Difference between revisions of "Oecophylla smaragdina"

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|binomial = ''Oecophylla smaragdina''
 
|binomial = ''Oecophylla smaragdina''
 
|binomial_authority = (Fabricius, 1775)
 
|binomial_authority = (Fabricius, 1775)
 +
----
 
[[File:Oecophylla-smaragdina-MCZ001L.jpg|{{width}}]]
 
[[File:Oecophylla-smaragdina-MCZ001L.jpg|{{width}}]]
  
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[[:File:Oecophylla-smaragdina-MCZ001Label.jpg|Specimen Label]]
 
[[:File:Oecophylla-smaragdina-MCZ001Label.jpg|Specimen Label]]
 
 
 
|subdivision_ranks = Subspecies
 
|subdivision_ranks = Subspecies
 
|subdivision =
 
|subdivision =
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*''[[Oecophylla smaragdina selebensis]]'' Emery, 1893
 
*''[[Oecophylla smaragdina selebensis]]'' Emery, 1893
 
*''[[Oecophylla smaragdina subnitida]]'' Emery, 1892
 
*''[[Oecophylla smaragdina subnitida]]'' Emery, 1892
 
 
|synonyms =
 
|synonyms =
 
*''[[Formica macra]]'' Guérin-Méneville, 1831
 
*''[[Formica macra]]'' Guérin-Méneville, 1831
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*''[[Formica viridis]]'' Kirby, W., 1819
 
*''[[Formica viridis]]'' Kirby, W., 1819
 
*''[[Formica zonata]]'' Guérin-Méneville, 1838
 
*''[[Formica zonata]]'' Guérin-Méneville, 1838
 +
}}
 +
Aggressive arboreal ants that use larval silk to weave together leaves to form their nesting cavities. A mature colony of ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' can entirely dominate a tree (sometimes several) with nests distributed throughout their heavily defended arboreal territory.
  
 +
{{Photo Gallery
 +
|name1 = Oecophylla smaragdina coccoids Peeters.jpg
 +
|comment1 = Foragers gathering honeydew from scale insects. Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.
 +
|name2 = Oecophylla smaragdina Prachuap nest Peeters.jpeg
 +
|comment2 = Leaf nest woven with larval silk. Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.
 +
|name3 = Oecophylla smaragdina with Camponotus prey, Murray Falls, Kirrama National Park, Queensland, Australia (Jordan Dean).jpg
 +
|comment3 = ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' worker with ''Camponotus'' prey, Murray Falls, Kirrama National Park, Queensland, Australia. Photo by Jordan Dean.
 +
|size3=350px
 +
|name4 = Oecophylla AQ David Maitland.jpg
 +
|comment4 = Pleometrotic colony foundation from Kakadu, NT, Australia. The first workers born were small, accentuating the dimorphism in body size relative to queens. Photo by David Maitland.
 +
|name5=Oecophylla smaragdina (Kalesh Sadasivan).jpg
 +
|comment5=''Oecophylla smargdina'' attending a Redspot butterfly Larva (''Zesius chrysomallus'', Lycaenidae). The ants protect the caterpillar from predators while receiving sugary nectar from the dorsal nectar glands of the larva. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.
 +
|name6 = Lycaenid-ant interaction, Goa, India, Kalesh Sadasivan.jpg
 +
|comment6 = Lycaenid-Ant Interaction: Caterpillars of lycaenid butterflies (in this case ''Arhopala'' sp.) have evolved specialized organs that secrete chemicals to feed and appease tending ants. Surla, Goa, India. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.
 +
|name7=Oecophylla smaragdina with spider, Pavan Ramachandra.jpg
 +
|size7=550px
 +
|comment7=''[[Oecophylla smaragdina]]'' with mimetic spider that was detected and attacked. Photo by Pavan Ramachandra.
 
