Simopone dryas

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Simopone dryas
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dorylinae
Genus: Simopone
Species group: schoutedeni
Species: S. dryas
Binomial name
Simopone dryas
Bolton & Fisher, 2012

Simopone dryas casent0178216 p 1 high.jpg

Simopone dryas casent0178216 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

The types were collected from "equatorial rainforest: in live stem of plant".


This small species has relatively small eyes that are located farther forward on the head capsule than any other known member of the schoutedeni species group.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 0.24° to 0.24°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Kenya (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Explore-icon.png Explore Overview of Simopone biology 
Little is known about the biology of most species of Simopone. Specimens are rarely collected, and the number of species known only from workers is telling in regards to a lack of nest samples. Species are almost entirely arboreal but on occasion foraging workers are found on the ground or in rotten logs. Prey records are extremely sparse. They consist only of Crematogaster brood by Simopone vepres, and the brood of Terataner by Simopone sicaria. Nevertheless, these two records support the general supposition by Brown (1975) that most or all members of tribe Cerapachyini prey on other ants, or more probably the brood of other ants, but actual records are extremely rare. (Bolton and Fisher 2012)



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • dryas. Simopone dryas Bolton & Fisher, 2012: 24, figs 10-12 (w.) KENYA.
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Kenya: Kakamega Dist., Isecheno, Kakamega Forest, 0.24°N, 34.86°E, 1600 m., 22.iv.2003, #03-109, CASENT0178216, equatorial rainforest, in live stem of plant (R.R. Snelling).
    • [Note: on label the word “plant” is overwritten by a partially legible entry “….caena”, perhaps Dracaena.]
    • Type-depository: LACM.
    • Status as species: Hita Garcia, et al. 2013: 202.
    • Distribution: Kenya.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Holotype. HL 0.89, HW 0.57, SL 0.26, EL 0.24, PW 0.44, AIIW 0.43, AIIL 0.44, AIIIW 0.49, AIIIL 0.60, WL 1.00, MFL 0.48, CI 64, SI 46, EL/HW 0.42, EP 0.68, AIIW/AIIL 0.98, AIIIW/AIIIL 0.82.

With head in full-face view the midpoints of the outer margins of the eyes just touch the outlines of the sides of the head. Eyes located relatively far in front of midlength of head, EP 0.68. ES 0.21 and width of head across broadest part of eyes 0.55; minimum distance between eyes 0.24. Frontal carinae extend back to level of anterior margins of eyes and are weakly divergent posteriorly. Cephalic dorsum with scattered broad, shallow punctures. Sparse weak longitudinal ground sculpture also present in places between the eyes, but this fades out and vanishes behind the level of the posterior margins of the eyes. Leading edge of scape with a few setae, inclined toward the scape apex. Sides of head below and behind eyes with projecting short setae, inclined anteriorly. Cephalic dorsum with numerous curved setae. Mesosoma in dorsal view narrowest across the mesonotum (maximum width 0.40), broadest across the propodeum (maximum width 0.44). Pronotum marginate anteriorly; promesonotal suture almost effaced. Propodeum with a fine weak carina between dorsum and declivity. Entire dorsum of mesosoma with broad, shallow punctures that are irregularly spaced. Mesopleuron almost smooth, with just 1–2 punctures and a distinct transverse sulcus. In profile, dorsal surfaces of mesosoma and all abdominal tergites with numerous short, posteriorly curved setae that are subdecumbent to decumbent and densest on AII and AIII. Standing short setae are sparsely present on middle and hind tibiae. AII (petiole) in dorsal view with a weak transverse carina both anteriorly and posteriorly; sides almost parallel, only extremely feebly convex, the width across the anterior margin is almost the same as across the posterior margin. Dorsum of AII with scattered, shallow punctures; tergite of AIII with similar but more densely crowded punctures. On the tergite of AIV punctures are smaller than on AIII but are about of equal density. AII and AIII longer than broad, AIII distinctly so; AIV slightly broader than long (width 0.58, length 0.56). Head capsule and body blackish brown to black; scapes and funiculi dull yellow; legs yellowish brown to light brown, the femora slightly darker than the tibiae.

Type Material

Holotype worker, Kenya: Kakamega Distr., Isecheno, Kakamega Forest, 0.24°N, 34.86°E, 1600 m, 22.iv.2003, #03-109, equatorial rainforest: in live stem of plant [the word “plant” is overwritten by a partially legible entry “…..caena”, perhaps Dracaena], CASENT0178216 (R.R. Snelling) (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History).


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Hita Garcia F., E. Wiesel, G. Fischer. 2013. The ants of Kenya (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)—faunal overview, first species checklist, bibliography, accounts for all genera, and discussion on taxonomy and zoogeography. Journal of East African Natural History 101: 127-222.