Linepithema paulistana

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Linepithema paulistana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Dolichoderinae
Tribe: Leptomyrmecini
Genus: Linepithema
Species: L. paulistana
Binomial name
Linepithema paulistana
Cantone & Di Giulio, 2023

The queen and worker of this species are unknown. Currently it is only known from São Paulo city, Brazil. Mating flights are from January to August.

Photo Gallery

  • Cantone & Di Giulio (2023), Figure 1. L. paulistana: A, habitus; B, head in dorsal view; C, head in lateral view; D, petiole in lateral view; E, forewing; F, hindwing; G, external genitalia in lateral view; H, abdominal sternite IX; I, tergite IX+proctiger; J, valviceps lamina. Abbreviations: A: anal vein; atIX: abdominal tergite IX; asIX: abdominal sternite IX; BA: basal cell; CS: costal cell; Cu: cubital vein; cu-a: cubito-anal crossvein; DSC: discoidal cell; MA: marginal cell; M+Cu: medio-cubital vein; plc: petiole ventral postero-lateral carina; pg: pygostyle; pr: proctiger; Rs1: radial sector 1 vein; Rs2: radial sector 2 vein; rs-m+M1: radial sector-media crossvein; rs-m: radial sector-media cross-vein; 2r-rs: 2 radius-radial sector crossvein; R1: Radius 1; Rs1: Radial sector 1; Rs2: Radial sector 2; SBA: subbasal cell; SM1: submarginal 1 cell; SM2: submarginal cell 2; te: telomere; vc: valviceps; vo: volsella; vt: volsellar tooth.
  • Cantone & Di Giulio (2023), Figure 2. L. paulistana: A, head oral view; B, head dorsal view; C, head lateral view; D, head ventral view; E, maxillar palp and labial palp; F, G; mandible. Abbreviations: ac: antennal condyle; ces: clypeal long erect setae; epx: epipharynx; ga: galea; hy: hypostoma; lbp: labial palp; lbr: labrum; lc: lacinia comb; mxp: maxilar palp; oc: ocelli; psm: postmentum; prm: prementum; sn: stipital notch; to: torulus.
  • Cantone & Di Giulio (2023), Figure 3. L. paulistana: A, mesosoma dorsal view; B, mesosoma ventral view; C, mesosoma dorsal view; D, tegula; E, petiole; F, protibial spur and mesotibial spur; G, metatibial spur. Abbreviations: ane: anepisternum; asII: abdominal sternum II; ax: axilla; cms: medial coxal articular process of the mesopectus; cmt: medial coxal articular process of the metapectus; lmt: lower metapleuron; kat: katespisternum; mca: medial coxal articular process of the metapectus; md: mesodiscrimen; mef: mesocoxal foramen; mf: metacoxal foramen; mes: mesoscutum; msc: mesoscutellum; met: metascutellum; mgo: metapleural gland orifice; msa: mesoscutellar arm; mse: mesepimeron; msf: mesoprefurcal pit; mtf: metaprefurcal pit; msp: mesopleural pit; mss: mesopleural suture; mta: metascutellar arm; mtl: metascutellar line; mtp: metatentorial pit; mts: metapleuropropodeal suture; mtt: metascutellar trough; pal: parapsidal line; plc: petiole ventral posterolateral carina; pro: pronotum; prp: propodeum; prs: propodeal spiracle; ps: petiole spiracle; px: preaxilla; sa: subalar area; ss: scutoscutellar sulcus; ssc: spiracular sclerite; ssu: scutoscutellar suture; trl: transscutal line; tg: tegula; umt: upper metapleuron.
  • Cantone & Di Giulio (2023), Figure 4. L. paulistana: A, external genitalia lateral view; B, external genitalia ventral view; C, external genitalia ventro-lateral view; D, volsella and valviceps lateral view; E, basimere and volsella in lateral view; F, basimere and volsella in medial view. Abbreviations: asIX: abdominal sternite IX; atVIII: abdominal tergite VIII; pr: proctiger; ba: basimere; bvp: basivolsellar process; cu: cuspis; dg: digitus; pg: pygostyle; pm: penisvalve membrane; te: telomere; tem: telomere membrane; vc: valviceps; vo: volsella; vt: volsellar tooth.
  • Cantone & Di Giulio (2023), Figure 5. L. humile: A, petiole in lateral view; C, external genitalia in lateral view; E, external genitalia in posterior view; G, valviceps lamina. L. neotropicum: B, petiole in lateral view; D, external genitalia in lateral view; F, external genitalia in posterior view; H, valviceps lamina. Abbreviations: ba: basimere; bvp: basivolsellar process; cu: cuspis; dg: digitus; mgo: metapleural gland orifice; ps: petiole spiracle; prs: propodeal spiracle; pl: ventral petiolar process; pm: penisvalve membrane; te: telomere; vc: valviceps lamina.
  • Cantone & Di Giulio (2023), Figure 7. Shape of volsella in males of the Linepithema fuscum-group: A, L. paulistana; B, L. angulatum; C. L. piliferum; D. L. fuscum; E, L. keiteli; F, L. tsachila. Abbreviations: dp = proximal arm of digitus; dd = distal arm of digitus. B–F re-drawn from Wild (2007).


