Aphaenogaster gemella

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Aphaenogaster gemella
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Genus: Aphaenogaster
Species: A. gemella
Binomial name
Aphaenogaster gemella
(Roger, 1862)

Aphaenogaster gemella casent0907705 p 1 high.jpg

Aphaenogaster gemella casent0907705 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


Nothing is known about the biology of Aphaenogaster gemella.


A member of the A. testaceopilosa group. Largest species of the subgenus. Workers and gynes are very similar to Aphaenogaster senilis. Only A. senilis and A. gemella have a 5-segmented antennal club. Different from A. senilis by the lack of distinct propodeal spines. Males are distinctly different from the other species by their large occelli and 6–8-segmented (indistinct) antennal club. (Boer 2013)

Keys including this Species


Boer (2013) - Spain: Baleares and Cadiz. Apparently extinct on the Baleares, as the species has not been observed since 1983 (pers. comm. Espadaler).

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 39.808536° to 31.483333°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Algeria, Balearic Islands.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • gemella. Atta gemella Roger, 1862b: 260 (w.m.) ALGERIA, SPAIN (Mallorca I.).
    • Santschi, 1929e: 140 (q.).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 29.
    • Subspecies of testaceopilosa: Emery & Forel, 1879: 463; André, 1883b: 362; Saunders, E. 1890: 205; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107 (footnote); Emery, 1908c: 318; Emery, 1921f: 62; Lomnicki, 1925b: 2; Wheeler, W.M. 1926: 2; Menozzi, 1926b: 181; Santschi, 1929e: 140; Santschi, 1931a: 3; Ceballos, 1956: 299.
    • Status as species: Roger, 1863b: 29; Mayr, 1863: 396; Dalla Torre, 1893: 102; Santschi, 1933c: 401 (redescription); Bernard, 1956b: 258; Cagniant, 1964: 86; Collingwood & Yarrow, 1969: 61; Collingwood, 1978: 80 (in key); Cagniant, 1990a: 47; De Haro & Collingwood, 1994: 100; Bolton, 1995b: 69; Cagniant, 1996a: 78; Espadaler, 1997b: 29; Cagniant, 2006a: 196; Gómez & Espadler, 2006: 225; Boer, 2013: 72 (redescription); Borowiec, L. 2014: 12 (see note in bibliography); Gómez, et al. 2018: 221 (in key).
    • Current subspecies: nominal plus marocana.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Boer (2013) - Lateral sides of propodeum with some longitudinal rugulae, which are weak or absent on pronotum and metanotum. Head in full-face view with longitudinal rugulae, here and there with some cross-connections. Punctation on head and mesosoma. Petioles and legs distinctly microreticulated. Scape coarsely rugulose. Spurs of hind tibia dentate. Terminal side of propodeum, beneath the propodeal spines punctate and some weak transverse rugulae. Postpetiole with fine longitudinal microstriae. Dorsal side of base of gaster with transverse microstriae. Whole head, pronotum, mesosoma, petioles and dorsal side of first gastral tergite matt, sometimes with some satin shine on dorsal side of postpetiole. Lateral sides of gaster matt to glossy. Antennal club 5-segmented. Lateral shape of petiolar node with rounded top. Petiole slightly higher than postpetiole.

Measurements (n = 9). CI 74–78 (76); CL 1.63–1.77 (1.70) mm; CW 1.25–1.36 (1.31) mm; PHI 31–34 (32); PI 78–88 (84); PPPI: 44–55 (47); PWI 19–26 (22); RPH 140–167 (154); SI 132–144 (137); SI/CI 174–187 (181); SL 1.75–1.84 (1.80) mm.


Boer (2013) - Rugulae absent. Very weak, finely rugulose on the dorsal sides of the petioles. Punctation on head (including clypeus), pronotum, mesoscutum (partly), scutellum and lateral sides of mesosoma. Petioles nearly smooth. Dorsum of first gastral tergite with microreticulation, microstriae absent. Head, pronotum, scutellum and mesoscutum mostly matt. Lateral sides of mesosoma, part of mesoscutum and propodeum glossy. Dorsum of gaster and petioles wax glossy. Antennal club 8-segmented (indistinct club). Pubescence of hind tibia subdecumbent to suberect, their length longer than the tibial diameter. Wings nearly clear, with a yellowish tint. Scutellum slightly erected above mesoscutum, not bent over metanotum. Head without frontal midline. Mandibles with one big apical tooth and 4 sharply pointed denticles. Posterior side of propodeal dorsum longitudinally emarginate. Petiole low. Terminal corner of propodeum rounded.