}}
 
}}
 
==Identification==
 
==Identification==
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==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
 +
Wetterer (2017) - The vast majority of ''O. smaragdina'' records come from areas with Tropical climates according to the Köppen-Geiger system: rainforest, monsoon, and savanna. However, >250 records come from areas classified on the map as having Subtropical climates, mostly in the Himalayan foothills of India and Nepal, southern China, northern Vietnam, and the southern coast of Queensland, Australia. Almost all these sites are classified as dry winter subtropical climate. A few ''O. smaragdina'' sites are classified as having Arid climates, all from warm semi-arid areas.
 +
 
<!--DO NOT EDIT THIS TEXT. To update this list add or remove taxa from individual regional taxon list pages.-->
 
<!--DO NOT EDIT THIS TEXT. To update this list add or remove taxa from individual regional taxon list pages.-->
 
===Distribution based on [[:Category:Regional Taxon List|Regional Taxon Lists]]===
 
===Distribution based on [[:Category:Regional Taxon List|Regional Taxon Lists]]===
'''[[:Category:Australasian Region|Australasian Region]]''': [[Australia]] {{SmallFont|([[type locality]])}}.<br />'''[[:Category:Indo-Australian Region|Indo-Australian Region]]''': [[Borneo]], [[Indonesia]], [[Krakatau Islands]], [[Malaysia]], [[New Guinea]], [[Philippines]], [[Singapore]].<br />'''[[:Category:Oriental Region|Oriental Region]]''': [[Bangladesh]], [[Cambodia]], [[India]] {{SmallFont|([[type locality]])}}, [[Nepal]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[Thailand]].<br />'''[[:Category:Palaearctic Region|Palaearctic Region]]''': [[China]].<br />
+
'''[[:Category:Australasian Region|Australasian Region]]''': [[Australia]] {{SmallFont|([[type locality]])}}.<br />'''[[:Category:Indo-Australian Region|Indo-Australian Region]]''': [[Borneo]], [[Indonesia]], [[Krakatau Islands]], [[Malaysia]], [[New Guinea]], [[Philippines]], [[Singapore]].<br />'''[[:Category:Oriental Region|Oriental Region]]''': [[Bangladesh]], [[Cambodia]], [[India]] {{SmallFont|([[type locality]])}}, [[Laos]], [[Nepal]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[Thailand]].<br />'''[[:Category:Palaearctic Region|Palaearctic Region]]''': [[China]].<br />
 
<!--END OF DISTRIBUTION LIST-->
 
<!--END OF DISTRIBUTION LIST-->
  
{{Google Maps||-7|115|3}}
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{{AntMapsMap}}
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==Biology==
 +
There is a webpage with a [[Oecophylla publications|list of some recent publications]] about weaver ants. You can also read an overview of their biology from the a chapter in The Ants: [[The Ants Chapter 19|The Weaver Ants]] (Hölldobler and Wilson 1990).
  
==Biology==
+
Peeters and Andersen (1989) - A few aggregations of dealate queens were collected in coastal regions of Northern Territory, Australia. Newly mated queens can cooperate to found new colonies, but only one survives in established colonies of ''0. smaragdina''.
[[File:Oecophylla smaragdina coccoids Peeters.jpg|thumb|none|600px|Foragers gathering honeydew from scale insects. Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters]]
 
[[File:Oecophylla smaragdina Prachuap nest Peeters.jpeg|thumb|none|600px|Leaf nest woven with larval silk. Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters]]
 
  
==Castes==
+
Pinkalski et al. (2015) - Colonies nesting in mango trees (''Mangifera indica'') in Darwin, Australia were found to deposit significant amounts of nitrogen on their host trees via their waste. This deposition increased when the ants were provided access to additional sucrose resources.
A few aggregations of dealate queens were collected in coastal regions of Northern Territory, Australia. Mated queens can cooperate to found new colonies, but only one survives in established colonies of ''0. smaragdina'' (Peeters & Andersen 1989).
 
  
 +
[[File:Oecophylla smaragdina foragers Thailand Peeters.jpg|thumb|none|400px|Cooperative retrieval of prey. From Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.]]
  
[[File:Oecophylla AQ David Maitland.jpg|thumb|none|600px|Pleometrotic colony foundation from Kakadu, NT, Australia. The first workers born were small, accentuating the dimorphism in body size relative to queens. Photo by David Maitland.]]
+
===Association with Other Organisms===
 +
====Hymenoptera====
 +
*{{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = chalcid wasp|Associate Type Link = Parasites and Parasitoids|Associate Taxon = ''Smicromorpha doddi''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = parasite|Associate Relationship Link =Parasites and Parasitoids|Locality = |Source = Universal Chalcidoidea Database|Notes =primary host|Inline = }}
 +
*{{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = chalcid wasp|Associate Type Link = Parasites and Parasitoids|Associate Taxon = ''Smicromorpha keralensis''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = parasite|Associate Relationship Link =Parasites and Parasitoids|Locality = |Source = Universal Chalcidoidea Database|Notes =primary host|Inline = }}
 +
*{{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = chalcid wasp|Associate Type Link = Parasites and Parasitoids|Associate Taxon = ''Smicromorpha masneri''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = parasite|Associate Relationship Link =Parasites and Parasitoids|Locality = |Source = Universal Chalcidoidea Database|Notes =associate, primary host|Inline = }}
 +
*{{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = encyrtid wasp|Associate Type Link = Parasites and Parasitoids|Associate Taxon = ''Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = parasite|Associate Relationship Link =Parasites and Parasitoids|Locality = |Source = Universal Chalcidoidea Database|Notes =associate|Inline = }}
  