Male: Notauli absent; forewing with two submarginal cells, marginal cell closed; petiole without ventral process; proctiger well developed; telomere narrow and elongated, digitiform distally; digitus dorsally long, spine-like distally; basivolsellar process reduced ventrally; volsellar tooth present distally between digitus and basivolsellar process; cuspis laterally very reduced.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: -23° to -23°.

Tropical South
  • Source: Cantone & Di Giulio, 2023

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Brazil (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • anathema. Linepithema paulistana Cantone & Di Giulio, 2023: 129, figs. 1-6 (m.) BRAZIL (São Paulo).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



HL: 0.70; HW: 0.65; MOD: 0.15; SL: 0.19; FL: 1.10; LHT: 1.11; LHF: 1.36; LHTa: 1.1; EL: 0.35; EW: 0.25; MML: 1.56; WL: 4.05; WHL: 3.28. Indices: ES: 8.75; CI: 92.9; SI: 27.1; OI: 50.0; WI: 26.0; FI: 70.5.

Male diagnosis: notauli absent; forewing with two submarginal cells, marginal cell closed; petiole without ventral process; proctiger well developed; telomere narrow and elongated, digitiform distally; digitus dorsally long, spine-like distally; basivolsellar process reduced ventrally; volsellar tooth present distally between digitus and basivolsellar process; cuspis laterally very reduced.

Habitus: slender ant, with metasoma elongated, longer than mesosoma. Dense pubescence present throughout the body, with sparse elongate, erected setae on head and mesosoma. Color of head and body medium brown; antennae and legs yellowish.

Head: longer that broad in full face view; with pubescence; eyes relatively large, occupying much of the anterolateral side of the head, separated from the insertion of the mandibles by a distance less than 1/3 than the length of the antennal scape. Two very long erect setae posterior to the median ocellus. Antennae filiform with 13 articles, regularly tapering to the apex; scape short, ~ 1/2 the length of the second funicular article; first article of the funiculus very short and cylindric, barrel shaped, ~ 1/3 the length of the second; second funicular article longest; articles of funiculus 9-12 short; antennal condylar bulb with series of spiniform Böhm sensilla, scape and first article of funiculus with recumbent sensilla; articles of funiculus 2-12 with erected sensilla. Anterior clypeal margin convex medially, with erect setae; medial part of the clypeus with two long erect setae. Labrum small, bilobed, separated by a deep notch, each lobe laterally reduced and pointed and medially produced into a round plate dorsally with multiple setae. Epipharynx unsclerotized, exceeding the length of labrum and distinctly visible in dorsal view. Mandibles large, with masticatory margin long and broad; apical tooth long and pointed; preapical tooth short and subtriangular, followed by a series of teeth and denticles; basal margin short and strongly diverging; basal part of the mandible covered by dense pubescence on dorsal and lateral surface; masticatory margin without pubescence, with very long setae (6 or 7 dorsally and 9-11 ventrally). Maxillae with subrectangular stripes, pubescent dorsolaterally and not setose ventrally. Maxillary palps with six articles, together with a total length that exceeds half the length of head; article I very short, II subequal in length and diameter to III; IV subequal in length and minor in diameter to III; V and VI thin and short. Dorsal surface of galea not pubescent, with short, scattered setae basally, long setae laterally and distally; ental margin of galea with maxillary comb medially projected. Lacinia comb composed of teeth alternating with stout setae. Labium with prementum subrectangular and elongate, wider and with two very long setae ventrally; postmentum with spinulate microsculpture; glossa with comb-like, backward directed fringes; labial palps of four articles: article I subequal in length to II; III and IV shorter and thinner than II. Hypostoma with anteromedial stipital notch.

