Difference between revisions of "Pheidole"

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Unknown species of ''Pheidole'' are hosts for the [[Parasites and Parasitoids|strepsipteran]] {{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = strepsipteran|Associate Type Link = Parasites and Parasitoids|Associate Taxon = ''Stichotrema robertsoni''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = parasite|Associate Relationship Link =Parasites and Parasitoids|Locality = |Source = Cook, 2019|Notes =|Inline = yes}} (Cook, 2019) and the [[Myrmecophilus|cricket]] {{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = cricket|Associate Type Link = Myrmecophiles|Associate Taxon = ''Myrmecophilus ochraceus''|Associate Taxon Link =|Associate Relationship = myrmecophile|Associate Relationship Link = Myrmecophilus|Locality =Mediterranean region|Source =|Notes =|Inline =yes}}.
 
Unknown species of ''Pheidole'' are hosts for the [[Parasites and Parasitoids|strepsipteran]] {{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = strepsipteran|Associate Type Link = Parasites and Parasitoids|Associate Taxon = ''Stichotrema robertsoni''|Associate Taxon Link = |Associate Relationship = parasite|Associate Relationship Link =Parasites and Parasitoids|Locality = |Source = Cook, 2019|Notes =|Inline = yes}} (Cook, 2019) and the [[Myrmecophilus|cricket]] {{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = cricket|Associate Type Link = Myrmecophiles|Associate Taxon = ''Myrmecophilus ochraceus''|Associate Taxon Link =|Associate Relationship = myrmecophile|Associate Relationship Link = Myrmecophilus|Locality =Mediterranean region|Source =|Notes =|Inline =yes}}.
 +
 +
An unknown species is host for the [[Mites|ectoparasitic mite]] {{Associate|Relationship = host|Associate Type = mite|Associate Type Link = Mites|Associate Taxon = ''Caesarodispus pheidolei''|Associate Taxon Link =|Associate Relationship = parasite|Locality =Iran|Source = Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015|Notes =ectoparasite|Inline =yes}} in Iran (Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015).
  
 
{{CargoGenusAssociateList}}
 
{{CargoGenusAssociateList}}
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*Emery, C. 1895l.  Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
 
*Emery, C. 1895l.  Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 769, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
 
*Emery, C. 1914e.  Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 40, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
 
*Emery, C. 1914e.  Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 40, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
 +
*Emery, C. 1921c.  Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7  (page 77, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
 
*Emery, C. 1921c.  Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7  (page 84, Pheidole senior synonym of Allopheidole and Cardiopheidole)
 
*Emery, C. 1921c.  Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7  (page 84, Pheidole senior synonym of Allopheidole and Cardiopheidole)
*Emery, C. 1921c.  Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7  (page 77, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
 
 
*Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879.  Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 463, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
 
*Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879.  Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 463, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
 
*Forel, A. 1893b.  Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 165, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
 
*Forel, A. 1893b.  Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 165, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
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*Mayr, G. 1861.  Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 69, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
 
*Mayr, G. 1861.  Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. (page 69, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
 
*Mayr, G. 1865.  Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1.  Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 22, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
 
*Mayr, G. 1865.  Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1.  Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 22, Pheidole in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
 +
*[[Media:Rahiminejad, V., Hajiqanbar, H. et al. 2015. Three new species of the genus Caesarodispus associated with ants (10.1111@ens.12149).pdf|Rahiminejad, V., Hajiqanbar, H., Talebi, A.A. 2015. Three new species of the genus ''Caesarodispus'' (Acari: Microdispidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to species. Entomological Science 18, 461–469]] ({{doi|10.1111/ens.12149}}).
 
