Proformica borowieci

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Proformica borowieci
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
Genus: Proformica
Species: P. borowieci
Binomial name
Proformica borowieci
Lebas, Galkowski, Lenoir & Perdereau, 2023

Proformica borowieci F5.jpg

Known from lowland areas of Greece's Mount Parnassus. Reported from collection information of material for the description of this species: During the hottest hours, the workers were numerous, hunting for prey and gathering honeydew. The entrance to the nests is through small holes that can be seen in the materials removed from the galleries.


Lebass et al. (2023) - Proformica chelmosensis is the species that most closely resembles P. borowieci. In these two species, the workers have very dark bodies with pilosity characterised by large erect setae (GHL > 0.08), the males have eyes that are not very well developed (HL/EYE > 2) and the queens are winged. However, differences are visible in the three castes: in the workers, the integument is more sculpted (this is visible in particular on the head) in P. chelmosensis and the pilosity more abundant (in the major worker nCH 8–18; nCU 1–8; nPn 14–28; nMes 10–20; nPP 10–29; nG 14–32). The male of P. chelmosensis is slightly smaller (HW 1.29; MW 1.45) with proportionally slightly larger eyes (HL/EYE 2.18). The stipes of the male of P. borowieci are longer and less wide than those of P. chelmosensis. The gyne of P. chelmosensis is a little smaller (HW 1,53) with much more abundant erect setea (nCH 6; nCU 4; nPn 12; nEc 20; nG 14). P. chelmosensis is currently only known from high altitude stations on Mount Chelmos in the north of the Peloponnese.

The morphological characters of P. borowieci that separate it from the remaining Greek species are as follows:

  • Proformica oculatissima possesses characteristic males with very large eyes (HL/EYE 1.35), reduced pilosity and yellowish gaster. Workers have less and shorter setae (GHL < 0.08). Their integument is less shiny due to more developed microsculpture. The queen caste is unknown. This species is found in lowland areas in Attica and the northern Peloponnese.
  • Proformica striaticeps and Proformica lebasi are also characterised by workers with reduced or even absent pilosity and short erect setae (GHL < 0.08) if present. Their integument is less shiny due to more developed microsculpture. These two species are found in northern Greece, in the plains of central Macedonia and on the southern flank of Mount Olympus.

With the description of P. borowieci, the number of Proformica species in Greece now rises to five. The taxonomy of Greek Proformica is still fragmentary and establishing dichotomous keys for these species is still premature. The three castes are known for only two of the five species, and not all the populations that constitute these species have been studied. Thus, a key to their determination could only lead to possible misidentifications.


Lebass et al. (2023) - This species is found in lowland areas of Mount Parnassus, Central Greece. The distribution of collections ranged from 1,993 m to 2,231 m (N38 32.366 E22 35.990).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 38.5° to 38.5°.

Tropical South
  • Source: Lebas et al., 2023

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Greece (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Lebass et al. 2023.


Lebass et al. 2023.



Lebass et al. 2023. Major.
Lebass et al. 2023. Minor.


Lebass et al. 2023.


Lebass et al. 2023.
Lebass et al. 2023. Male genitalia.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • borowieci. Proformica borowieci Lebas et al., 2022: 577, figs. 5-10 (s.w.m.) GREECE.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Minor (n = 10): HW 0,66–0,86 (0,73); HL 0,75–1,05 (0,91); SL 0,75–0,93 (0,85); nSc 0–1 (0,03): nCH 0–1 (0,09); nCU 0–2 (1,20); nPn 4–7 (5,20); nMes 2–7 (4,11); nPP 1–3 (2,21); nEc 1–3 (2,00); nG 5–13 (8,58); GHL 0,09–0,17 (0,13); PDG 52–68 (56); HW/HL 0,80–0,85 (0,82); SL/HW 1,07–1,19 (1,11); SL/HL 0,83–0,96 (0,88).