Mesosoma: shorter in length than metasoma. Pronotum short, with recumbent pubescence, laterally projecting over the anepisternum. Mesoscutum strongly convex in lateral view, not overhanging the pronotum, totally covered by recumbent pubescence; notauli absent; parapsidal lines evident. Mesoscutellum swelling, separated from mesoscutum by a deep scutoscutellar sulcus, smooth dorsally and with recumbent pubescence laterally. Metascutellum convex, lower than mesoscutellum and not overlapping with the propodeum, with recumbent pubescence and long setae dorsomedially. Metapleural gland orifice very large and posterolateral. Forewings (WL: 4,05; WI: 25,95) with two submarginal cells, discoidal cell, marginal cell closed and large, dark pterostigma, two radius-radial sector cross-vein almost in line with radial sector-media, two media vein present; tegula with row of small hairs. Hindwings (WHL: 3,27) without two medial vein; one radius vein nebulous and one radial sector present but short; 8-11 hamuli. Legs (FI: 70,5); profemur (FL: 1,10); metafemur (LHF: 1,36); metatibia (LHT: 1,11) with single apical very long spur pectinate on the inner margin and with small cuticular fringes on the external margin; metabasitarsus long (LHTa: 1,09); mesotibia with short apical spur pectinate; pretarsal claw simple with arolium and planta developed. Propodeum in lateral view slightly convex dorsally and straight posteriorly; propodeal spiracle orifice lateral and rounded. Sternal region as in Figure 3B.

Metasoma: Petiole erect, taller than wide in lateral view and rounded dorsally, anterior profile convex and posterior concave; setae and pubescence present in the anterior face, posterior face without setae or pubescence; petiolar tergosternal suture with small posterior lobe; ventral profile of petiole only slightly convex, without subpetiolar process, with long setae anteriorly and erect setae posteriorly; petiole articulated ventrally with abdominal segment III. Gaster elongate, with dense pubescence on tergites and sternites, hairs of pubescence longer on last sternites where long setae are also present laterally; pygostyles very long and apical erected setae; proctiger well developed, extending posteriorly beyond the IX abdominal tergite in the form of a large lamina, straight distally and light colored.

External genitalia: IX abdominal sternite bilobed distally, due to a deep medial notch. Paramere composed of a short basimere, dish-like, strongly thinned dorsally, and shortened distally, and telomere narrow and very long ribbon-like, digitiform distally, that extends postero-dorsally overcoming the proctiger. Volsella composed of i) parossiculus (basivolsella+cuspis) with small and pointed ventral basivolsellar process and with apical and ventral setae along the edge; lateral cuspis very reduced to a ridge, bearing long setae on apical part; ii) very long falcate dorsal digitus, downturned, distally spine-like; iii) triangular volsellar tooth posteromedially placed, between basivolsellar process and digitus, without setae. Penis valve very long with valviceps lamina ventrally straight and multidentate with 13 or 14 teeth, apically rounded.

Type Material

  • Holotype male: Brazil, São Paulo city, 07–13 July 2013, light trap. Museum of Zoology of the Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy), MZUR3-HF0001.
  • Paratypes: Same data as holotype, 10 specimens deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy), MZUR3-HF0002 to MZUR3-HF0008.


The name paulistana refers to the Brazilian appellation of the citizens of São Paulo city, where several males of the new species were captured