*[[Media:Moreau C Sarnat E 2011.pdf|Sarnat, E.M. & Moreau, C.S. 2011. Biogeography and morphological evolution in a Pacific island ant radiation. Molecular Ecology 20: 114-130 (DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04916.x)]]
 
*[[Media:Moreau C Sarnat E 2011.pdf|Sarnat, E.M. & Moreau, C.S. 2011. Biogeography and morphological evolution in a Pacific island ant radiation. Molecular Ecology 20: 114-130 (DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04916.x)]]
 
*Smith, D. R. 1979.  Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.)  Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata).  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. (page 1365, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (a)
 
*Smith, D. R. 1979.  Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.)  Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata).  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. (page 1365, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (a)

Revision as of 22:44, 18 October 2020

Pheidole
Temporal range: 37.2–0 Ma Eocene – Recent
Pheidole aberrans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Pheidole
Westwood, 1839
Type species
Atta providens, now Pheidole providens
Diversity
1,289 species
5 fossil species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Pheidole aberrans casent0178005 profile 1.jpg

Pheidole aberrans

Pheidole aberrans casent0178005 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms
Evolutionary Relationships
Attini

Ochetomyrmex (2 species), Tranopelta (2 species)




Allomerus (8 species), Blepharidatta (4 species), Diaphoromyrma (1 species), Lachnomyrmex (16 species), Wasmannia (11 species)






Acanthognathus (7 species), Colobostruma (16 species), Daceton (2 species), Epopostruma (19 species), Lenomyrmex (7 species), Mesostruma (9 species), Microdaceton (4 species), Orectognathus (29 species),




Acromyrmex (58 species), Apterostigma (44 species), Atta (20 species), Cyatta (1 species), Cyphomyrmex (23 species), Kalathomyrmex (1 species), Mycetophylax (21 species), Mycetagroicus (4 species), Mycetarotes (4 species), Mycetosoritis (2 species), Mycocepurus (6 species), Myrmicocrypta (31 species), Sericomyrmex (11 species), Trachymyrmex (9 species), Xerolitor (1 species)





Pheidole
  (1,289 species)




Cephalotes
  (119 species)



Procryptocerus
  (44 species)







Strumigenys
  (852 species)




Phalacromyrmex
  (1 species)



Pilotrochus
  (1 species)







Protalaridris
  (7 species)



Rhopalothrix
  (16 species)





Basiceros
  (8 species)




Octostruma
  (34 species)




Eurhopalothrix
  (53 species)



Talaridris
  (1 species)














Based on Ward et al. (2014), Blaimer et al. (2018) and Li et al. (2018).

A hyperdiverse genus of ants that are distinguished by their discrete major and minor workers. While there are other genera with discrete worker castes, none have radiated to the extent of Pheidole. Ants in this genus are most diverse and abundant in the Neotropics but they are also abundant elements of the ant faunas in many other areas of the world. Wilson's (2003) treatment of the New World species and other more recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have brought some much needed clarity to defining the boundaries of many species. Still, much work remains before it can be claimed that the genus Pheidole has few new species to be described and that the taxonomy of the group is definitively complete.


Photo Gallery

  • Major and minor worker from Mysuru, Karnataka, India. Photo by Pavan Ramachandra (November 2019).
  • Pheidole are general scavengers, feeding on a wide range of prey. Here, a worker of an Australian species returns to its nest with an amphipod. Photo by Steve Shattuck.
  • An Australian species returns to its nest with a dead Camponotus worker. Photo by Steve Shattuck.
  • Major worker from Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. Photo by Steve Shattuck.
  • A nest found in leaf litter in northern Queensland, Australia. Photo by Steve Shattuck.

Identification

Pheidole Working Group - Characters

Pheidole Working Group - Keys

Pheidole Working Group - Participants

Pheidole Working Group - Taxonomic Catalogue

AntWeb icon 02.png See images of species within this genus

Keys including this Genus

Keys to Subgenera or Species Groups in this Genus

Keys to Species in this Genus

Regional Treatments

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Fossils

Fossils are known from: Baltic amber (Bartonian, Middle to Late Eocene), Dominican amber, Dominican Republic (Burdigalian, Early Miocene), Florissant, Colorado, United States (Late Eocene).

