Terataner

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Terataner
Terataner foreli
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Formicoxenini
Genus: Terataner
Emery, 1912
Type species
Atopomyrmex foreli, now Terataner foreli
Diversity
14 species

Terataner foreli casent0102232 profile 1.jpg

Terataner foreli casent0102232 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - A small genus with 12 described species, restricted to the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. A species list can be found in Bolton (1981a) who revised the six species occurring in the Afrotropical region and provided a key to the worker caste. Bolton (1981a) and later Alpert (1992) separated the African species into two groups. One comprises the four West African species and the other includes one East African and one South African species. The latter group is, with a few valid and numerous undescribed species, much more strongly represented in the Malagasy region. The split of the genus into two groups is not only based on biogeography, but also on differences in nesting behaviour. While the West African species all nest in rotten parts of standing trees, generally at considerable height above ground, the East African, South African, and Malagasy species all nest near the ground and live in preformed plant cavities (Bolton, 1981a; Alpert, 1992). These cavities can be dead branches or twigs on the ground or in bushes. Most Terataner are predators of other arthropods, their larvae and often of other ants or termites (Alpert, 1992).

Identification

Bolton (1981) redescribed the genus based on twelve known species. This description is modified slightly to incorporate a number of additional forms that are as yet undescribed. Workers - Monomorphic arboreal and terrestrial myrmicine ants. Mandibles armed with 5 teeth and a basal angle. Postpetiole simple, armed with a transverse crest, crest bearing a short projection, or postpetiole armed with a single long or short spine.

Distribution

Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps

Species richness

Species richness by country based on regional taxon lists (countries with darker colours are more species-rich). View Data

Terataner Species Richness.png

Check distribution from AntMaps.

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Check specimen data from AntWeb

Biology

According to Bolton (1981), Terataner nests from Africa are arboreal, constructed in rotten parts of standing timber, and are often located a considerable distance above the ground. In Madagascar, nests are found inside dead twigs or branches located close to or lying on the forest floor. Queens are known for a few species and in general show the same characters as the workers, except for the usual modifications associated with this caste. In Madagascar, several species have been studied in detail. There queens are ergatoid and do not show any of the usual modifications associated with this caste.

Template:Ecology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • TERATANER [Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini]
    • Terataner Emery, 1912b: 103. Type-species: Atopomyrmex foreli, by original designation.
    • Terataner senior synonym of Tranetera: Bolton, 1981b: 288.
  • TRANETERA [junior synonym of Terataner]
    • Tranetera Arnold, 1952b: 130 [as subgenus of Terataner]. Type-species: Atopomyrmex bottegoi, by original designation.
    • Tranetera junior synonym of Terataner: Bolton, 1981b: 288.

Bolton (1981) revised the genus in the Ethiopian region. He provided descriptions of the six African species, newly described velatus from West Africa and xaltus from Madagascar, provided keys to workers.

Worker

Bolton (1981) - Monomorphic arboreal myrmicine ants. Mandibles armed with 5 or 6 teeth. Palp formula 5, 3 (alluaudi) or 4, 3 (bottegoi, elegans, luteus. piceus, scotti). Anterior clypeal margin with a median notch or impression. Median portion of clypeus broad and broadly inserted between the frontal lobes, bounded laterally by a pair of widely separated carinae which run to the anterior margin; lateral portions of clypeus unmodified. Frontal lobes narrow, continuing back into a pair of more or less straight frontal carinae which are usually roughly parallel and relatively close together on the dorsum of the head. Towards the occiput the frontal carinae either fade out or are sharply angled outwards as a ridge or row of tubercles which runs to the sides of the head. Antennal scrobes absent or at most the sides of the head below the frontal carinae with a broad and very shallow concavity. Antennae 12-segmented with a 3-segmented club, the scapes when laid back failing to reach the occipital margin. Eyes large and conspicuous, situated at or in front of the midlength of the head. Occipital corners tuberculate or denticulate in full-face view. Pronotum marginate laterally and usually also anteriorly, the lateral marginations generally simple but sometimes expanded into ornate lobes or flanges. Pronotal shoulders angulate, denticulate or tuberculate in dorsal view. Promesonotal suture absent on the dorsum or represented by a line or slight indentation, only rarely easily visible. Mesonotum usually marginate laterally and forming a low projecting angle or tubercle in dorsal view; rarely immarginate and armed with a sharp denticle laterally. Metanotal groove impressed, most frequently only shallowly so but deep in some species; very shallow indeed in some samples of elegans. Propodeum bluntly marginate to rounded laterally, unarmed or with a pair of denticles or teeth. Metapleural lobes large and strongly developed; ventral margin of metapleuron with a strong broad groove running forward from the orifice of the metapleural glands. Ventral surface of alitrunk between hind coxae entire, simple, without a broad deep circular pit. Middle and hind tibiae frequently with a distinct simple spur, the spur reduced in some and indistinguishable from the hairs of the tibial apex in others. Petiole with a short, stout anterior peduncle, the node narrow and tapering dorsally so that it appears triangular or conical in profile. In anterior or posterior view the narrow dorsum of the node either forms a transverse crest or is indented medially so that a pair of blunt prominences are formed laterally. In some these prominences are acute and dentiform, in others developed into quite long teeth; rarely the petiole is strongly bispinose. In one species (scotti) the petiole is developed into a very high plate dorsally which has a central emargination. Postpetiole simple or armed dorsally with a transverse crest or a single spine. Pilosity very variable, some species densely hairy, others almost hairless. Sculpture generally of coarse rugae or sulci, but reduced in the African species piceus, elegans, luteus and velatus.

References

  • [1] Alpert, G.D. 1992. Observations on the genus Terataner in Madagascar. Psyche 99: 117-127.
  • Arnold, G. 1952b. The genus Terataner Emery (Formicidae). J. Entomol. Soc. South. Afr. 15: 129-131 (page 129, Review of genus)
  • Bolton, B. 1981b. A revision of six minor genera of Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Ethiopian zoogeographical region. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 43: 245-307 (page 288, Terataner senior synonym of Tranetera, and revision of genus)
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 105, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 253, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 79, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Podomyrmini)
  • Emery, C. 1912b. Études sur les Myrmicinae. [I-IV.]. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 56: 94-105 (page 103, 105, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 41, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)
  • Emery, C. 1924f [1922]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C: 207-397 (page 241, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini [subtribe Podomyrmini])
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 244, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 663, Terataner in Myrmicinae, Myrmecinini)