridae) includes about 40 described species, most of them associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Khaustov 2015). The papers referring to Petalomium in Neotropical region are Mahunka (1981), describing P. affinitum from Santa Lucia, West Indies, and Berghoff et al. (2009), reporting 2 unidentified species from Republic of Panama. The aim of this study is to describe a new species associated with workers of the poneromorph ant Neoponera verenae from southern Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. For purposes of comparison, a closely related species, Petalomium gottrauxi Mahunka 1977 is redescribed based on the paratype and specimens from the Crimean Peninsula.

Sortable table
Ant Species Mite Reference Remarks
Camponotus aethiops Petalomium gottrauxi Da Silva et al.. 2017 Known from Crimea and Iran
Myrmica ruginodis Petalomium gottrauxi Da Silva et al.. 2017 Known from Switzerland and Hungary
Neoponera verenae Petalomium verenae Da Silva et al., 2017 Brazil. Phoretic females attached to hairs between the first and second pairs of coxae

Collembola

Pseudoscorpions

  • Marachernes bellus (Harvey, 1992)

References