 +
====Fungi====
 +
*{{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = fungus|Associate Type Link = Entomopathogenic fungi|Associate Taxon = ''Ophiocordyceps oecophyllae''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = pathogen|Associate Relationship Link =|Locality = |Source = Araujo et al., 2018|Notes = }}
  
 +
==Castes==
 +
[[File:Oeco smaragdina large workers and males Peeters.jpg|thumb|none|400px|Males and large workers outside a leaf nest. From Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.]]
 +
 +
===Worker===
 
<gallery perrow=4 caption='Images provided by Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology'>
 
<gallery perrow=4 caption='Images provided by Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology'>
 
File:Oecophylla-smaragdinaH2.jpg
 
File:Oecophylla-smaragdinaH2.jpg
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File:Oecophylla-smaragdinaLabel.jpg
 
File:Oecophylla-smaragdinaLabel.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 
 
<gallery perrow=4 caption='The following images are provided by AntWeb'>
 
<gallery perrow=4 caption='The following images are provided by AntWeb'>
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0106113 head 1.jpg|Head view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0106113 head 1.jpg|Head view
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File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0106113 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0106113 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0106113 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0106113 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 head 1.jpg|Head view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 profile 1.jpg|Side view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 profile 2.jpg
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
 
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173646 head 1.jpg|Head view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173646 head 1.jpg|Head view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173646 profile 1.jpg|Side view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173646 profile 1.jpg|Side view
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File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173648 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173648 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173648 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173648 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
</gallery>
 
<gallery perrow=4 caption='The following images are provided by AntWeb'>
 
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 head 1.jpg|Head view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 head 1.jpg|Head view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 profile 1.jpg|Side view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 profile 1.jpg|Side view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
 
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0070232 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
 +
</gallery>
 +
===Queen===
 +
<gallery perrow=4 caption='The following images are provided by AntWeb'>
 +
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 head 1.jpg|Head view
 +
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 profile 1.jpg|Side view
 +
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 profile 2.jpg
 +
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 dorsal 1.jpg|Top view
 +
File:Oecophylla smaragdina casent0173644 label 1.jpg|Specimen labels
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
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===Description===
 
===Description===
 +
====Karyotype====
 +
*{{Karyotype|haploid=|diploid=16|karyotype=16M|locality=India|notes=|source=Imai et al., 1984}}
 +
*{{Karyotype|haploid=8|diploid=|karyotype=|locality=Malaysia|notes=|source=Crozier, 1970b}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
*Araújo, J.P.M., Evans, H.C., Kepler, R., Hughes, D.P. 2018. Zombie-ant fungi across continents: 15 new species and new combinations within Ophiocordyceps. I. Myrmecophilous hirsutelloid species. Studies in Mycology 90: 119–160 (DOI 10.1016/j.simyco.2017.12.002).
 
*Baltazar, C. R. 1966.  A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963). Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 1-488 (page 268, listed)
 
*Baltazar, C. R. 1966.  A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963). Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 1-488 (page 268, listed)
 +
*Bharti, H & Kaur, I. 2011. SEM studies on immature stages of weaver ant ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' from India. Halteres 3, 16-25.
 +
*Bharti, H. & Silla, S. 2011. Notes on life history of ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' and its potential as biological control agent. Halteres 3, 57-64.
 +
*[[Media:Cole&Jones 1948.pdf| Cole, A. C., Jr.; Jones, J. W., Jr. 1948. A study of the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fab.). American Midland Naturalist 39:641-651. [1948-07-28] '''PDF''']]
 
*Crozier, R. H. 1970a.  Karyotypes of twenty-one ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with reviews of the known ant karyotypes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 12: 109-128 (page 115, karyotype described)
 