Major (n = 15): HW 0,99–1,38 (1,15); HL 1,19–1,50 (1,29); SL 0,97–1,20 (1,05); nSc 0–2 (0,14); nCH 0–2 (0,85); nCU 1–4 (2,50); nPn 6–11 (8,85); nMes 8–14 (10,14); nPP 4–9 (7,11); nEc 2–4 (3,14); nG 10–30 (19,42); GHL 0,08–0,17 (0,13); PDG 34–68 (53); HW/HL 0,73–0,92 (0,89); SL/HW 0,85–0,99 (0,92); SL/HL 0,72–0,88 (0,82)

Head, mesosoma, petiolar scale and gaster dark brown to black, antennae yellowish with apical 3–4 antennomeres slightly infuscate, coxa brown, femora dark brown with yellowish apex, tibiae and tarsi yellowish brown. Head longer than wide, especially in minor workers, mandibles broad with longitudinal sculpture with large apical apical dent and four smaller denticles on masticatory margin. Clypeus on the whole surface with longitudinal striation. Head with micropunctation between punctures, frons with micro striation. Whole surface of head with sparse, short appressed pubescence and 0–2 erect setae in occipital margin, and 0–4 setae on ventral side. Scape distinctly reaching beyond the occipital margin of head. Mesosoma elongate, in dorsal view distinctly constricted in the middle. Whole mesosoma with rather dense appressed pubescence, mesonotum at top micropunctate with smooth and shiny interspaces, on sides microreticulate and slightly dull, propodeum micro reticulate and slightly dull. Pronotum with 4–11, mesonotum with 2–14 and propodeum with 1–9 long erect setea. Petiolar scale thick in lateral view, apical margin emarginate in major workers with 1–4 erect setae. Surface of gaster shiny covered with sparse appressed pubescence. First gastral tergite with 5–30 long erect setae. Legs covered with dense pubescence, femora and tibiae with few erect setae.


(n = 2): HW 1,56; HL 1,53; SL 1,29; MW 1,02; nSc 0; nCH 0; nCU 8; nPn 10; nEc 1,5; nG 11; GHL 0,20; PDG 17; HW/HL 1,02; SL/HW 0,81; SL/HW 0,83.

Very dark, black body with dark brown mandibles and appendages. The head is barely wider than it is long. Sculpture of the tegument like that of the major worker, the clypeus is finely sculptured with longitudinal striations, the striations do not extend between frons, the tegument is only finely punctuated and appears quite shiny. The frontal furrow is clearly visible. Dense pubescence all over the head and on the antennal scapes. Mesosoma complete with wing scars. Pubescence dense with numerous erect setae Petiole in the form of a high scale with a very deeply indented apex. Gaster voluminous with very dense pubescence and erect setae. Tegument fairly shiny. Legs with dense pubescence and a few upright setae.


(n = 10): HW 1,30–1,34 (1,32); HL 1,19–1,23 (1,21); SL 1,13–1,17 (1,15); EYE 0,49–0,52 (0,51); MW 1,53–1,63 (1,56); HW/HL 1,08–1,10 (1,09); SL/HL 0,93–0,98 (0,95); SL/HW 0,72–0,78 (0,74); HL/EYE 2,30–2,45 (2,39).

Whole body dark brown, only the appendages are slightly lighter, the funiculi and femurs less dark brown, and the tibiae and genitalia light brown to yellowish. The setae on this caste are much more abundant on the head and mesosoma. The entire head is covered in long, erect setae. There is no pubescence, however, and the tegument is clearly visible, uniformly sculpted with a fine reticulation giving it a matt appearance. The mandibles are slender and have a single apical tooth. Ocelli are clearly visible on the occipital part of the head. The eyes are large. The scapes do not have erect setae, but are covered with very fine, dense pubescence. The long erect setae cover the entire mesosoma, and there is a fine sculpture forming small striations on the integument. The petiole is in the form of a thick scale, less high than in workers and queens, with a clearly emarginate apex. The gaster is subshiny, the fine wrinkled sculpture is present but only slightly attenuated, the pilosity is much sparser, with long setae present only on the anterior surface of the first tergite and at the posterior end of the segments. Dense pubescence over the entire gaster. The genitalia is very conspicuous and occupy almost a third of the volume of the gaster.

Type Material

  • Holotype: major worker (pin): Mount Parnassus, N38 32.795 E22 35.508, 1993 m a.s.l., 08 June 2021 (MNHW).
  • Paratypes: 3 workers, 1 male: the same locality as holotype (MNHW).


The species name is given after honour Lech Borowiec – author of numerous publications on the myrmecofauna of Greece.