Biology

Association with Other Organisms

Species Uncertain

Unknown species of Pheidole are hosts for the following encyrtid and eucharitid wasps (Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database): Holcencyrtus wheeleri (associate), Australosema valgius (primary host), Hayatosema assectator (primary host), Losbanus "sp. nr. rugulosa", Orasema sp. (primary host), Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri", Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri", Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri", Orasema minuta (primary host), Orasema minutissima, Orasema susanae (primary host), Orasema tolteca (primary host), Orasema wayqecha, Orasemorpha eribotes (primary host) and Orasemorpha myrmicae (primary host).

Unknown species of Pheidole are hosts for the strepsipteran Stichotrema robertsoni (Cook, 2019) and the cricket Myrmecophilus ochraceus.

An unknown species is host for the ectoparasitic mite Caesarodispus pheidolei in Iran (Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015).

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide associate data.
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Pheidole host cricket Myrmecophilus ochraceus myrmecophile Mediterranean region
Pheidole host encyrtid wasp Holcencyrtus wheeleri parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Australosema valgius parasite Girault, 1913; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Hayatosema assectator parasite Das, 1963; Kerrich, 1963; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Losbanus "sp. nr. rugulosa" parasite Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019 primary host
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" parasite Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019 ''Pheidole'' nr. ''californica''
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" parasite Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019 ''Pheidole'' nr. ''clementensis''
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema "sp. 2 nr. bakeri" parasite Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema minuta parasite Heraty, 1990; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Pheidole'' nr. ''tetra''
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema minutissima parasite Mann, 1918; Heraty, 1994; Wetterer & Porter, 2003; Burks et al. 2018; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema sp. parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema susanae parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host; ''Pheidole'' nr. ''tetra''
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema tolteca parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasema wayqecha parasite Herreid, 2015; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasemorpha eribotes parasite Boucek, 1988; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole host eucharitid wasp Orasemorpha myrmicae parasite Heraty, 1994; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole host mite Caesarodispus pheidolei parasite Iran Rahiminejad & Hajiqanbar, 2015 ectoparasite
Pheidole host strepsipteran Stichotrema robertsoni parasite Cook, 2019
Pheidole alfaroi host eucharitid wasp Orasema wayqecha parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole bicarinata host eucharitid wasp Orasema coloradensis parasite Wheeler, 1907; Johnson et al., 1986; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole bicarinata host eucharitid wasp Oresema sp. parasite Arizona Stefan Cover (pers. obs.)
Pheidole bicarinata host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole capensis host eucharitid wasp Timioderus acuminatus parasite Heraty, 2000; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole ceres host ant Pheidole elecebra workerless inquiline
Pheidole ceres host eucharitid wasp Orasema wheeleri parasite Wheeler, 1907; Gahan, 1940; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole dentata host eucharitid wasp Orasema achkola parasite Heraty, 1994; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole dentata host eucharitid wasp Orasema evansi parasite Burks et al., 2018; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole dentata host eucharitid wasp Orasema robertsoni parasite Van Pelt, 1950; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole desertorum host eucharitid wasp Orasema simulatrix parasite Carey et al., 2012; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole elecebra workerless inquiline ant Pheidole ceres host
Pheidole flavens host eucharitid wasp Orasema costaricensis parasite Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937; Kempf, 1972; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole gibba host eucharitid wasp Orasema chunpi parasite Brazil Silva & Casadei-Ferreira, 2020
Pheidole hirtula host eucharitid wasp Orasema tolteca parasite Mann, 1914; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole hyatti host eucharitid wasp Orasema tolteca parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole inquilina inquiline ant Pheidole pilifera host
Pheidole jelskii host strepsipteran Caenocholax fenyesi parasite Cook, 2019
Pheidole megacephala host cricket Myrmecophilus quadrispinus myrmecophile
Pheidole megacephala host encyrtid wasp Anagyrus ananatis parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala host encyrtid wasp Anagyrus lopezi parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala host encyrtid wasp Anagyrus saccharicola parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala host encyrtid wasp Blepyrus schwarzi parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole megacephala host eucharitid wasp Ivieosema fraudulenta parasite Reichensperger, 1913; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole nitidula host eucharitid wasp Orasema argentina parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole nitidula host eucharitid wasp Orasema worcesteri parasite Gemignani, 1933; Heraty et al., 1993; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole pallidula host cricket Myrmecophilus balcanicus myrmecophile Macedonia
Pheidole pallidula host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole pallidula mutualist butterfly Favonius quercus Obregon et al. 2015
Pheidole pallidula mutualist butterfly Zizeeria knysna Obregon et al. 2015
Pheidole pilifera host ant Pheidole inquilina inquiline
Pheidole pilifera host eucharitid wasp Orasema occidentalis parasite Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole proxima host eucharitid wasp Orasemorpha tridentata parasite Brues, 1934; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole radoszkowskii host eucharitid wasp Orasema worcesteri parasite Gemignani, 1933; Heraty et al., 1993; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole radoszkowskii host strepsipteran Caenocholax fenyesi parasite Cook, 2019
Pheidole sciophila host eucharitid wasp Orasema wheeleri parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tasmaniensis host eucharitid wasp Orasemorpha xeniades parasite Heraty, 1994; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tepicana host encyrtid wasp Holcencyrtus wheeleri parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate, primary host
Pheidole tepicana host eucharitid wasp Orasema viridis parasite Wheeler, 1907; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole tepicana host eucharitid wasp Orasema wheeleri parasite Wheeler, 1907; Gahan, 1940; Baker et al., 2019; Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Pheidole titanis host chalcid wasp Notaspidium sp. parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database associate
Pheidole tysoni host fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum pathogen Espadaler & Santamaria, 2012
Pheidole vallifica host eucharitid wasp Orasema costaricensis parasite Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937; Kempf, 1972; Baker et al., 2019
Pheidole veteratrix host eucharitid wasp Ibitya commnunis parasite Burks et al., 2017; Baker et al., 2019