Measurements (n = 1). CI 108; CL 1.00 mm; CW 1.08 mm; EYI 50; OCI 47; SL/CL 48; SL 0.48 mm.

Type Material

  • Holotype, worker, Mallorca, Spain, Museum für Naturkunde Leibniz-Institut für Evolution- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Berlin, Germany.


  • Boer, P. 2013. Revision of the European ants of the Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 156, 57–93.
  • Cagniant, H. 1964 [1962]. Étude de quelques fourmis marocaines. Statistique provisoire des Formicidae du Maroc. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 53: 83-118 (page 86, revived status as species)
  • Collingwood, C. A.; Yarrow, I. H. H. 1969. A survey of Iberian Formicidae (Hymenoptera). EOS. Rev. Esp. Entomol. 44: 53-101 (page 61, revived status as species)
  • Emery, C.; Forel, A. 1879. Catalogue des Formicides d'Europe. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 5: 441-481 (page 463, subspecies/race/stirps of testaceopilosa)
  • Menozzi, C. 1926b. Zur Kenntnis der Ameisenfauna der Balearen. Zool. Anz. 66: 180-182 (page 181, subspecies/race/stirps of testaceopilosa)
  • Roger, J. 1862b. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Ameisenfauna der Mittelmeerländer. II. Berl. Entomol. Z. 6: 255-262 (page 260, queen described)
  • Roger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7(B Beilage: 1-65 (page 29, subspecies/race/stirps of testaceopilosa)
  • Santschi, F. 1929e. Fourmis du Maroc, d'Algérie et de Tunisie. Bull. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 69: 138-165 (page 140, subspecies/race/stirps of testaceopilosa)
  • Santschi, F. 1933d. Étude sur le sous-genre Aphaenogaster Mayr. Rev. Suisse Zool. 40: 389-408 (page 401, revived status as species)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bernard F. 1970. Les fourmis de la forêt de Mâmora (Maroc). Revue d'Écologie et de Biologie du Sol 6:n483-513.
  • Boer P. 2013. Revision of the European ants of the Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 156: 57-93.
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Cagniant, H. "Contribution á la connaissance des fourmis marocaines. Aphaenogaster gemella au Maroc: Nouvelle description d´Aphaenogaster gemella ssp. Marocana Forel (n. status) de la région de Tanger. Problemes biogéographiques soulevés par l'espèce A. gemella (Roger)." Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 125 (1989): 47-54.
  • Cagniant, H. "Étude de quelques fourmis marocaines. Statistique provisoire des Formicidae du Maroc." Bulletin de la Société d' Histoire naturelle de l' Afrique du Nord 53 (1964): 83-118.
  • Santschi, F. "Fourmis du Maroc, d'Algérie et de Tunisie." Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique (Bruxelles) 69 (1929): 138-165.
  • Santschi, F. "Inventa entomologica itineris Hispanici et Maroccani, quod a. 1926 fecerunt Harald et Håkan Lindberg. Fourmis du Bassin Méditerranéen occidental et du Maroc récoltées par MM. Lindberg." Societas Scientiarum Fennica (Helsingfors) 3 (14) (1931): 1-13.
  • Saunders, E. "Aculeate Hymenoptera collected by J. J. Walker, at Gibraltar and in North Africa. (Part I - Heterogyna)." Entomologists' Monthly Magazine XXVI (1890): 201-206 y 289-291.
  • Taheri A., J. Reyes-Lopez, and N. Bennas. 2014. Contribution a l'etude de la fauna myrmecologique du parc national de Talassemtane (nord du Maroc): biodiversite, biogeographie et especes indicatrices. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 54: 225–236.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por el litoral mediterráneo de Marruecos (Cabo Negro, Martil, Oued Lau) y su comparación con la zona meridional ibérica." Orsis 9 (1994): 97-104.
  • de Haro, Andrés, and C. A. Collingwood. "Prospección mirmecológica por la península Tingitana al norte del Rif (Marruecos)." Orsis (Organismes i Sistemes) 12 (1997): 93-99.