*Crozier, R. H. 1970a.  Karyotypes of twenty-one ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with reviews of the known ant karyotypes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 12: 109-128 (page 115, karyotype described)
 
*Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893.  Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 176, Senior synonym of macra and zonata)
 
*Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893.  Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 176, Senior synonym of macra and zonata)
 
*Fabricius, J. C. 1775.  Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. Flensburgi et Lipsiae [= Flensburg and Leipzig]: Korte, 832 pp. (page 828, queen described)
 
*Fabricius, J. C. 1775.  Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. Flensburgi et Lipsiae [= Flensburg and Leipzig]: Korte, 832 pp. (page 828, queen described)
 +
*Gill, Katherine  & Ellen van Wilgenburg & Peter Taylor & Mark A. Elgar. 2012. Collective retention and transmission of chemical signals in a social insect. Naturwissenschaften, DOI 10.1007/s00114-012-0891-7.
 
*Jerdon, T. C. 1851.  A catalogue of the species of ants found in Southern India. Madras J. Lit. Sci. 17: 103-127 (page 121, worker, male described)
 
*Jerdon, T. C. 1851.  A catalogue of the species of ants found in Southern India. Madras J. Lit. Sci. 17: 103-127 (page 121, worker, male described)
 
*Mayr, G. 1872.  Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865-1867. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 2: 133-155 (page 143, Senior synonym of virescens)
 
*Mayr, G. 1872.  Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865-1867. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 2: 133-155 (page 143, Senior synonym of virescens)
 +
*[[Media:Offenberg et al 2004.pdf|Offenberg, J., Havanon, S., Aksornkoae, S., MacIntosh, D. J., & Nielsen, M. G. (2004). Observations on the ecology of weaver ants (''Oecophylla smaragdina'' Fabricius) in a thai mangrove ecosystem and their effect on herbivory of ''Rhizophora mucronata'' lam. Biotropica, 36(3), 344-351. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2004.tb00326.x '''PDF''']]
 +
*[[Media:Psyche Oeco.pdf|Peeters, C. & Andersen, A.N. 1989. Cooperation between dealate queens during colony foundation in the Green Tree Ant, ''Oecophylla smaragdina''. Psyche, 96: 39-44.]]
 +
*Pierre, E.M. & Idris, A.H. 2013. Studies on the predatory activities of ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on ''Pteroma pendula'' (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in oil palm plantations in Teluk Intan, Perak (Malaysia). Asian Myrmecology 5, 163-176.
 +
*Pinkalski, C., C. Damgaard, K. M. V. Jensen, R. K. Peng, and J. Offenberg. 2015. Quantification of Ant Manure Deposition in a Tropical Agroecosystem: Implications for Host Plant Nitrogen Acquisition. Ecosystems. 18:1373-1382. doi:[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9906-5 10.1007/s10021-015-9906-5]
 +
*[[Media:Rahman, M.M., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K. 2917. Phylogenetic Position of the Western Bangladesh Populations of Weaver Ant, Oecophylla smaragdina.pdf|Rahman, M.M., Hosoishi, S., Ogata, K. 2017. Phylogenetic Position of the Western Bangladesh Populations of Weaver Ant, ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 64(4): 437-441 (doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v64i4.1153).]]
 
*Roger, J. 1863b.  Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 10, Senior synonym of macra and zonata)
 
*Roger, J. 1863b.  Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 10, Senior synonym of macra and zonata)
 
*Smith, F. 1857a.  Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 53, Senior synonym of viridis)
 
*Smith, F. 1857a.  Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 2: 42-88 (page 53, Senior synonym of viridis)
Line 163: Line 206:
 
*Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985.  Formicoidea. Zool. Cat. Aust. 2:1- 149: 1-149, 30 (page 127, Senior synonym of viridis)
 
*Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985.  Formicoidea. Zool. Cat. Aust. 2:1- 149: 1-149, 30 (page 127, Senior synonym of viridis)
 
*Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985.  Formicoidea. Zool. Cat. Aust. 2:1- 149: 1-149, 30 (page 127, Senior synonym of virescens)
 
*Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985.  Formicoidea. Zool. Cat. Aust. 2:1- 149: 1-149, 30 (page 127, Senior synonym of virescens)
 +
*Van Itterbeeck, J, Sivongxay, N,  Praxaysombath, B & van Huis, A 2015. Preliminary observations on gravid queen protection in ''Oecophylla smaragdina'': Evacuation and retinue function. Asian Myrmecology 7: 155-158.
 +
*[[Media:Wetterer, J.K. 2017. Geographic distribution of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina.pdf|Wetterer, J.K. 2017. Geographic distribution of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina. Asian Myrmecology 9, e009004 (DOI 10.20362/am.009004).]]
 
*Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1953e.  The ant larvae of the subfamily Formicinae. Part II. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46: 175-217 (page 176, larva described)
 
*Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1953e.  The ant larvae of the subfamily Formicinae. Part II. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46: 175-217 (page 176, larva described)
===Additional References===
+
*Woodall, P.F., Woodall, L.B. 2004. Southern range extension of the green tree ant Oecophylla smaragdina in Queensland. Queensland Naturalist 42(1-3): 17-19.
*Bharti, H & Kaur, I. 2011. SEM studies on immature stages of weaver ant ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' from India. Halteres 3, 16-25.
 
 
 
*Bharti, H. & Silla, S. 2011. Notes on life history of ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' and its potential as biological control agent. Halteres 3, 57-64.
 
 
 
*[[Media:Cole&Jones 1948.pdf| Cole, A. C., Jr.; Jones, J. W., Jr. 1948. A study of the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fab.). American Midland Naturalist 39:641-651. [1948-07-28] '''PDF''']]
 
 
 
*Gill, Katherine  & Ellen van Wilgenburg & Peter Taylor & Mark A. Elgar. 2012. Collective retention and transmission of chemical signals in a social insect. Naturwissenschaften, DOI 10.1007/s00114-012-0891-7.
 
*[[Media:Offenberg et al 2004.pdf|Offenberg, J., Havanon, S., Aksornkoae, S., MacIntosh, D. J., & Nielsen, M. G. (2004). Observations on the ecology of weaver ants (''Oecophylla smaragdina'' Fabricius) in a thai mangrove ecosystem and their effect on herbivory of ''Rhizophora mucronata'' lam. Biotropica, 36(3), 344-351. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2004.tb00326.x '''PDF''']]
 
*[[Media:Psyche Oeco.pdf|Peeters, C. & Andersen, A.N. 1989. Cooperation between dealate queens during colony foundation in the Green Tree Ant, ''Oecophylla smaragdina''. Psyche, 96: 39-44. '''PDF''']]
 
*Pierre, E.M. & Idris, A.H. 2013. Studies on the predatory activities of ''Oecophylla smaragdina'' (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on ''Pteroma pendula'' (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in oil palm plantations in Teluk Intan, Perak (Malaysia). Asian Myrmecology 5, 163-176.
 
*Van Itterbeeck, J, Sivongxay, N,  Praxaysombath, B & van Huis, A 2015. Preliminary observations on gravid queen protection in ''Oecophylla smaragdina'': Evacuation and retinue function. Asian Myrmecology 7: 155-158.
 
  
 
[[category:Species]]
 
[[category:Species]]

Latest revision as of 20:12, 14 February 2020

Oecophylla smaragdina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Oecophyllini
Genus: Oecophylla
Species: O. smaragdina
Binomial name
Oecophylla smaragdina
(Fabricius, 1775)

Oecophylla-smaragdina-MCZ001L.jpg

Oecophylla-smaragdina-MCZ001D.jpg

Specimen Label

Subspecies
Synonyms

Aggressive arboreal ants that use larval silk to weave together leaves to form their nesting cavities. A mature colony of Oecophylla smaragdina can entirely dominate a tree (sometimes several) with nests distributed throughout their heavily defended arboreal territory.


Photo Gallery

  • Foragers gathering honeydew from scale insects. Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.
  • Leaf nest woven with larval silk. Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.
  • Oecophylla smaragdina worker with Camponotus prey, Murray Falls, Kirrama National Park, Queensland, Australia. Photo by Jordan Dean.
  • Pleometrotic colony foundation from Kakadu, NT, Australia. The first workers born were small, accentuating the dimorphism in body size relative to queens. Photo by David Maitland.
  • Oecophylla smargdina attending a Redspot butterfly Larva (Zesius chrysomallus, Lycaenidae). The ants protect the caterpillar from predators while receiving sugary nectar from the dorsal nectar glands of the larva. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.
  • Lycaenid-Ant Interaction: Caterpillars of lycaenid butterflies (in this case Arhopala sp.) have evolved specialized organs that secrete chemicals to feed and appease tending ants. Surla, Goa, India. Photo by Kalesh Sadasivan.
  • Oecophylla smaragdina with mimetic spider that was detected and attacked. Photo by Pavan Ramachandra.