Life History Traits

  • Worker-produced males: absent (Goetsch (1953) cited in Fletcher and Ross (1985); Frumhoff & Ward, 1992) (worker ovaries reported to be vestigial or absent)

Castes

From Wilson 2003.

Morphology

  • Antennal segment count: 9; 10; 11; 12
  • Antennal club: gradual, 3, 4
  • Palp formula: 3,2; 2,2; 1,1; 1,0
  • Total dental count: 8-18 (minor worker); 3-7 (major worker and queen); 0-1 (inquilines)
  • Spur formula: 0,0
  • Eyes: present
  • Scrobes: absent
  • Caste: dimorphic, rarely trimorphic or polymorphic
  • Sting: present
  • Notes: palp formula 1,1 or 1,0 in inquiline species only


 • Antennal segment count 8; 11; 12; 13 • Antennal club absent • Palp formula 3,2; 2,2; 1,1; 1,0 • Total dental count 0-7 (0-1 in inquilines, 2-7 or rarely 1 otherwise) • Spur formula 0,0 • Notes: palp formula 1,1 or 1,0 in inquiline species only

Karyotype

Species Uncertain

  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-20): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-21): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-22): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-23): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-24): 2n = 18 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-25): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-26): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-27): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-28): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-29): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-30): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-31): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.(ANIC-32): 2n = 20 (Australia) (Imai et al., 1977).
  • Pheidole sp.1: 2n = 42, karyotype = 20M+22A (India) (Imai et al., 1984) (near P. grayi).
  • Pheidole sp.1: n = 10, 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982; Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.1: n = 10, 2n = 20 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Pheidole sp.2: n = 10, 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.2: 2n = 18 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Pheidole sp.3: 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Pheidole sp.3: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.3: n = 9, 2n = 18 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Pheidole sp.4: 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Pheidole sp.4: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.4: 2n = 18 (Sarawak) (Tjan et al., 1986).
  • Pheidole sp.5: 2n = 30, karyotype = 18M+12A (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Pheidole sp.5: 2n = 18 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).
  • Pheidole sp.5: n = 16 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.5: n = 17 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.6: 2n = 18 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).
  • Pheidole sp.6: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.7: 2n = 18 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).
  • Pheidole sp.7: 2n = 16 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982; Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.8: 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Pheidole sp.8: 2n = 32 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985).
  • Pheidole sp.8: 2n = 38 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.9: 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (India) (Imai et al., 1984) (near P. fossulata).
  • Pheidole sp.9: 2n = 18 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.10: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Goni et al., 1982).
  • Pheidole sp.11: 2n = 20, karyotype = 20M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Pheidole sp.11: 2n = 22 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.12: n = 10, 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.13: 2n = 28, karyotype = 16M+12A (India) (Imai et al., 1984) (near P. watsoni).
  • Pheidole sp.13: 2n = 38 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.14: 2n = 18, karyotype = 18M (India) (Imai et al., 1984).
  • Pheidole sp.14: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.15: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.16: n = 9, 2n = 18 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.17: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.17: 2n = 21 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.18: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.19: 2n = 20 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole sp.20: n = 18, 2n = 36 (Malaysia) (Imai et al., 1983).
  • Pheidole: n = 9 (Australia) (Crozier, 1966) ('Pheidole concentrica group)."
  • Pheidole: n = 10 (Japan) (Imai, 1969)."

All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Data: All, Drilldown
Click here to show/hide karyotype data.
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Pheidole 16 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982; Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 18 Australia Imai et al., 1977
Pheidole 18 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Pheidole 18 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Pheidole 18 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Pheidole 18 18M India Imai et al., 1984
Pheidole 20 Australia Imai et al., 1977
Pheidole 20 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Pheidole 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 20 20M India Imai et al., 1984
Pheidole 20 20M India Imai et al., 1984 near ''P. fossulata''
Pheidole 21 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 22 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 28 16M+12A India Imai et al., 1984 near ''P. watsoni''
Pheidole 30 18M+12A India Imai et al., 1984
Pheidole 32 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Pheidole 38 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Pheidole 38 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 42 20M+22A India Imai et al., 1984 near ''P. grayi''
Pheidole 10 Japan Imai, 1969
Pheidole 10 20 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982; Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 10 20 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Pheidole 10 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 10 20 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Pheidole 16 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Pheidole 17 Malaysia Goni et al., 1982
Pheidole 18 36 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 9 Australia Crozier, 1966 'Pheidole concentrica'' group
Pheidole 9 18 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole 9 18 Sarawak Tjan et al., 1986
Pheidole binghamii 20 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Pheidole capellinii 20 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Pheidole dentata 20 USA Crozier, 1970b
Pheidole dentigula 10 20 USA Crozier, 1970b
Pheidole desertorum 20 20M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988
Pheidole fallax 10 20 20M Uruguay Goni et al., 1983
Pheidole fervens 17 Crozier, 1975 as ''Pheidole noda''
Pheidole fervens 18 Crozier, 1975 as ''Pheidole noda''
Pheidole fervens 19 Crozier, 1975 as ''Pheidole noda''
Pheidole fervens 19 38 Japan Imai, 1969 as ''Pheidole noda''
Pheidole fervens 20 Crozier, 1975 as ''Pheidole noda''
Pheidole fervida 10 20 Japan Imai & Yosida, 1964; Imai, 1966; Imai, 1969
Pheidole hortensis 20 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Pheidole hyatti 20 20M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988
Pheidole indica 20 20M India Imai et al., 1984 as ''Pheidole rotschana''
Pheidole latinoda 42 20M+22A India Imai et al., 1984
Pheidole megacephala 20 Malaysia Imai et al., 1983
Pheidole mus 12 12M India Imai et al., 1984
Pheidole nitidula 20 20M Uruguay Goni et al., 1983 as ''Pheidole strobeli''
Pheidole nodus 37 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1975
Pheidole nodus 39 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1975
Pheidole nodus 17 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1975
Pheidole nodus 18 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1975
Pheidole nodus 19 38 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1975
Pheidole nodus 20 Japan Imai & Kubota, 1975
Pheidole pallidula 24 Switzerland Hauschteck, 1961
Pheidole pallidula 10 20 Greece; Spain; Switzerland; Tunisia Hauschteck-Jungen & Jungen, 1983
Pheidole pallidula 10 20 8M+12SM Spain Palomeque et al., 1987; Palomeque et al., 1990b; Lorite et al., 2000
Pheidole plagiaria 20 Indonesia Imai et al., 1985
Pheidole porcula 20 20M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988
Pheidole soritis 18 18M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988 as ''Pheidole sitarches campestris''
Pheidole spininodis 20 20M Uruguay Goni et al., 1983
Pheidole subarmata 20 20M Uruguay Goni et al., 1983 as ''Pheidole cornutula''
Pheidole tepicana 18 18M USA Taber & Cokendolpher, 1988
Pheidole woodmasoni 18 18M India Imai et al., 1984