Identification

Distribution

Wetterer (2017) - The vast majority of O. smaragdina records come from areas with Tropical climates according to the Köppen-Geiger system: rainforest, monsoon, and savanna. However, >250 records come from areas classified on the map as having Subtropical climates, mostly in the Himalayan foothills of India and Nepal, southern China, northern Vietnam, and the southern coast of Queensland, Australia. Almost all these sites are classified as dry winter subtropical climate. A few O. smaragdina sites are classified as having Arid climates, all from warm semi-arid areas.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Australasian Region: Australia (type locality).
Indo-Australian Region: Borneo, Indonesia, Krakatau Islands, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore.
Oriental Region: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India (type locality), Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand.
Palaearctic Region: China.


Distribution based on AntMaps

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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

There is a webpage with a list of some recent publications about weaver ants. You can also read an overview of their biology from the a chapter in The Ants: The Weaver Ants (Hölldobler and Wilson 1990).

Peeters and Andersen (1989) - A few aggregations of dealate queens were collected in coastal regions of Northern Territory, Australia. Newly mated queens can cooperate to found new colonies, but only one survives in established colonies of 0. smaragdina.

Pinkalski et al. (2015) - Colonies nesting in mango trees (Mangifera indica) in Darwin, Australia were found to deposit significant amounts of nitrogen on their host trees via their waste. This deposition increased when the ants were provided access to additional sucrose resources.

Cooperative retrieval of prey. From Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.

Association with Other Organisms

Hymenoptera

  • This species is a host for the chalcid wasp Smicromorpha doddi (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).
  • This species is a host for the chalcid wasp Smicromorpha keralensis (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).
  • This species is a host for the chalcid wasp Smicromorpha masneri (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (associate, primary host).
  • This species is a host for the encyrtid wasp Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (associate).

Fungi

  • This species is a host for the fungus Ophiocordyceps oecophyllae (a pathogen) (Araujo et al., 2018).

Castes

Males and large workers outside a leaf nest. From Prachuap Khiri Khan province, Thailand. Photo by Christian Peeters.

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • smaragdina. Formica smaragdina Fabricius, 1775: 828 (q.) INDIA. Jerdon, 1851: 121 (w.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953e: 176 (l.); Crozier, 1970: 115 (k.). Combination in Oecophylla: Smith, F. 1860b: 102. Senior synonym of viridis: Smith, F. 1857a: 53; Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 127; of macra, zonata: Roger, 1863b: 10; Dalla Torre, 1893: 176; of virescens: Mayr, 1872: 143; Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 127. Current subspecies: nominal plus fuscoides, gracilior, gracillima, selebensis, subnitida.
  • virescens. Formica virescens Fabricius, 1775: 392 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Smith, F. 1858b: 30 (m.). Combination in Oecophylla: Smith, F. 1860b: 102. Status as species: Dalla Torre, 1893: 177; Emery, 1921c: 102. Subspecies of smaragdina: Emery, 1887a: 242; Forel, 1915b: 95; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 228 (in key); Emery, 1925b: 52; Karavaiev, 1933a: 315. Junior synonym of smaragdina: Mayr, 1872: 143; Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 127.
  • viridis. Formica viridis Kirby, W. 1819: 478 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Junior synonym of virescens: Roger, 1863b: 10; Dalla Torre, 1893: 177; Emery, 1925b: 52; of smaragdina: Smith, F. 1857a: 53; Taylor & Brown, D.R. 1985: 127.
  • macra. Formica macra Guérin-Méneville, 1831, pl. 8, fig. 1 (w.) "Offack". Junior synonym of virescens: Smith, F. 1858b: 29; of smaragdina: Roger, 1863b: 10; Dalla Torre, 1893: 176; Arnold, 1922: 609.
  • zonata. Formica zonata Guérin-Méneville, 1838: 205 (q.) "Port Praslin". Junior synonym of smaragdina: Roger, 1863b: 10; Dalla Torre, 1893: 176.

Type Material

Description

Karyotype

  • 2n = 16, karyotype = 16M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • n = 8 (Malaysia) (Crozier, 1970b).

References