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • PHEIDOLE [Myrmicinae: Pheidolini]
    • Pheidole Westwood, 1839: 219. Type-species: Atta providens, by monotypy.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Oecophthora: Smith, F. 1858a: 282; Smith, F. 1858b: 172.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Leptomyrma: Emery, 1892b: 166.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Allopheidole, Cardiopheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Phidole: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 806.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Macropheidole: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 800.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Epipheidole: Cole, 1965: 174.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (and its junior synonym Isopheidole), Parapheidole, Pheidolacanthinus, Phidola, Scrobopheidole, Stegopheidole, Sympheidole, Trachypheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365-1366; Snelling, R.R. 1981: 395.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma: Wilson, 1984: 327.
    • Pheidole senior synonym of Xenoaphaenogaster: Bolton, 1987: 291.
  • ALLOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Allopheidole Forel, 1912f: 237 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole kingi (junior synonym of Pheidole tepicana), by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79.
    • Allopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
  • ANERGATIDES [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Anergatides Wasmann, 1915b: 281. Type-species: Anergatides kohli (junior secondary homonym in Pheidole, replaced by Pheidole neokohli), by monotypy.
    • Anergatides junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 328.
  • ANISOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Anisopheidole Forel, 1914c: 616 (footnote) [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole froggatti (junior synonym of Atta antipodum), by monotypy.
    • [Anisopheidole also described as new by Forel, 1915b: 61.]
    • Anisopheidole raised to genus: Ettershank, 1966: 129.
    • Anisopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • BRUCHOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Bruchomyrma Santschi, 1922d: 248. Type-species: Bruchomyrma acutidens, by monotypy.
    • Bruchomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.
    • [Bruchomyrma listed as genus: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 80 (anachronism)].
    • Bruchomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1994: 106; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • CARDIOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Cardiopheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1914b: 48 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole vaslitii, by original designation.
    • Cardiopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
  • CEPHALOMORIUM [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Cephalomorium Forel, 1922: 91 [as subgenus of Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Cephalomorium) bahai, by monotypy.
    • Cephalomorium junior synonym of Hendecapheidole: Santschi, 1925d: 228.
    • Cephalomorium junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6].
  • CERATOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Ceratopheidole Pergande, 1896: 889 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) granulata, by monotypy.
    • Ceratopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • CONOTHORACOIDES [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Conothoracoides Strand, 1935: 176. Replacement name for Conothorax Karavaiev, 1935a: 75. [Junior homonym of Conothorax Jekel, 1854: 9 bis (foldout pages) (Coleoptera).]
    • Conothoracoides junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • DECAPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Decapheidole Forel, 1912f: 237 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole perpusilla, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 80.
    • Decapheidole raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 661; Borgmeier, 1927c: 78.
    • Decapheidole subgenus of Pheidole: Emery, 1922e: 112; Kempf, 1972a: 183.
    • Decapheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • ELASMOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Elasmopheidole Forel, 1913k: 43 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole aberrans, by subsequent designation of Emery, 1915i: 190.
    • Elasmopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • ELECTROPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Electropheidole Mann, 1921: 438 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Electropheidole) roosevelti, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1943f: 642.
    • Electropheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • EPIPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Epipheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1903f: 664. Type-species: Epipheidole inquilina, by monotypy.
    • [Epipheidole also described as new by Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 14.]
    • Epipheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Cole, 1965: 174.
  • ERIOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Eriopheidole Kusnezov, 1952a: 10. Type-species: Eriopheidole symbiotica (junior secondary homonym in Pheidole, replaced by Pheidole kusnezovi), by monotypy.
    • Eriopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Bolton, 1994: 106.
  • GALLARDOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Gallardomyrma Bruch, 1932: 271. Type-species: Gallardomyrma argentina, by original designation.
    • Gallardomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.
    • [Gallardomyrma listed as genus: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 80 (anachronism)].
    • Gallardomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1994: 106; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • HENDECAPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Hendecapheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1922d: 3 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole tachigaliae, by original designation.
    • Hendecapheidole senior synonym of Cephalomorium: Santschi, 1925d: 228.
    • Hendecapheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • ISCHNOMYRMEX [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Ischnomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 738. Type-species: Myrmica longipes, by monotypy.
    • Ischnomyrmex junior synonym of Aphaenogaster: Emery & Forel, 1879: 461; Bingham, 1903: 270.
    • Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Aphaenogaster: Forel, 1891b: 166; André, 1893b: 150; Dalla Torre, 1893: 98; Forel, 1899c: 59; Emery, 1908c: 313; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 140.
    • Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Stenamma: Emery, 1895c: 298; Emery, 1895j: 769; Forel, 1903a: 693.
    • Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Pheidole: Forel, 1913k: 49.
    • Ischnomyrmex as genus: Stitz, 1911a: 367; Emery, 1914a: 40; Forel, 1917: 241; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 661; Emery, 1922e: 113.
    • Ischnomyrmex senior synonym of Isopheidole: Forel, 1913k: 49; Emery, 1922e: 113 [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute].
    • Ischnomyrmex junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • ISOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Isopheidole Forel, 1912m: 765 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Myrmica longipes, by monotypy.
    • Isopheidole junior synonym of Ischnomyrmex: Forel, 1913k: 49 [both have the same type-species, synonymy is therefore absolute].
    • Isopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • LEPTOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Leptomyrma Motschoulsky, 1863: 17. Type-species: Leptomyrma gracilipes, by monotypy.
    • Leptomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Emery, 1892b: 166.
  • MACHOMYRMA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Machomyrma Forel, 1895f: 425 [as subgenus of Liomyrmex]. Type-species: Liomyrmex (Machomyrma) dispar, by monotypy.
    • Machomyrma raised to genus: Emery, 1896e: 184.
    • Machomyrma junior synonym of Pheidole: Ward et al., 2014: 15.
  • MACROPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Macropheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole fimbriata, by monotypy.
    • Macropheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 800; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • OECOPHTHORA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Oecophthora Heer, 1852: 15. Type-species: Oecophthora pusilla (junior synonym of Formica megacephala), by monotypy.
    • Oecophthora junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, F. 1858a: 282; Smith, F. 1858b: 172.
  • PARAPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Parapheidole Emery, 1915d: 68. Type-species: Aphaenogaster oculata, by monotypy.
    • Parapheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • PHEIDOLACANTHINUS [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Pheidolacanthinus Smith, F. 1865: 75. Type-species: Pheidolacanthinus armatus (junior synonym of Myrmica quadrispinosa), by monotypy.
    • Pheidolacanthinus subgenus of Pheidole: Forel, 1900a: 25.
    • Pheidolacanthinus junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • PHIDOLA [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Phidola Schulz, W.A. 1906: 155, unjustified emendation of Pheidole.
    • Phidola junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365.
  • PHIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Phidole Bingham, 1903: 220, unjustified emendation of Pheidole.
    • Phidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Wheeler, 1922a: 806.
  • SCROBOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Scrobopheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole scrobifera, by monotypy.
    • Scrobopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • STEGOPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Stegopheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Elasmopheidole) upeneci, by monotypy.
    • Stegopheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
  • SYMPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Sympheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 7. Type-species: Sympheidole elecebra, by monotypy.
    • Sympheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • TRACHYPHEIDOLE [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Trachypheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole bicornis, by original designation.
    • Trachypheidole junior synonym of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 2003: 6.
  • XENOAPHAENOGASTER [junior synonym of Pheidole]
    • Xenoaphaenogaster Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 50. Type-species: Xenoaphaenogaster inquilina (junior synonym of Myrmica pallidula), by original designation.
    • Xenoaphaenogaster junior synonym of Pheidole: Bolton, 1987: 291.

Etymology

Greek pheidolos = thrifty

References

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  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Baker, A.J., Heraty, J.M., Mottern, J., Hang, J.Z., Hines, H.M., Lemmon, A.R., Lemmon, E.M. 2019. Inverse dispersal patterns in a group of ant parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae: Oraseminae) and their ant hosts. Systematic Entomology 45: 1–19 (doi:10.1111/syen.12371).
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  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 106, Pheidole senior synonym of Phidola.)
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  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S., Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. (page 178-185, Pheidole provisional senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardommyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalmorium), Isc)
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  • Rahiminejad, V., Hajiqanbar, H., Talebi, A.A. 2015. Three new species of the genus Caesarodispus (Acari: Microdispidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to species. Entomological Science 18, 461–469 (doi:10.1111/ens.12149).
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  • Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., Burks, B. D. (eds.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. (page 1365, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (a)
  • Smith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. (page 172, Pheidole in Poneridae)
  • Smith, F. 1858b. Revision of an essay on the British Formicidae published in the Transactions of the Society. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (2) 4: 274-284 (page 282, Pheidole senior synonym of Oecophthora.)
  • Smith, F. 1860a. Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at Celebes. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 5(17b)(suppl. to vol. 4 4: 57-93 (page 74, Pheidole in Attidae)
  • Smith, F. 1862a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands of Ceram, Celebes, Ternate, and Gilolo. [concl.]. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 6: 49-66 (page 49, Pheidole in Attidae)
  • Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. With introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 11: 285-348 (page 331, Pheidole in Myrmicidae)
  • Smith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F., Krombein, K. V., Townes, H. K. (eds.) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. U. S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Monogr. 2:1-1420. (page 800, Pheidole senior synonym of Macropheidole)
  • Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. (page 395, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma, Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (homonym), Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole, Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its junior synonym Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (a)
  • Westwood, J. O. 1839a. An introduction to the modern classification of insects; founded on the natural habits and corresponding organisation of the different families. Volume 2. Part XI. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans, pp. 193-224. (page 219, Pheidole as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1910b. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. (page 139, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Myrmicini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 661, Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922j. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 711-1004 (page 806, Pheidole senior synonym of Phidole.)
  • Wilson, E. O. 1984b. Tropical social parasites in the ant genus Pheidole, with an analysis of the anatomical parasitic syndrome (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Soc. 31: 316-334 (page 327, Pheidole senior synonym of Anergatides and Bruchomyrma)
  • Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.